During the team's first season in Romanian football, they achieved promotion to the 2010–11Liga II in round 33 after a fierce battle with ACS Berceni towards the end of the campaign. In the 2011–12 Liga II, Viitorul finished second in the standings and were promoted to the top-flight the following season.
In the 2012–13 season, Viitorul Constanța made its first appearance in the Liga I in the club's history. With 8 victories, 12 draws, and 13 defeats, they finished 13th place with 36 points thereby avoiding relegation. The club had notable victories, however, Viitorul continued to be an ever-present in relegation battles for the following two campaigns.
In 2016, Viitorul qualified for the championship play-offs by finishing in the 5th place, thus earning a spot in the third qualifying round of the UEFA Europa League and being drawn against Belgian side Gent. In their first European match, they were defeated 0–5 at the Ghelamco Arena.
On 13 May 2017, Viitorul Constanța managed to win the Liga I after a 1–0 home victory over CFR Cluj; the first major trophy in their history which also ensured qualification for the UEFA Champions League. With the average age of the squad being 22.2 years, "Hagi's Kids" were the season's youngest league champion in Europe. In the third qualifying round of the Champions League, after a 1–0 win against APOEL at home, Viitorul once again suffered a harsh away defeat (0–4 a.e.t.).