Orange 1

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Orange 1
Orange No. 1.svg
FD & C Orange 1 ball-and-stick.png
IUPAC name
Sodium 4-[2-(4-oxonaphthalen-1-ylidene)hydrazin-1-yl]benzenesulfonate
Other names
Acid orange 20

Orange I

FD&C Orange Number 1
  • 523-44-4 4-{2-[(1E)-1-ylidene]-1-yl} YesY
3D model (JSmol)
  • 7844542 4-{2-[(1E)-1-ylidene]-1-yl} YesY
  • 14466524 4-{2-[(1Z)-1-ylidene]-1-yl} YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.007.589
EC Number 208-346-6
RTECS number DB7085000
Molar mass 350.32 g·mol−1
S-phrases (outdated) S22, S24/25
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g., sodium chloride Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Orange 1 is an organic compound and an azo dye. It is one of the first water soluble dyes to be commercialized, and one of seven original food dyes allowed under the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906. It is derived by the azo coupling reaction of phenyldiazonium and 2,4-diaminotoluene.

Use and discontinuation[edit]

At one time it was a popular food colorant but it was delisted in 1959 in the U.S.[1][2]

FDA explanation of Orange Number 1

In the early 1950s, after several cases were reported of sickness in children who had eaten Halloween candy colored with the dye, the FDA conducted new, more thorough and rigorous testing on food dyes.[3] Orange 1 was outlawed for food use in 1956.[4]


  1. ^ Sharma, Vinita; McKone, Harold T.; Markow, Peter G. (2011). "A Global Perspective on the History, Use, and Identification of Synthetic Food Dyes". Journal of Chemical Education. 88: 24–28. doi:10.1021/ed100545v. 
  2. ^ "News of Food; U. S. May Outlaw Dyes Used to Tint Oranges and Other Foods". The New York Times. 1954-01-19. The use of artificial colors to make foods more attractive to the eye may be sharply curtailed by action of the United States Food and Drug Administration. Three of the most extensively used coal tar dyes are being considered for removal from the Government's list of colors certified as safe for internal and external use and consumption. 
  3. ^ Malia Wollan (October 5, 2016). "Brand New Hue: The Quest to Make a True Blue M&M". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved October 8, 2016. ...nearly every rat and dog given Orange No. 1 showed signs of distress, ranging from weight loss to death. 
  4. ^ Maga, Joseph A.; Anthony T. Tu (1995). Food additive toxicology. CRC Press. p. 182. ISBN 0-8247-9245-9.