FIFA World Cup qualification
The FIFA World Cup qualification is the process that a national association football team goes through to qualify for the FIFA World Cup Finals. The FIFA World Cup is the largest international team sport competition in the world with a qualification process required to reduce the large field of countries from 211 to just 32 for the World Cup Finals.
Qualifying tournaments are held within the six FIFA continental zones (Africa, Asia, North and Central America and Caribbean, South America, Oceania, Europe), and are organized by their respective confederations. For each tournament, FIFA decides beforehand the number of places in the finals allocated to each of the continental zones, based on the numbers and/or relative strength of the confederations' teams. 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification commenced in 2015 and will finish in late 2017.
The hosts of the World Cup receive an automatic berth. Unlike many other sports, results of the previous World Cups or of the continental championships are not taken into account. Until 2002, the defending champions also received an automatic berth, but starting from the 2006 World Cup this is no longer the case.
- 1 History
- 2 Current format
- 3 Qualification tournament rules
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Over many years, the World Cup's qualification has evolved, from having no qualification at all in 1930, when the tournament was invitational and only 13 teams entered, to the current two-year process. The first World Cup qualifying match was played on 11 June 1933 when Sweden defeated Estonia 6–2 in Stockholm. The first ever goal in a World Cup qualifying match was scored 7 minutes into the game: it was scored according to some sources by Swedish captain Knut Kroon, or according to other sources by Estonian goalkeeper Evald Tipner (own goal).
While the number of teams which qualified for the finals has increased steadily, from 16 between 1934 and 1978, to 24 between 1982 and 1994, and finally to 32 starting from 1998, the qualification format has been basically the same throughout the history of the World Cup. The teams have been grouped continentally, and they competed for a fixed number of places, with one or two places awarded to the winners of intercontinental play-offs.
Qualification spots by continent
The table below lists the numbers of spots allocated by FIFA for each continent in each tournament. If no places were allocated to a continent, such as in the case of Oceania prior to 1966 and Africa in 1950, this does not indicate an exclusion of those continents by FIFA, but rather that no country of those continents made an entry to the aforementioned Cups.
A large part of Africa was under colonial rule during part of the 20th century, mainly the first half of the century. As of 1954, only 3 African countries were affiliated to FIFA: Egypt, in 1923, Sudan, in 1948, and Ethiopia, in 1952. Sudan and Ethiopia made entries for no Cup prior to 1958. Egypt made entries for the 1934, 1938 and 1954 Cups, though not for the 1930 and 1950 Cups. Though an African country, Egypt entered in 1938 and 1954 in the European group, therefore the table below gives no data about Africa for these two Cups.
Places in the intercontinental play-offs count as 0.5 spots. Numbers in bold represent the winners of the intercontinental play-offs. "+C" denotes an additional spot for defending champions. "+H" denotes an additional spot for hosts.
|North and Central America
1 In 1938, Austria withdrew after qualifying due to being annexed by Germany and were not replaced, so only 15 teams, 12 of them European, played in the finals.
2 In 1950, India, Scotland and Turkey withdrew after qualifying and were not replaced, so only 13 teams, none of them Asian and 6 of them European, played in the finals.
3 Initially in 1958, Africa and Asia together were given 1 spot, while Europe was given 9 spots. However, after Israel won the African and Asian zone without playing any matches due to withdrawals of other teams, a special play-off was arranged between them and a European team (Wales). So in effect, Africa and Asia together were given 0.5 spots, while Europe was given 9.5 spots.
4 In 1962, Europe was given 8 automatic spots, plus 2 additional spots in the intercontinental play-offs, in effect giving them 9 spots. The two European teams played an African team and an Asian team respectively, and both European teams won. Therefore, 10 European teams played in the finals.
5 In 1994, there were two rounds of intercontinental play-offs. First, an Oceanian team played a team from North and Central America and Caribbean, and the winner then played a South American team.
6 From the 2006 qualifiers on, the defending champion no longer has an automatic spot secured.
Qualification competition entrants over time
The number of teams entering the qualification process and the number of matches played have been steadily growing over time. Though an African country, Egypt entered in 1938 and 1954 into the European group, therefore being zero the below indicator as for Africa in these years.
|North and Central America
|Average goals per match||5.22||4.36||4.65||3.65||3.83||3.53||3.09||3.15||2.74||2.87||2.60||2.60||2.34||2.91||2.99||3.16||2.91||2.75||2.81||2.98|
1 Because the Oceania Football Confederation has used the World Cup Qualifiers as a phase of (or as the entire) Oceania Nations Cup, there is the possibility that non-FIFA countries may play in matches that double as World Cup qualifiers. In the 2006 qualifiers, New Caledonia were included in the tournament although they were not FIFA members at the date of close of entries. They are, however, included in the 12 nations listed as they joined FIFA during the course of qualification, even though they had been technically eliminated from contention a few days earlier (a similar situation occurred in the entries for 2010, with Montenegro's entry accepted prior to their admission by FIFA). By contrast, Tuvalu competed in the 2007 South Pacific Games Football tournament, which doubled as qualifiers for the 2010 World Cup. As they were not FIFA members at the time of the completion of the competition, they are not included in the 11 OFC entrants, although their results counted towards the qualification of other teams.
2 "Teams played" is the total number of teams that played at least one qualifying match.
3 This number includes Tuvalu (see note 1) and South Africa. Although South Africa qualified automatically for 2010 as hosts, they competed in the CAF qualifiers, becoming the first hosts to compete in World Cup qualifying since 1934. This is because the Confederation of African Football used its 2010 World Cup qualifiers as the qualifying phase for the 2010 Africa Cup of Nations, a tournament for which South Africa had to attempt to qualify.
First appearance in qualification by team
Note: Only teams that played at least one match are considered for the purposes of first appearance. Teams that withdrew prior to the qualification, or that qualified to the World Cup automatically due to other teams' withdrawals, are not considered.
- The Czechoslovakia team was officially renamed as the Representation of Czechs and Slovaks during the 1994 qualification, and was then succeeded by the Czech Republic (first appearance: 1998).
- Germany was later succeeded by West Germany (first appearance: 1954), and then by the reunified Germany (first appearance: 1994).
- The Irish Free State was later succeeded by Ireland (first appearance: 1950), which later became officially known as the Republic of Ireland (first appearance: 1954).
- Despite being the host, Italy had to qualify for the tournament.
- The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was later succeeded by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (first appearance: 1950), then by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (first appearance: 1998), then by Serbia and Montenegro (first appearance: 2006), and then by Serbia (first appearance: 2010).
- Mandatory Palestine was later succeeded by Israel (first appearance: 1950).
- Ireland was later succeeded by Northern Ireland (first appearance: 1954).
- Turkey entered the 1934 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Brazil entered the 1934 and 1938 qualifications, but on both occasions qualified automatically due to other teams' withdrawals. It also qualified automatically for the 1950 World Cup as host.
- Chile entered the 1934 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches. It also entered the 1950 qualification, but qualified automatically due to other teams' withdrawals.
- Paraguay entered the 1950 qualification, but qualified automatically due to other teams' withdrawals.
- Japan entered the 1938 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- The Soviet Union was later succeeded by Russia (first appearance: 1994).
- Argentina entered the 1934 qualification, but qualified automatically due to other teams' withdrawals. It also entered the 1938 and 1950 qualifications, but on both occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Bolivia entered the 1950 qualification, but qualified automatically due to other teams' withdrawals.
- Colombia entered the 1938 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Peru entered the 1934, 1950 and 1954 qualifications, but on all three occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Uruguay entered the 1950 qualification, but qualified automatically due to other teams' withdrawals. It also qualified automatically for the 1954 World Cup as defending champion.
- Costa Rica entered the 1938 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- The Territory of Curaçao (six islands) was later succeeded by the Netherlands Antilles (first appearance: 1962), and then by Curaçao (one island; first appearance: 2014).
- Indonesia entered the 1938 qualification as Dutch East Indies, but qualified automatically due to other teams' withdrawals. It also entered the 1950 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Cyprus entered the 1958 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Ecuador entered the 1950 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Dutch Guyana entered the 1938 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches. It was later succeeded by Suriname (first appearance: 1978).
- Venezuela entered the 1958 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- El Salvador entered the 1938 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Algeria entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Cameroon entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Libya entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Rhodesia was later succeeded by Zimbabwe (first appearance: 1982).
- Senegal entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Dahomey was later renamed as Benin (first appearance: 1986).
- Guinea entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Zaire was renamed as DR Congo during the 1998 qualification.
- The Republic of China entered the 1954 and 1958 qualifications, but on both occasions withdrew before playing any matches. It later became officially known as Chinese Taipei (first appearance: 1982).
- Upper Volta was later renamed as Burkina Faso (first appearance: 1990).
- Liberia entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Madagascar entered the 1974 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- India entered the 1950 qualification, but qualified automatically due to other teams' withdrawals, and subsequently withdrew from participation in the finals. It also entered the 1974 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- North Yemen was later succeeded by Yemen (first appearance: 1994).
- The United Arab Emirates entered the 1978 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Oman entered the 1986 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Gabon entered the 1966 and 1974 qualifications, but on both occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Lebanon entered but was disqualified during the 1986 qualification, and the team's matches from that campaign were annulled.
- Sri Lanka entered the 1974 (as Ceylon) and 1978 qualifications, but on both occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Liechtenstein entered the 1994 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- The Maldives entered the 1990 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- The Philippines entered the 1950 and 1974 qualifications, but on both occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Rwanda entered the 1990 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Western Samoa entered the 1994 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches. It was later renamed as Samoa (first appearance: 2002).
- The Bahamas entered the 1998 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- The Central African Republic entered the 1978 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches. It also entered the 1982 qualification, but was disqualified before playing any matches.
- Mali entered the 1966, 1994 and 1998 qualifications, but on all three occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- São Tomé and Príncipe entered the 1994 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- New Caledonia was not a member of FIFA at the time of the qualification.
- Myanmar entered the 1950 (as Burma), 1994 and 2002 qualifications, but on all three occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Matches in the Football tournament of the South Pacific Games counted towards the qualification tournament for the OFC, and Tuvalu's results counted in determining advancement from this stage. However, Tuvalu was not a member of FIFA at the time of qualification and had not entered the FIFA World Cup.
- Bhutan entered the 2010 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Confederation subtotals are not given because a few teams have appeared in World Cup qualifiers in multiple confederations.
National teams results in World Cup preliminary competition 1934–2014
- Note that prior to qualification for the 1998 World Cup 2 points were awarded for a victory but all victories in the table below are awarded 3 points; a draw is awarded 1 point.
|Key to colours in the table|
|Country has won the World Cup|
|Country has qualified for the main tournament|
| Russia (1994—)
Soviet Union (1958–1990)
| Czech Republic (1998—)
Representation of Czechs and Slovaks (1994)
| Serbia (2010—)
Serbia and Montenegro (2006)
| Germany (1994—)
West Germany (1954–1990)
| Republic of Ireland (1954—)
Irish Free State (1934–1938)
|Trinidad and Tobago||121||50||25||46||181||155||175||48.2||CONCACAF|
| Northern Ireland (1954—)
| Israel (1950—)
Palestine, British Mandate (1934–1938)
|United Arab Emirates||79||33||17||29||126||94||116||48.9||AFC|
| DR Congo (1998—)
| Zimbabwe (1982—)
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||48||23||8||17||88||56||77||53.5||UEFA|
| Burkina Faso (1990—)
Upper Volta (1978)
| Suriname (1978—)
Dutch Guyana (1962–1974)
| Curaçao (2014—)
Netherlands Antilles (1962–2010)
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||48||13||6||29||62||128||45||31.2||CONCACAF|
| Benin (1986—)
| Yemen (1994—)
North Yemen (1986–1990)
|Antigua and Barbuda||38||11||5||22||60||87||38||33.3||CONCACAF|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||26||9||7||10||49||44||34||43.6||CONCACAF|
| Samoa (2002—)
Western Samoa (1998)
|Papua New Guinea||13||4||3||6||24||23||15||38.5||OFC|
|Sri Lanka[n 2]||29||3||6||20||20||72||15||17.2||AFC|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||13||2||0||11||7||76||6||15.4||CONCACAF|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||8||2||1||5||4||22||5||20.8||CAF|
|Central African Republic||10||1||1||8||8||21||4||13.3||CAF|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||8||1||0||7||2||34||3||12.5||CONCACAF|
|British Virgin Islands||8||0||2||6||5||31||2||8.3||CONCACAF|
Last updated: eliminated CAF teams after 2nd round, all OFC, Canada
- Egypt and Syria formed a joint association in 1960 and entered the preliminary competition for World Cup 1962 as a joint team called United Arab Republic, but withdrew before playing any game. Later, Egypt entered the preliminary rounds for World Cup 1966 under the name of United Arab Republic, but withdrew yet again before playing.
- Sri Lanka entered the preliminary competition for World Cup 1974 as Ceylon, but withdrew before playing any game.
- Myanmar entered the preliminary competition for World Cup 1950 as Burma, but withdrew before playing any game.
- Tuvalu is a member of the OFC, but not a member of FIFA.
Top scorers in preliminary competition (1934–2018)
Players in bold are still active.
|Rank||Nation||Player||Goals||Games played||Goal ratio||Qualification tournaments|
|1||Ali Daei||35||50||0.70||1994 (7 goals), 1998 (9), 2002 (10), 2006 (9)|
|2||Carlos Ruiz||32||45||0.71||2002 (8 goals), 2006 (10), 2010 (6), 2014 (6), 2018 (2)|
|3||Karim Bagheri||28||29||0.97||1998 (19 goals), 2002 (8), 2010 (1)|
|4||Kazu Miura||27||25||1.08||1994 (13 goals), 1998 (14)|
|5||Andriy Shevchenko||26||40||0.65||1998 (4 goals), 2002 (10), 2006 (6), 2010 (6)|
|6||Carlos Pavón||25||37||0.68||1998 (2 goals), 2002 (15), 2006 (1), 2010 (7)|
|7||Jared Borgetti||23||24||0.96||2002 (6 goals), 2006 (14), 2010 (3)|
|8||Paulo Wanchope||21||37||0.57||1998 (6 goals), 2002 (7), 2006 (8)|
|9||Stern John||20||49||0.41||1998 (3 goals), 2002 (3), 2006 (12), 2010 (2)|
|10||Archie Thompson||20||15||1.33||2002 (16 goals), 2006 (2), 2014 (2)|
|11||Vaughan Coveny||19||19||1.00||1998 (4 goals), 2002 (9), 2006 (6)|
|12||Emmanuel Sanon||19||20||0.95||1974 (11 goals), 1978 (8)|
|13||Edin Džeko||19||22||0.86||2010 (9 goals), 2014 (10)|
|14||Pauleta||19||24||0.79||2002 (8 goals), 2006 (11)|
|15||Zlatan Ibrahimović||19||29||0.66||2002 (1 goal), 2006 (8), 2010 (2), 2014 (8)|
|16||Hernán Crespo||19||33||0.58||1998 (3 goals), 2002 (9), 2006 (7)|
|17||Didier Drogba||18||19||0.95||2006 (9 goals), 2010 (6), 2014 (3)|
|18||Moumouni Dagano||18||24||0.60||2002 (1 goal), 2006 (5), 2010 (12)|
|19||Samuel Eto'o||18||29||0.62||2002 (3 goals), 2006 (4), 2010 (9), 2014 (2)|
|20||Raúl Díaz Arce||18||29||0.62||1994 (2 goals), 1998 (9), 2002 (7)|
|21||Marcelo Salas||18||32||0.56||1998 (11 goals), 2002 (4), 2006 (1), 2010 (2)|
|22||Robbie Keane||18||37||0.49||2002 (2 goals), 2006 (4), 2010 (6), 2014 (6)|
|23||Deon McCaulay||17||16||1.06||2010 (2 goals), 2014 (11), 2018 (4)|
(update of FIFA World Cup 2018 qualifiers in progress, last update: 2 August 2016)
Currently, 32 places are available in the final tournament. One of them is reserved for the host nation, but if two or more nations host the competition jointly, each is awarded a place. From 1934 to 2002, one berth was reserved for the winners of the previous World Cup. In November 2001, FIFA announced that the defending champion would no longer get automatic entry to the subsequent tournament, starting with the 2006 finals. This decision was made to address the issue of the returning champions being at a disadvantage to their fellow competitors due to having not played a competitive match in the previous two years. The problem was amply demonstrated at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, as returning champions France tumbled out in the first round, finishing bottom of their group without scoring a single goal. 2002 winner Brazil qualified for 2006 at the top of their qualifiers group. However, Italy, defending champions from 2006, finished bottom of their group in 2010, despite playing in the qualifying matches. At Brazil 2014, 2010 champions Spain finished third in their group and failed to advance to the Round of 16, despite having qualified first of their group.
- UEFA (Europe) – 13 berths, plus the host Russia
- CAF (Africa) – 5 berths
- AFC (Asia) – 4 berths
- CONMEBOL (South America) – 4 berths
- CONCACAF (North and Central America and Caribbean) – 3 berths
- 2 berths for the winners of intercontinental play-offs between the best team from the OFC (Oceania), as well as additional teams from the AFC, CONMEBOL and CONCACAF. The pairings for these play-offs will be determined by an open draw.
The number of berths allocated per continent is widely debated, with the main point of contention being the extent to which berths should be allocated to regions based on sheer population vs. talent. A historically weaker continent, Africa has called for more places, as they are allocated only 5 in comparison to Europe's 13.
These numbers vary slightly between tournaments (see above).
Qualification in all zones ends at approximately the same time, in September–November of the year preceding the finals.
The formats of the qualification tournaments differ between confederations and over time. The systems being used in 2018 are outlined below.
The group stage consisted of 5 groups of 4, with the group winners advancing to the World Cup finals.
Qualifying was altered significantly from the 2014 method, with changes to the structure of the preliminary rounds – which were held before the main draw. One home-and-away preliminary round reduced the 12 entrants to 6, followed by a first group stage with the 6 first round winners joining the top sides and 4 best runners-up from 5 groups of 5 advancing to a final group stage. The winners and runners-up of the two final groups of 5 advanced to the World Cup finals with the two third-placed sides playing off in the fourth round for the right to play in an inter-confederation play-off for a final World Cup spot. The first two rounds also act as the qualifiers for the expanded 2019 AFC Asian Cup.
A total of 24 teams eliminated from World Cup qualification in the second round will compete in the third round of 2019 AFC Asian Cup qualification (which will be separate from the third round of 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification), where they will be divided into six groups of four teams and compete for the remaining slots of the 2019 AFC Asian Cup. The 24 teams will consist of the 16 highest ranked teams eliminated in the second round, and the eight teams that advance from the play-off round of 2019 AFC Asian Cup qualification which are contested by the remaining 12 teams eliminated in the second round.
The European qualification is unchanged from the 2014 system. The 52 national teams were divided into nine groups (seven groups of six teams and two groups of five teams), with the group winners qualifying directly to the finals, and the best eight runners-up playing home-and-away ties for the remaining four places.
With the admission of Gibraltar and Kosovo as FIFA members in May 2016, both national teams were eligible to make their debuts in World Cup qualifying. With two groups of only five teams in the first round, Kosovo was assigned to group I as it was decided that Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia should not play against Kosovo for security reasons, and Gibraltar was then added to group H.
North and Central America and Caribbean
The CONCACAF qualification process has changed significantly from the 2014 qualification cycle. The first three rounds have teams play home-and-away over two legs. A first preliminary round involved the 14 lowest ranked teams and the seven winners advanced to the second round. The 13 higher ranked sides received byes in the second round and were joined by the seven first round winners; the ten winners advanced to the third round. Two higher ranked teams received byes in the third round and were joined by ten second round winners; the six winners advanced to the preliminary group stage. As in 2014, the remaining 12 teams are playing in 3 semifinal groups of 4 teams with the top two in each group advancing to a final 6-team group.
The final round – often referred to as "the hexagonal" because of the number of teams involved – will see the top three teams advance to the World Cup finals, while the fourth placed side will enter an inter-confederation play-off for a final World Cup spot.
Qualification in Oceania was held as part of a further competition. The first stage took place with one group of four lowest ranked teams and the winner advanced to the second stage (which also acted as the 2016 OFC Nations Cup). In the second stage the top three teams advanced to the third round, among them Nations Cup champions New Zealand. Two groups of three teams contest the third round, or final group stage, and the winners of each group will enter a two-leg final. The winners of this final advance to an inter-confederation play-off for a World Cup spot.
As in recent qualification series CONMEBOL qualification consists of a single group of all entrants not automatically qualified for the finals, including Brazil, the 4th placers of the 2014 finals. Unlike previous qualifying tournaments where the fixtures were pre-determined, the fixtures were determined by a draw, which was held as part of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Preliminary Draw, on 25 July 2015.
The top 4 teams from the 9 teams group will advance to the World Cup finals, while the fifth placed team will enter an inter-confederation play-off for a World Cup spot.
Like the previous 2014 tournament, the pairings for the two play-offs were determined by an open draw on 25 July 2015, as part of the aforementioned preliminary draw. Intercontinental play-offs are played as home-and-away ties.
Qualification tournament rules
Qualification tournaments generally consist of a number of stages, made up of groups or knock-out ties.
In all group tournaments, three points are awarded for a win, one for a draw, and none for a loss. FIFA has set the order of the tie-breakers for teams that finish level on points:
- goal difference in all group matches
- greater number of goals scored in all group matches
Where teams are still not able to be separated, the following tie-breakers are used:
- greater number of points obtained in matches between the tied teams
- goal difference in matches between the tied teams
- greater number of goals scored in matches between the tied teams
Where teams are still equal, then a play-off on neutral ground, with extra time and penalties if necessary will be played if FIFA deems such a play-off able to be fitted within the coordinated international match calendar. If this is not deemed feasible, then the result will be determined by the drawing of lot.
Note that this order of tie-breaker application has not always been applied. While it was used in the 2010 qualifiers, the qualification for the 2006 World Cup used the head-to-head comparison prior to goal difference (although this system was – where applicable – used in the 2006 finals themselves). If these rules had applied in 2006, then Nigeria would have qualified rather than Angola.
Most knock-out qualifiers (such as the inter-confederation play-offs, the second round of UEFA qualifying and many preliminary ties) are played over two legs. The team that scores a greater aggregate number of goals qualifies. Away goals rule applies. If these rules fail to determine the winner, extra time and penalty shootouts are used.
Occasionally – usually when one entrant lacks adequate facilities to host international matches – ties are played over a single leg, in which case matches level after 90 minutes will go to extra time and then to a penalty shootout if required.
Alternatively, "home" matches can be played in neutral countries, or occasionally one team will host both matches. In the latter case the visiting team will still be considered as the "home" team for one of the legs – which may determine which side advances under the away goals rule, as occurred in CONCACAF qualification in 2010.
- "Fifa makes major policy shift". BBC News. 2001-11-30.
- Financial report presented, Brazil 2014 slots & host countries decided, FIFA Official site. Retrieved on 9 June 2011
- , Ahram Online. Retrieved on 12 October 2013
- "ExCo approves expanded AFC Asian Cup finals". AFC. 16 April 2014.
- "World Cup draw looms large in Asia". FIFA.com. 13 April 2015.
Completing the tournament's qualifying contenders will be the next 16 highest ranked teams, with the remaining 12 sides battling it out in play-off matches to claim the last eight spots.
- Uefa retains 2010 World Cup qualifying format for 2014, bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 9 June 2011
- "FIFA Congress drives football forward, first female secretary general appointed". FIFA.com. 13 May 2016.
- "Kosovo to play in Group I in European Qualifiers". uefa.org. Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). 9 June 2016.
- "Kosovo and Gibraltar assigned to 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying groups". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). 9 June 2016.
- "A unanimous decision: A draw will determine the classifications for the World Cup and CONMEBOL Tournaments". CONMEBOL.com. 23 January 2015.