FIFA World Cup qualification
The FIFA World Cup qualification is the process that a national association football team goes through to qualify for the FIFA World Cup finals. The FIFA World Cup is the largest international team sport competition in the world with a qualification process required to reduce the large field of countries from 211 to just 32 for the World Cup finals.
Qualifying tournaments are held within the six FIFA continental zones (Africa, Asia, North and Central America and Caribbean, South America, Oceania, Europe), and are organized by their respective confederations. For each tournament, FIFA decides beforehand the number of places in the finals allocated to each of the continental zones, based on the numbers or relative strength of the confederations' teams.
The hosts of the World Cup receive an automatic berth. Unlike many other sports, results of the previous World Cups or of the continental championships are not taken into account. Until 2002, the defending champions also received an automatic berth, but starting from the 2006 World Cup this is no longer the case.
The upcoming qualification process will be the 2022 FIFA World Cup qualification which commences in 2019 and finishes in 2022.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Qualification spots by continent
- 1.2 Qualification competition entrants over time
- 1.3 First appearance in qualification by team
- 1.4 National teams results in World Cup preliminary competition (1934–2018)
- 1.5 Top scorers in preliminary competition (1934–2018)
- 1.6 First games and goalscorers in preliminary competition (1934–2018)
- 2 Current format
- 3 Qualification tournament rules
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Over many years, the World Cup's qualification has evolved, from having no qualification at all in 1930, when the tournament was invitational and only 13 teams entered, to the current two-year process. The first World Cup qualifying match was played on 11 June when Sweden defeated Estonia 6–2 in Stockholm. The first ever goal in a World Cup qualifying match was scored 7 minutes into the game: it was scored according to some sources by Swedish captain Knut Kroon, or according to other sources by Estonian goalkeeper Evald Tipner (own goal).
While the number of teams which qualified for the finals has increased steadily, from 16 between 1934 and 1978, to 24 between 1982 and 1994, and finally to 32 starting from 1998, the qualification format has been basically the same throughout the history of the World Cup. The teams have been grouped continentally, and they competed for a fixed number of places, with one or two places awarded to the winners of intercontinental play-offs.
Qualification spots by continent
The table below lists the numbers of spots allocated by FIFA for each continent in each tournament. If no places were allocated to a continent as per the case of Oceania prior to 1966 and Africa in 1938-1954 and 1966, this does not indicate an exclusion of those continents by FIFA, but rather that no country from those continents made an entry to the aforementioned Cups.
It should be noted that a large part of Africa was under European colonial rule for the majority of the 20th century. Consequently, only three African countries were affiliated to FIFA in 1954: Egypt (since 1923), Sudan (since 1948) and Ethiopia (since 1952). Egypt entered the 1934, 1938 and 1954 Cups, but not the 1930 or 1950 Cups, while Sudan and Ethiopia did not enter the Cup until 1958. Though an African country, Egypt entered in 1938 and 1954 in the European group, and therefore the table below gives no data about Africa for these two Cups.
Places in the intercontinental play-offs count as 0.5 spots, and numbers in bold represent the winners of the intercontinental play-offs. "+C" denotes an additional spot for defending champions (1938-2002), and "+H" denotes an additional spot for host nations (from 1938).
|Oceania||did not exist||0.5||0.5||0.256||0.5||0.5||0.5||0.5||0.5||0.5||0.5||2|
|North and Central America
|Play-off tournament||not put in|
Qualification competition entrants over time
The number of teams entering the qualification process and the number of matches played have been steadily growing over time. Although Egypt, an African country, entered qualifying in 1938 and 1954, it was in the European group; thus, the number of teams for Africa is considered to be zero in these years.
|North and Central America
|Average goals per match||5.22||4.36||4.65||3.65||3.83||3.53||3.09||3.15||2.74||2.87||2.60||2.60||2.34||2.91||2.99||3.16||2.91||2.75||2.81||2.81|
- 1 Because the Oceania Football Confederation has used the World Cup Qualifiers as a phase of (or as the entire) OFC Nations Cup, there is the possibility that non-FIFA countries may play in matches that double as World Cup qualifiers. In the 2006 qualifiers, New Caledonia were included in the tournament although they were not FIFA members at the date of close of entries. They are, however, included in the 12 nations listed as they joined FIFA during the course of qualification, even though they had been technically eliminated from contention a few days earlier (a similar situation occurred in the entries for 2010, with Montenegro's entry accepted prior to their admission by FIFA). By contrast, Tuvalu competed in the 2007 South Pacific Games football tournament, which doubled as qualifiers for the 2010 World Cup. As they were not FIFA members at the time of the completion of the competition, they are not included in the 11 OFC entrants, although their results counted towards the qualification of other teams.
- 2 From 1973 to 1989, the CONCACAF Championship and its qualifying tournament determined CONCACAF's entrant in the World Cup. The confederation's champion qualified outright.
- 3 "Teams played" is the total number of teams that played at least one qualifying match.
- 4 This number includes Tuvalu (see note 1) and South Africa. Although South Africa qualified automatically for 2010 as hosts, they competed in the CAF qualifiers, becoming the first hosts to compete in World Cup qualifying since 1934. This is because the Confederation of African Football used its 2010 World Cup qualifiers as the qualifying phase for the 2010 Africa Cup of Nations, a tournament for which South Africa had attempted to qualify.
First appearance in qualification by team
Note: Only teams that played at least one match are considered for the purposes of first appearance. Teams that withdrew prior to the qualification, or that qualified to the World Cup by walkover due to other teams' withdrawals, are not considered. Teams that succeeded in their first qualification attempt are in bold. Teams that have never qualified for the World Cup finals are in italic.
- The Czechoslovakia team was officially renamed as the Representation of Czechs and Slovaks during the 1994 qualification, and was then succeeded by the Czech Republic (first appearance: 1998).
- Germany was later succeeded by West Germany (first appearance: 1954), which in turn was succeeded by the reunified Germany (first appearance: 1994).
- The Irish Free State was later succeeded by Ireland (first appearance: 1950), which later became officially known as the Republic of Ireland (first appearance: 1954).
- Italy had to qualify for the tournament despite being the host.
- The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was later succeeded by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (first appearance: 1950), which was then succeeded by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (first appearance: 1998), which was later renamed as Serbia and Montenegro (first appearance: 2006), which in turn was succeeded by Serbia (first appearance: 2010).
- Mandatory Palestine was later succeeded by Israel (first appearance: 1950).
- Egypt was later succeeded by the United Arab Republic, a political union between Egypt and Syria, which entered the 1962 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches. Later, Egypt entered the 1966 qualification independently but still under the name "United Arab Republic", but withdrew yet again before playing any matches. The team's first appearance after it changed its name back to Egypt came in 1974.
- Ireland was later succeeded by Northern Ireland (first appearance: 1954).
- Turkey entered the 1934 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Brazil entered the 1934 and 1938 qualifications, but on both occasions qualified by walkover due to other teams' withdrawals. It also qualified automatically for the 1950 World Cup as host.
- Chile entered the 1934 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches. It also entered the 1950 qualification, but qualified by walkover due to other teams' withdrawals.
- Paraguay entered the 1950 qualification, but qualified by walkover due to other teams' withdrawals.
- Japan entered the 1938 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- The Soviet Union was later succeeded by Russia (first appearance: 1994).
- Argentina entered the 1934 qualification, but qualified by walkover due to other teams' withdrawals. It also entered the 1938 and 1950 qualifications, but on both occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Bolivia entered the 1950 qualification, but qualified by walkover due to other teams' withdrawals.
- Colombia entered the 1938 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Peru entered the 1934, 1950 and 1954 qualifications, but on all three occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Uruguay entered the 1950 qualification, but qualified by walkover due to other teams' withdrawals. It also qualified automatically for the 1954 World Cup as defending champion.
- Costa Rica entered the 1938 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- The Territory of Curaçao (six islands) was later succeeded by the Netherlands Antilles (first appearance: 1962), which in turn was succeeded by Curaçao (one island; first appearance: 2014).
- Indonesia entered the 1938 qualification as Dutch East Indies, but qualified by walkover due to other teams' withdrawals. It also entered the 1950 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Cyprus entered the 1958 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Ecuador entered the 1950 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Dutch Guyana entered the 1938 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches. It was later succeeded by Suriname (first appearance: 1978).
- Venezuela entered the 1958 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- El Salvador entered the 1938 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Algeria entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Cameroon entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Libya entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Rhodesia was later succeeded by Zimbabwe (first appearance: 1982).
- Senegal entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- South Vietnam was later succeeded by Vietnam (first appearance: 1994).
- Dahomey was later renamed as Benin (first appearance: 1986).
- Guinea entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Zaire was renamed as DR Congo during the 1998 qualification.
- The Republic of China entered the 1954 and 1958 qualifications, but on both occasions withdrew before playing any matches. It later became officially known as Chinese Taipei (first appearance: 1982).
- Upper Volta was later renamed as Burkina Faso (first appearance: 1990).
- Liberia entered the 1966 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Madagascar entered the 1974 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- India entered the 1950 qualification, but qualified by walkover due to other teams' withdrawals, and subsequently withdrew from participation in the finals. It also entered the 1974 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- North Yemen was later succeeded by Yemen (first appearance: 1994).
- The United Arab Emirates entered the 1978 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Oman entered the 1986 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Gabon entered the 1966 and 1974 qualifications, but on both occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Lebanon entered but was disqualified during the 1986 qualification, and the team's matches from that campaign were annulled.
- Sri Lanka entered the 1974 and 1978 qualifications, but on both occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Swaziland was later renamed as Eswatini (first appearance: 2022).
- Liechtenstein entered the 1994 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Macedonia was later renamed as North Macedonia (first appearance: 2022).
- The Maldives entered the 1990 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- The Philippines entered the 1950 and 1974 qualifications, but on both occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Rwanda entered the 1990 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Western Samoa entered the 1994 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches. It was later renamed as Samoa (first appearance: 2002).
- The Bahamas entered the 1998 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- The Central African Republic entered the 1978 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches. It also entered the 1982 qualification, but was disqualified before playing any matches.
- Mali entered the 1966, 1994 and 1998 qualifications, but on all three occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- São Tomé and Príncipe entered the 1994 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
- Myanmar entered the 1950 (as Burma), 1994 and 2002 qualifications, but on all three occasions withdrew before playing any matches.
- Tuvalu was not a member of FIFA at the time of qualification and had not entered the FIFA World Cup, although matches in the football tournament of the South Pacific Games did count towards the qualification tournament for the OFC, and Tuvalu's results did count in determining advancement from this stage.
- Bhutan entered the 2010 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches.
National teams results in World Cup preliminary competition (1934–2018)
|Team has won the World Cup|
|Team has qualified for the main tournament through a qualifying process|
|Team has qualified for the main tournament only by walkover (Cuba, and Indonesia as Dutch East Indies)|
|Team has qualified for the main tournament by walkover but hasn't participated there because it withdrew (India)|
|Team hasn't qualified for the main tournament but is assured of an automatic spot in 2022 as host (Qatar)|
|Team hasn't qualified for the main tournament|
|Defunct team that qualified for the main tournament (East Germany)|
|Defunct team that never qualified for the main tournament (Saar and South Yemen)|
|Team is not a member of FIFA and is not eligible for the main tournament (Tuvalu)|
Up to and including the 2018 qualification.
|No.[n 1]||Team||App's[n 2]||Overall qualification record||Points[n 3]||Confederation|
|12|| Serbia (2010–)
Serbia and Montenegro (2006)
FR Yugoslavia (1998–2002)
SFR Yugoslavia (1950–1990)
Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1934–1938)
|14|| Czech Republic (1998–)
Representation of Czechs and Slovaks (1994)
|19|| Russia (1994–)
Soviet Union (1958–1990)
|20|| Germany (1994–)
West Germany (1954–1990)
|33|| Republic of Ireland (1954–)
Irish Free State (1934–1938)
|41||Trinidad and Tobago||14||137||55||27||55||201||183||+18||192||1.401||CONCACAF|
|55|| Northern Ireland (1954–)
|59|| Israel (1950–)
Mandatory Palestine (1934–1938)
|61||United Arab Emirates||9||97||42||20||35||163||111||+52||146||1.505||AFC|
|72|| DR Congo (1998–)
|83||Bosnia and Herzegovina||6||58||28||10||20||112||69||+43||94||1.621||UEFA|
|88|| Burkina Faso (1990–)
Upper Volta (1978)
|92|| Zimbabwe (1982–)
|98|| Indonesia (1958–)
Dutch East Indies (1938)
|102|| Suriname (1978–)
Dutch Guyana (1962–1974)
|115|| Curaçao (2014–)
Netherlands Antilles (1962–2010)
Territory of Curaçao (1958)
|119|| North Macedonia (2022–)
North Macedonia (1998–2018)
|122||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||7||58||14||8||36||77||170||−93||50||0.862||CONCACAF|
|123|| Yemen (1994–)
North Yemen (1986–1990)
|126|| Benin (1986–)
|128||Antigua and Barbuda||10||42||13||5||24||66||93||−27||44||1.048||CONCACAF|
|133||Saint Kitts and Nevis||6||30||11||8||11||64||54||+10||41||1.367||CONCACAF|
|139|| Vietnam (1994–)
South Vietnam (1974)
|150|| Samoa (2002–)
Western Samoa (1998)
|152||Papua New Guinea||4||22||7||6||9||43||36||+7||27||1.227||OFC|
|165|| Chinese Taipei (1982–)
Republic of China (1978)
|168|| Eswatini (2022–)
|187||U.S. Virgin Islands||5||15||3||0||12||8||80||−72||9||0.600||CONCACAF|
|191||São Tomé and Príncipe||4||8||2||1||5||4||22||−18||7||0.875||CAF|
|197||Central African Republic||3||10||1||1||8||8||21||−13||4||0.400||CAF|
|203||British Virgin Islands||5||10||0||3||7||7||34||−27||3||0.300||CONCACAF|
|204||Turks and Caicos Islands||5||10||1||0||9||6||46||−40||3||0.300||CONCACAF|
- Teams are ranked by total points, then by goal difference, then by goals scored. Note that this column does not represent any official rankings.
- Only qualifying campaigns are counted where the team played at least one match that was not annulled.
- The three points for a win system is used.
Top scorers in preliminary competition (1934–2018)
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|1||Carlos Ruiz||39||47||0.75||2002 (8 goals), 2006 (10), 2010 (6), 2014 (6), 2018 (9)|
|2||Ali Daei||35||50||0.70||1994 (7 goals), 1998 (9), 2002 (10), 2006 (9)|
|3||Cristiano Ronaldo||30||38||0.79||2006 (7 goals), 2014 (8), 2018 (15)|
|4||Karim Bagheri||28||29||0.97||1998 (19 goals), 2002 (8), 2010 (1)|
|5||Kazu Miura||27||25||1.08||1994 (13 goals), 1998 (14)|
|6||Andriy Shevchenko||26||40||0.65||1998 (4 goals), 2002 (10), 2006 (6), 2010 (6)|
|7||Tim Cahill||25||36||0.69||2006 (7 goals), 2010 (4), 2014 (3), 2018 (11)|
|8||Carlos Pavón||25||37||0.68||1998 (2 goals), 2002 (15), 2006 (1), 2010 (7)|
|9||Edin Džeko||24||31||0.77||2010 (9 goals), 2014 (10), 2018 (5)|
|10||Jared Borgetti||23||24||0.96||2002 (6 goals), 2006 (14), 2010 (3)|
|11||Robert Lewandowski||21||28||0.75||2010 (2 goals), 2014 (3), 2018 (16)|
|12||Paulo Wanchope||21||37||0.57||1998 (6 goals), 2002 (7), 2006 (8)|
|13||Lionel Messi||21||45||0.47||2010 (4 goals), 2014 (10), 2018 (7)|
|14||Luis Suárez||21||48||0.44||2010 (5 goals), 2014 (11), 2018 (5)|
|15||Archie Thompson||20||15||1.33||2002 (16 goals), 2006 (2), 2014 (2)|
|16||Stern John||20||49||0.41||1998 (3 goals), 2002 (3), 2006 (12), 2010 (2)|
|17||Vaughan Coveny||19||19||1.00||1998 (4 goals), 2002 (9), 2006 (6)|
|18||Emmanuel Sanon||19||20||0.95||1974 (11 goals), 1978 (8)|
|19||Pauleta||19||24||0.79||2002 (8 goals), 2006 (11)|
|20||Zlatan Ibrahimović||19||29||0.66||2002 (1 goal), 2006 (8), 2010 (2), 2014 (8)|
|21||Hernán Crespo||19||33||0.58||1998 (3 goals), 2002 (9), 2006 (7)|
|22||Didier Drogba||18||19||0.95||2006 (9 goals), 2010 (6), 2014 (3)|
|23||Moumouni Dagano||18||24||0.75||2002 (1 goal), 2006 (5), 2010 (12)|
|24||Samuel Eto'o||18||29||0.62||2002 (3 goals), 2006 (4), 2010 (9), 2014 (2)|
|25||Raúl Díaz Arce||18||29||0.62||1994 (2 goals), 1998 (9), 2002 (7)|
|26||Marcelo Salas||18||32||0.56||1998 (11 goals), 2002 (4), 2006 (1), 2010 (2)|
|27||Robbie Keane||18||37||0.49||2002 (2 goals), 2006 (4), 2010 (6), 2014 (6)|
|28||Clint Dempsey||18||43||0.42||2010 (5 goals), 2014 (8), 2018 (5)|
|29||Iván Zamorano||17||11||1.54||1990 (1 goal), 1998 (12), 2002 (4)|
|30||Deon McCaulay||17||16||1.06||2010 (2 goals), 2014 (11), 2018 (4)|
|31||Dimitar Berbatov||17||24||0.71||2002 (6 goals), 2006 (8), 2010 (5)|
|32||Alexander Frei||17||25||0.68||2002 (5 goals), 2006 (7), 2010 (5)|
|33||Álvaro Saborío||17||41||0.41||2006 (3 goals), 2010 (6), 2014 (8)|
(updated as of FIFA World Cup 2018 qualifiers)
First games and goalscorers in preliminary competition (1934–2018)
Currently, 32 places are available in the final tournament until 2022. One of them is reserved for the host nation, but if two or more nations co-host the competition, each is awarded a place.
From 1934 to 2002, one berth was reserved for the winners of the previous World Cup, but in November 2001, FIFA announced that the defending champion would no longer get automatic entry to the subsequent tournament, starting with the 2006 finals. This decision was made to address the issue of the returning champions being at a disadvantage to their fellow competitors due to having not played a competitive match in the previous two years.
The problem was amply demonstrated at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, as returning champions France tumbled out in the first round, finishing bottom of their group without scoring a single goal. 2002 winner Brazil qualified for 2006 at the top of their qualifiers group, but Italy, defending champions from 2006, finished bottom of their group in 2010, despite playing in the qualifying matches. At Brazil 2014, 2010 champions Spain finished third in their group and failed to advance to the Round of 16, despite having qualified as first in their group.
- UEFA (Europe) – 13 berths
- CAF (Africa) – 5 berths
- AFC (Asia) – 4 berths, plus the host Qatar
- CONMEBOL (South America) – 4 berths
- CONCACAF (North and Central America and Caribbean) – 3 berths
- 2 berths for the winners of intercontinental play-offs between the best team from the OFC (Oceania), as well as additional teams from the AFC, CONMEBOL and CONCACAF. The pairings for these play-offs will be determined by an open draw.
The number of berths allocated per continent is widely debated, with the main point of contention being the extent to which berths should be allocated to regions based on sheer population vs. talent. A historically weaker continent, Africa has called for more places, as they are allocated only five in comparison to Europe's 13.
In early October 2016, it was announced that the World Cup would have featured 40 teams starting with the 2026 tournament, then FIFA President Gianni Infantino stated his support for a 48-team World Cup, mainly to address African concerns. On 10 January 2017, the FIFA Council voted unanimously to expand the World Cup to a 48 team tournament that will open with a group stage consisting of 16 groups of three teams, with two teams progressing from each group to a knockout tournament starting with a round of 32. The new format for the qualifying process has yet to be confirmed, other than a play-off tournament that consists of one team from each confederation (except UEFA) and one additional team from the confederation of the host country for the last two World Cup berths.
These numbers vary slightly between tournaments (see above).
Qualification in all zones ends at approximately the same time, in September–November of the year preceding the finals. For 2022, qualification will end in March, eight months preceding the Qatar tournament.
The formats of the qualification tournaments differ between confederations and over time. The systems used in 2018 are outlined below.
The group stage consisted of 5 groups of 4, with the group winners advancing to the World Cup finals.
Qualifying was altered significantly from the 2014 method, with changes to the structure of the preliminary rounds – which were held before the main draw. One home-and-away preliminary round reduced the 12 weakest entrants to 6, which then joined the 34 strongest sides in 8 groups of 5, with the winners and 4 best runners-up advancing to the final group stage, comprising two 6-team groups. The winners and runners-up of the two final groups of 6 advanced to the World Cup finals with the two third-placed sides playing off in the fourth round for the right to play in an inter-confederation play-off for a final World Cup spot. The first two rounds also acted as the qualifiers for the expanded 2019 AFC Asian Cup.
A total of 24 teams eliminated from World Cup qualification in the second round competed in the third round of 2019 AFC Asian Cup qualification (which was separate from the third round of 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification), where they were divided into six groups of four teams and competed for the remaining slots of the 2019 AFC Asian Cup. The 24 teams consisted of the 16 highest ranked teams eliminated in the second round, and the eight teams that advanced from the play-off round of 2019 AFC Asian Cup qualification which were contested by the remaining 12 teams eliminated in the second round.
The European qualification was unchanged from the 2010 system. The 54 national teams were divided into nine groups of six teams, with the group winners qualifying directly to the finals, and the best eight runners-up playing home-and-away ties for the remaining four places.
With the admission of Gibraltar and Kosovo as FIFA members in May 2016, both national teams made their debuts in World Cup qualifying. With two groups of only five teams in the first round, Kosovo was assigned to group I as it was decided that Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia should not play against Kosovo for security reasons, and Gibraltar was then added to group H.
The introduction of the new UEFA Nations League is likely to change the qualifying format. although this is yet to be confirmed.
North and Central America and Caribbean
The 2018 CONCACAF qualification process changed significantly from the 2014 qualification cycle. The first three rounds had teams play home-and-away over two legs. A first preliminary round involved the 14 lowest ranked teams and the seven winners advanced to the second round. The 13 higher ranked sides received byes in the second round and were joined by the seven first round winners; the ten winners advanced to the third round. Two higher ranked teams received byes in the third round and were joined by ten second round winners; the six winners advanced to the preliminary group stage.
As in 2014, the remaining 12 teams played in 3 semifinal groups of 4 teams with the top two in each group advancing to a final six-team group.
The final round – often referred to as the "hexagonal" because there are six teams involved – saw the top three teams advance to the World Cup finals, while the fourth placed side entered an inter-confederation play-off for a final World Cup spot.
For the 2022 qualification, there have been proposals to replace the entire qualifying tournament and its "hexagonal" due to its perceived archaism and inequity.
Qualification in Oceania was held as part of a further competition. The first stage took place with one group of four lowest ranked teams and the winner advanced to the second stage (which also acted as the 2016 OFC Nations Cup). In the second stage the top three teams advanced to the third round, among them Nations Cup champions New Zealand. Two groups of three teams contested the third round, or final group stage, and the winners of each group entered a two-leg final. The winners of this final advanced to an inter-confederation play-off for a World Cup spot.
As in recent qualification series CONMEBOL qualification consisted of a single group of all entrants. Unlike previous qualifying tournaments where the fixtures were pre-determined, the fixtures were determined by a draw, which was held as part of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Preliminary Draw, on 25 July 2015.
The top 4 teams from the 10-team group advanced to the World Cup finals, while the fifth placed team entered an inter-confederation play-off for a World Cup spot.
Like the previous 2014 tournament, the pairings for the two play-offs were determined by an open draw on 25 July 2015, as part of the aforementioned preliminary draw. Intercontinental play-offs are played as home-and-away ties.
Qualification tournament rules
Qualification tournaments generally consist of a number of stages, made up of groups or knock-out ties.
In all group tournaments, three points are awarded for a win, one for a draw, and none for a loss. FIFA has set the order of the tie-breakers for teams that finish level on points:
- goal difference in all group matches
- greater number of goals scored in all group matches
Where teams are still not able to be separated, the following tie-breakers are used:
- greater number of points obtained in matches between the tied teams
- goal difference in matches between the tied teams
- greater number of goals scored in matches between the tied teams
Where teams are still equal, then a play-off on neutral ground, with extra time and penalties if necessary will be played if FIFA deems such a play-off able to be fitted within the coordinated international match calendar. If this is not deemed feasible, then the result will be determined by the drawing of lot.
Note that this order of tie-breaker application has not always been applied. While it was used in the 2010 qualifiers, the qualification for the 2006 World Cup used the head-to-head comparison prior to goal difference (although this system was – where applicable – used in the 2006 finals themselves). If these rules had applied in 2006, then Nigeria would have qualified rather than Angola.
Most knock-out qualifiers (such as the inter-confederation play-offs, the second round of UEFA qualifying and many preliminary ties) are played over two legs. The team that scores a greater aggregate number of goals qualifies. Away goals rule applies. If these rules fail to determine the winner, extra time and penalty shootouts are used.
Occasionally – usually when one entrant lacks adequate facilities to host international matches – ties are played over a single leg, in which case matches level after 90 minutes will go to extra time and then to a penalty shootout if required.
Alternatively, "home" matches can be played in neutral countries, or occasionally one team will host both matches. In the latter case the visiting team will still be considered as the "home" team for one of the legs – which may determine which side advances under the away goals rule, as occurred in CONCACAF qualification in 2010.
- National team appearances in the FIFA World Cup
- UEFA European Championship qualifying
- AFC Asian Cup qualification
- "History of the FIFA World Cup preliminary competition (by year)" (PDF). fifa.com. FIFA. November 2009. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "FIFA's 209 member associations" (PDF). fifa.com. FIFA. July 2012.
- "Fifa makes major policy shift". BBC News. 30 November 2001.
- "Current allocation of FIFA World Cup confederation slots maintained" (Press release). FIFA. 30 May 2015.
- "Africa calls for FIFA to increase World Cup places". Ahram Online. Reuters. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- "New Fifa chief backs 48-team World Cup". heraldlive. 7 October 2016.
It’s an idea, just as the World Cup with 40 teams is already on the table with groups of four or five teams.
- "World Cup could expand to 48 teams, Fifa's Gianni Infantino suggests". The Guardian. 3 October 2016.
- "Fifa approves Infantino's plan to expand World Cup to 48 teams from 2026". The Guardian. 10 January 2017.
- "Bureau of the Council recommends slot allocation for the 2026 FIFA World Cup". FIFA. 30 March 2017. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017.
- "ExCo approves expanded AFC Asian Cup finals". AFC. 16 April 2014.
- "World Cup draw looms large in Asia". FIFA.com. 13 April 2015.
Completing the tournament's qualifying contenders will be the next 16 highest ranked teams, with the remaining 12 sides battling it out in play-off matches to claim the last eight spots.
- "Uefa retains 2010 World Cup qualifying format for 2014". bbc.co.uk. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- "FIFA Congress drives football forward, first female secretary general appointed". FIFA.com. 13 May 2016.
- "Kosovo to play in Group I in European Qualifiers". uefa.org. Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). 9 June 2016.
- "Kosovo and Gibraltar assigned to 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying groups". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). 9 June 2016.
- "A unanimous decision: A draw will determine the classifications for the World Cup and CONMEBOL Tournaments". CONMEBOL.com. 23 January 2015.
- FIFA World Cup Preliminary Competition Statistics (from FIFA.com)
- FIFA World Cup Preliminary History (from FIFA.com)
- FIFA World Cup 2018 Regulations
- FIFA World Cup 2018 Guide (from fifa-world-cup-2018.info)