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FMA instruction set

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The FMA instruction set is an extension to the 128 and 256-bit Streaming SIMD Extensions instructions in the x86 microprocessor instruction set to perform fused multiply–add (FMA) operations.[1] There are two variants:


FMA3 and FMA4 instructions have almost identical functionality, but are not compatible. Both contain fused multiply–add (FMA) instructions for floating-point scalar and SIMD operations, but FMA3 instructions have three operands, while FMA4 ones have four. The FMA operation has the form d = round(a · b + c), where the round function performs a rounding to allow the result to fit within the destination register if there are too many significant bits to fit within the destination.

The four-operand form (FMA4) allows a, b, c and d to be four different registers, while the three-operand form (FMA3) requires that d be the same register as a, b or c. The three-operand form makes the code shorter and the hardware implementation slightly simpler, while the four-operand form provides more programming flexibility.

See XOP instruction set for more discussion of compatibility issues between Intel and AMD.

FMA3 instruction set[edit]

CPUs with FMA3[edit]

  • AMD
    • Piledriver (2012) and newer microarchitectures[3]
      • 2nd gen APUs, "Trinity" (32nm), May 15, 2012
      • 2nd gen "Bulldozer" (bdver2) with Piledriver cores, October 23, 2012
  • Intel

Excerpt from FMA3[edit]

Supported commands include

Mnemonic Operation Mnemonic Operation
VFMADD result = + a · b + c VFMADDSUB result = a · b + c  for  i = 1, 3, ...
result = a · b − c  for  i = 0, 2, ...
VFNMADD result = − a · b + c
VFMSUB result = + a · b − c VFMSUBADD result = a · b − c  for  i = 1, 3, ...
result = a · b + c  for  i = 0, 2, ...
VFNMSUB result = − a · b − c
  • VFNMADD is  result = − a · b + c, not  result = − (a · b + c).
  • VFNMSUB generates a −0 for all inputs are zero.

Explicit order of operands is included in the mnemonic using numbers "132", "213", and "231":

Operation possible
memory operand
132 a = a · c + b c (factor) a (other factor)
213 a = b · a + c c (summand) a (factor)
231 a = b · c + a c (factor) a (summand)

as well as operand format (packed or scalar) and size (single or double).

precision size Postfix
precision size
SS Single 00× 32 bit SD Double 64 bit
PSx 04× 32 bit PDx 2× 64 bit
PSy 08× 32 bit PDy 4× 64 bit
PSz 16× 32 bit PDz 8× 64 bit

This results in

Encoding Mnemonic Operands Operation
VEX.256.66.0F38.W1 98 /r VFMADD132PDy ymm, ymm, ymm/m256 a = a · c + b
VEX.256.66.0F38.W0 98 /r VFMADD132PSy
VEX.128.66.0F38.W1 98 /r VFMADD132PDx xmm, xmm, xmm/m128
VEX.128.66.0F38.W0 98 /r VFMADD132PSx
VEX.LIG.66.0F38.W1 99 /r VFMADD132SD xmm, xmm, xmm/m64
VEX.LIG.66.0F38.W0 99 /r VFMADD132SS xmm, xmm, xmm/m32
VEX.256.66.0F38.W1 A8 /r VFMADD213PDy ymm, ymm, ymm/m256 a = b · a + c
VEX.256.66.0F38.W0 A8 /r VFMADD213PSy
VEX.128.66.0F38.W1 A8 /r VFMADD213PDx xmm, xmm, xmm/m128
VEX.128.66.0F38.W0 A8 /r VFMADD213PSx
VEX.LIG.66.0F38.W1 A9 /r VFMADD213SD xmm, xmm, xmm/m64
VEX.LIG.66.0F38.W0 A9 /r VFMADD213SS xmm, xmm, xmm/m32
VEX.256.66.0F38.W1 B8 /r VFMADD231PDy ymm, ymm, ymm/m256 a = b · c + a
VEX.256.66.0F38.W0 B8 /r VFMADD231PSy
VEX.128.66.0F38.W1 B8 /r VFMADD231PDx xmm, xmm, xmm/m128
VEX.128.66.0F38.W0 B8 /r VFMADD231PSx
VEX.LIG.66.0F38.W1 B9 /r VFMADD231SD xmm, xmm, xmm/m64
VEX.LIG.66.0F38.W0 B9 /r VFMADD231SS xmm, xmm, xmm/m32

FMA4 instruction set[edit]

CPUs with FMA4[edit]

  • AMD
    • "Heavy Equipment" processors
    • Zen: WikiChip's testing shows FMA4 still appears to work (under the conditions of the tests) despite not being officially supported and not even reported by CPUID. This has also been confirmed by Agner Fog.[8] But other tests gave wrong results.[9] AMD Official Web Site FMA4 Support Note ZEN CPUs = AMD ThreadRipper 1900x, R7 Pro 1800, 1700, R5 Pro 1600, 1500, R3 Pro 1300, 1200, R3 2200G, R5 2400G.[10][11][12]
  • Intel
    • Intel has not released CPUs with support for FMA4.

Excerpt from FMA4[edit]

Mnemonic (AT&T) Operands Operation
VFMADDPDx xmm, xmm, xmm/m128, xmm/m128 a = b·c + d
VFMADDPDy ymm, ymm, ymm/m256, ymm/m256
VFMADDPSx xmm, xmm, xmm/m128, xmm/m128
VFMADDPSy ymm, ymm, ymm/m256, ymm/m256
VFMADDSD xmm, xmm, xmm/m64, xmm/m64
VFMADDSS xmm, xmm, xmm/m32, xmm/m32


The incompatibility between Intel's FMA3 and AMD's FMA4 is due to both companies changing plans without coordinating coding details with each other. AMD changed their plans from FMA3 to FMA4 while Intel changed their plans from FMA4 to FMA3 almost at the same time. The history can be summarized as follows:

  • August 2007: AMD announces the SSE5 instruction set, which includes 3-operand FMA instructions. A new coding scheme (DREX) is introduced for allowing instructions to have three operands.[13]
  • April 2008: Intel announces their AVX and FMA instruction sets, including 4-operand FMA instructions. The coding of these instructions uses the new VEX coding scheme,[14] which is more flexible than AMD's DREX scheme.
  • December 2008: Intel changes the specification for their FMA instructions from 4-operand to 3-operand instructions. The VEX coding scheme is still used.[15]
  • May 2009: AMD changes the specification of their FMA instructions from the 3-operand DREX form to the 4-operand VEX form, compatible with the April 2008 Intel specification rather than the December 2008 Intel specification.[16]
  • October 2011: AMD Bulldozer processor supports FMA4.[17]
  • January 2012: AMD announces FMA3 support in future processors codenamed Trinity and Vishera; they are based on the Piledriver architecture.[18]
  • May 2012: AMD Piledriver processor supports both FMA3 and FMA4.[17]
  • June 2013: Intel Haswell processor supports FMA3.[19]
  • February 2017: The first generation of AMD Ryzen processors officially supports FMA3, but not FMA4 according to the CPUID instruction.[2] There has been confusion regarding whether FMA4 was implemented or not on this processor due to errata in the initial patch to the GNU Binutils package that has since been rectified.[20][21] One unconfirmed report of wrong results[9] led to some doubt, but Mysticial (Alexander Yee, developer of y-cruncher) debunked it:[22] FMA4 worked for bit-exact bignum calculations on his Zen 1 system for years, and the one report on Reddit never had any followup investigation to rule out mistakes in the testing software before being widely repeated. The initial Ryzen CPUs could be crashed by a particular sequence of FMA3 instructions, but updated CPU microcode fixes the problem.[23]
  • July 2019: AMD Zen 2 and later Ryzen processors don't support FMA4 at all.[24] They continue to support FMA3. Only Zen 1 and Zen+ have unofficial FMA4 support.

Compiler and assembler support[edit]

Different compilers provide different levels of support for FMA:


  1. ^ "FMA3 and FMA4 are not instruction sets, they are individual instructions -- fused multiply add. They could be quite useful depending on how Intel and AMD implement them" Woltmann, George (Prime95). "Intel AVX and GIMPS". mersenneforum.org/index.php. Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS) project. Retrieved 27 July 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b "The microarchitecture of Intel, AMD and VIA CPUs An optimization guide for assembly programmers and compiler makers" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-05-02.
  3. ^ Maffeo, Robin (March 1, 2012). "AMD and the Visual Studio 11 Beta". AMD. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  4. ^ "CPU-Z - ID : y5z6gq". Retrieved 2022-05-01.
  5. ^ "CPU-Z - ID : kr2mlx". Retrieved 2022-05-01.
  6. ^ "AMD64 Architecture Programmer's Manual Volume 6: 128-Bit and 256-Bit XOP, FMA4 and CVT16 Instructions" (PDF). AMD. May 1, 2009.
  7. ^ "New "Bulldozer" and "Piledriver" Instructions A step forward for high performance software development" (PDF). AMD. October 2012.
  8. ^ "Agner's CPU blog - Test results for AMD Ryzen". 2017-05-02.
  9. ^ a b "Discussion – Ryzen has undocumented support for FMA4". Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  10. ^ "www.amd.com, FMA4 support model list".
  11. ^ "www.amd.com, FMA4 support model list".
  12. ^ "www.amd.com, FMA4 support model list".
  13. ^ "128-Bit SSE5 Instruction Set". AMD Developer Central. Archived from the original on 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
  14. ^ "Intel Advanced Vector Extensions Programming Reference" (PDF). Intel. Retrieved 2008-04-05.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ "Intel Advanced Vector Extensions Programming Reference". Intel. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
  16. ^ "Striking a balance". Dave Christie, AMD Developer blogs. May 6, 2009. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  17. ^ a b "New Bulldozer and Piledriver Instructions" (PDF). AMD. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  18. ^ "Software Optimization Guide for AMD Family 15h Processors" (PDF). AMD. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  19. ^ "Intel Architecture Instruction Set Extensions Programming Reference" (PDF). Intel. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  20. ^ Gopalasubramanian, Ganesh (2015-03-10). "[PATCH] add znver1 processor". Retrieved 2022-05-01.
  21. ^ Pawar, Amit (2015-08-07). "[PATCH] Remove CpuFMA4 from Znver1 CPU Flags". Retrieved 2022-05-01.
  22. ^ "Stack Overflow comment by Mysticial". 2019-07-16. Archived from the original on 2019-08-22. Retrieved 2023-09-01.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  23. ^ "AMD Ryzen Machine Crashes to a Sequence of FMA3 Instructions". 16 March 2017. Retrieved 2017-09-10.
  24. ^ "Stack Overflow comment by Mysticial". 2019-07-16. Retrieved 2023-09-01.
  25. ^ a b Latif, Lawrence (Nov 14, 2011). "AMD Bulldozer only FMA4 and XOP instructions are supported by GCC Intel still mute". The Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 17, 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  26. ^ "FMA4 Intrinsics Added for Visual Studio 2010 SP1". 4 February 2013.
  27. ^ "EKOPath man doc". Archived from the original on 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
  28. ^ "LLVM 3.1 Release Notes".
  29. ^ "Enable detection of AVX and AVX2 support through CPUID". LLVM. 2012-04-26.