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FM Towns Model 2F
|Product family||FM Towns|
|Operating system||Towns OS, Windows 95B OSR2|
|Related articles||FM Towns Marty|
The FM Towns (エフエムタウンズ Efu Emu Taunzu) system is a Japanese PC variant, built by Fujitsu from February 1989 to the summer of 1997. It started as a proprietary PC variant intended for multimedia applications and PC games, but later became more compatible with regular PCs. In 1993, the FM Towns Marty was released, a gaming console compatible with existing FM Towns games.
The "FM" part of the name means "Fujitsu Micro" like their earlier products, while the "Towns" part is derived from the code name the system was assigned while in development, "Townes". This refers to Charles Townes, one of the winners of the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physics, following a custom of Fujitsu at the time to code name PC products after Nobel Prize winners. The e in "Townes" was dropped when the system went into production to make it clearer that the term was to be pronounced like the word "towns" rather than the potential "tow-nes".
Fujitsu, which had the best-selling 8-bit home computer FM-7, and the Fujitsu Micro 16s PC in early 1980s in Japan, decided to release a new home computer after the FM-7 was overcome by NEC's PC-8801 computer. From this experience, Fujitsu learned that software sales drove hardware sales. In order to acquire usable software quickly, the new computer was to be based on Fujitsu's "FMR50" system architecture. The FMR50 system, released at 1986, was another x86/DOS-based computer similar to NEC's popular PC-9801. The FMR50 computers were sold to moderate success in Japanese offices, particularly in Japanese government offices. There were hundreds of software packages available for the FMR, including Lotus 1-2-3, Wordstar, Multiplan, and dBASE III. With this basis of compatibility, the more multimedia-friendly FM Towns was born.
NEC's PC-9801 computers were widespread and dominated in the 1980s, at one point reaching 70% of the 16/32-bit computer market. However, they had poor graphics (640×400 at 16 of 4096 colors) and sounds (4-operator/3 voice monaural FM sounds). Just as Commodore saw an opening for the Amiga in some global markets against the IBM PC, a computer with improved graphics and sounds was considered to overcome the PC-9801 in the home-use field in Japan.
With many multimedia innovations for its time, the FM Towns was that system, though for a number of reasons it never broke far beyond the boundaries of its niche market status.
Eventually the "Towns" lost much of its uniqueness by adding a DOS/V (PC clone plus DOS with native Japanese language support) compatibility mode switch, until Fujitsu finally discontinued making FM Towns specific hardware and software and moved to focus on the IBM PC clones that many Japanese manufacturers—who previously were not players in the PC market—were building by the mid to late 1990s. To this day, Fujitsu is known for its laptop PCs globally, and FM Towns (and Marty) users have been relegated to a small community of aficionados.
Several variants were built; the first system (FM TOWNS model1 and model2) was based on an Intel 80386DX processor running at a clock speed of 16 MHz, with the option of adding an 80387 FPU, featured one or two megabytes of RAM (with a possible maximum of 6 MB), one or two 3.5" floppy disk drives, a PCMCIA memory card slot and a single-speed CD-ROM drive. It was delivered with a gamepad, a mouse and a microphone.
The earlier, more distinctive models featuring a vertical CD-ROM tray on the front of the case (model1, model2, 1F, 2F, 1H, 2H, 10F and 20F) were often referred to as the "Gray" Towns, and were the ones most directly associated with the "FM Towns" brand. Most featured 3 memory expansion slots and used 72-pin non-parity SIMMs with a required timing of 100ns or less and a recommended timing of 60ns.
Hard drives were not standard equipment, and were not required for most uses. The OS was loaded from CD-ROM by default. A SCSI Centronics 50/SCSI-1/Full-Pitch port was provided for connecting external SCSI disk drives, and was the most common way to connect a hard drive to an FM Towns PC. Although internal drives are rare, there is a hidden compartment with a SCSI 50-pin connector where a hard drive may be connected, however the power supply module does not typically provide the required Molex connector to power the drive.
The video output was 15 kHz RGB (though some programs used a 31 kHz mode) using the same DB15 connector and pinouts as the PC-9801.
The operating system used was Windows 3.0/3.1/95 and a graphical OS called Towns OS, based on MS-DOS and the Phar Lap DOS extender (RUN386.EXE). Most games for the system were written in protected mode Assembly and C using the Phar Lap DOS extender. These games usually utilized the Towns OS API (TBIOS) for handling several graphic modes, sprites, sounds, a mouse, gamepads and CD-audio.
The FM Towns was capable of booting its graphical Towns OS straight from CD in 1989 - a year before Amiga CDTV booted its full multitasking GUI-based AmigaOS 1.3 from internal CD drive in 1990 (with parts of OS code being used from ROM), two years before the boot-from-CD capable System 7 was released for the Macintosh (which provided a full graphical environment, primarily for running diagnostics and disk maintenance utilities), and five years before the El Torito specification standardized boot-CDs on IBM PC compatibles in 1994 (with Windows 95B OSR2 being one of the first mass distributions utilizing this in 1996).
To boot the system from CD-ROM, the FM TOWNS had a "hidden C:" ROM drive in which a minimum MS-DOS system, CD-ROM driver and MSCDEX.EXE were installed. This minimal DOS system ran first, and the DOS system read and executed the Towns OS IPL stored in CD-ROM after that. The Towns OS CD-ROM had an IPL, MS-DOS system (IO.SYS), DOS extender, and Towns API (TBIOS).
A minimal DOS system that allowed the CD-ROM drive to be accessed was contained in a system ROM; this, coupled with Fujitsu's decision to charge only a minimal license fee for the inclusion of a bare-bones Towns OS on game CD-ROMs, allowed game developers to make games bootable directly from CD-ROM without the need for a boot floppy or hard disk.
The FM Towns featured video modes ranging from 320×200 to 720×512 resolutions, with 16 to 32,768 simultaneous colours out of a possible 4096 to 16.777 million (depending on the video mode); most of these video modes had two memory pages, and it allowed the use of up to 1024 sprites of 16×16 pixels each. It also had a built-in font ROM for the display of kanji characters.
One unique feature of the FM Towns system was the ability to overlay different video modes; for example, the 320×200 video mode with 32,768 colours could be overlaid with a 640×480 mode using 16 colours, which allowed games to combine high-colour-amount graphics with high-resolution kanji text.
- 640×819 virtual (640×400 display) @ 16 out of 4096 colors - overlay support with mode 2
- 640×819 virtual (640×200 display) @ 16 out of 4096 colors - overlay support with mode 1
- 1024×512 virtual (640×480 display) @ 16 out of 4096 colors - overlay support with modes 5 or 10
- 1024×512 virtual (640×400 display) @ 16 out of 4096 colors - overlay support with mode 6
- 256×512 virtual (256×256 display, interlaced) @ 32,768 colors - overlay support with modes 3 or 10
- 256×512 virtual (256×256 display, progressive) @ 32,768 colors - overlay support with mode 4
- 256×512 virtual (256×240 display, interlaced) @ 32,768 colors - overlay support with mode 9
- 256×512 virtual (256×240 display, progressive) @ 32,768 colors - overlay support with mode 11
- 512×256 virtual (360×240 display) @ 32,768 colors - overlay support with mode 7
- 512×256 virtual (320×240 display, 31 kHz) @ 32,768 colors - overlay support with modes 3 or 5
- 512×256 virtual (320×240 display, 15 kHz) @ 32,768 colors - overlay support with mode 8
- 1024×512 virtual (640×480 display) @ 256 out of 16,777,216 colors - overlay not supported
- 1024×512 virtual (640×400 display) @ 256 out of 16,777,216 colors - overlay not supported
- 1024×512 virtual (720×480 display) @ 256 out of 16,777,216 colors - overlay not supported
- 512×512 virtual (320×480 display, progressive) @ 32,768 colors - overlay not supported
- 512×512 virtual (320×480 display, interlaced) @ 32,768 colors - overlay not supported
- 512×512 virtual (512×480 display, progressive) @ 32,768 colors - overlay not supported
- 512×512 virtual (512×480 display, interlaced) @ 32,768 colors - overlay not supported
- Resolution: 256×240 pixels
- Colors: 256 on screen out of 32,768 palette
- Sprite RAM: 128 KB (8 KB attributes, 120 KB pattern/colour data)
- Maximum sprite count: Up to 1024 on screen
- Sprite size: 16×16 pixels
- Colors per sprite: 16
- Overlay support: Bitmap modes 1-11
Up to two graphical layers can be overlaid, whether it is two bitmap layers, or the sprite layer with a bitmap background layer. The latter is useful for action games, though the sprite function is not as advanced as that of rival 16-bit computer, the Sharp X68000. When the sprite layer is used, it is rendered to VRAM layer 1 on top, with the bitmap background as VRAM layer 0 below. When two bitmap layers are used, then both are rendered to VRAM layers 0 and 1.
The following is a list of models and the CPUs they contain from the factory.
- 80386SX (16 MHz) : UX, Marty, Marty II, Car Marty
- 80386SX (20 MHz) : UG
- 80386DX (16 MHz) : CX
- 80386DX (20 MHz) : HG
- 80486SX (20 MHz) : HR, UR
- 80486SX (25 MHz) : ME
- 80486SX (33 MHz) : MA, MF, Fresh, FreshTV, Fresh-T, EA
- 80486DX2 (66 MHz) : MX, Fresh-E, Fresh-ES, Fresh-ET, HA
- 486DX4 (100 MHz) : Fresh-FS, Fresh-FT
- Pentium (Socket4/60 MHz) : HB
- Pentium (Socket5/90 MHz) : HC
The FM Towns system was able to play regular audio CDs, and also supported the use of eight PCM voices and six FM channels, thanks to the Ricoh RF5c68 and Yamaha YM2612 soundchips, respectively. The system had ports in the front to accommodate karaoke, LEDs to indicate volume level, and software to add popular voice-altering effects such as echoes.
Games on the FM Towns regularly used Red Book (audio CD standard) orchestral music tracks, especially if they were designed specifically for the Fujitsu system (Games ported from the PC9801, for instance, might have used only PCM/FM music). This was a novelty and innovation far ahead of other PCs of the time made possible by the standard CD-ROM drive in every FM Towns computer.
- "The Museum". Old-Computers.Com. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
- Boyd, John (April 1997). "From Chaos to Competition - Japan's PC industry in transformation". Computing Japan Magazine. Archived from the original on 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
- "ACE Magazine Issue 27". Archive.org. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
- "The Museum". Old-Computers.Com. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
- "Japanese Computer Emulation Centre : FM Towns emulators". Jcec.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2015-03-14. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
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- System 32 Hardware (system16.com)
- http://www.datasheets360.com/pdf/9092021866535445725[permanent dead link]
- FM Towns entry at Old-Computers.com
- The world of FM Towns
- UNZ (うんづ) - An FM Towns emulator
- FM Towns/Bochs – An FM Towns emulator based on Bochs
- The Collectible Ultima site referencing the Ultima VI for FM Towns.
- Vector: Freeware Library For FM Towns (Japanese)
- How to create and format an HD image and installing MS-DOS with full CD support in it using the Unz emulator
- FM Towns entry at GameEx.com