FM broadcasting in India
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The FM broadcasting in India began in 1977, but boomed after 2001 when the privatisation of FM broadcasting began. As of December 2018, there are more than 369 operational private radio stations in more than 101 cities and towns across India. The Government of India-owned All India Radio has about 450 FM stations covering 39% of the area and 52% of the population of India.
- 1 History
- 2 Content
- 3 Radio stations by location
- 4 Market view
- 5 Current allocation process
- 6 References
FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Chennai, then Madras, and was expanded during the 1990s, nearly 50 years after it mushroomed in the US. The country first experimented with private FM broadcasts in the small tourist destination of Goa and the large metropolitan areas of Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai. These were followed by private stations in Bangalore, Hyderabad, Jaipur and Lucknow.
Until 1993, All India Radio, a government undertaking, was the only radio broadcaster in India. The government then decided to privatise the radio broadcasting sector. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels in Indore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Vizag and Goa to private operators, who developed their own program content. The Times Group operated its brand, Times FM, till June 1998. After that, the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. Instead, in 2000, the government announced the auction of 108 FM frequencies across India, opening up the FM broadcasting industry to private competition.
Radio City Bangalore, started on July 3, 2001, is India's first private FM radio station. It launched with presenters such as Vera, Rohit Barker, Seetal Iyer, Jonzie Kurian, Geeta Modgil, Suresh Venkat, and Chaitanya Hegde and Priya Ganapathy on the weekends. The Times Group rebranded their radio operations, establishing the Radio Mirchi brand. The first Radio Mirchi station began broadcasting on October 4, 2001 in Indore.
Indian policy currently states that these broadcasters are assessed a one-time entry fee (OTEF), for a license period of 10 years. Under the Indian accounting system, this amount is amortised over the 10-year period at 10% per annum. The annual license fee for private broadcasters is either 4% of revenue share or 10% of reserve price, whichever is higher.
India's earlier attempts to privatise its FM channels ran into rough weather when private players bid heavily and most could not meet their commitments to pay the government the amounts they owed.
Nationally, many of the current FM broadcasters, including the Times of India, Hindustan Times, Mid-Day, and BBC are established media institutions in the country, and are making a strong pitch for news on FM, which is currently limited to nationalised stations only. Private FM stations are allowed to rebroadcast news from All India Radio, as long as they do so without any changes or additions. The Supreme Court of India on 17 October 2013 issued a public interest litigation to the central government requesting that the rules should be changed to allow FM stations to broadcast news reports.
Radio stations by location
This section needs to be updated.December 2018)(
National Capital Region
|Radio Jamia (see Jamia Millia Islamia)||90.4 MHz||Multilingual|
|Delhi University Community Radio||90.4 MHz||Multilingual|
|Radio SD 90.8||90.8 MHz||Hindi|
|Radio City||91.1 MHz||Hindi|
|Big FM||92.7 MHz||Multilingual|
|Red FM||93.5 MHz||Multilingual|
|Radio One||94.3 MHz||English|
|Hit FM||95.0 MHz||Hindi|
|Apna Radio (Indian Institute of Mass Communication)||96.9 MHz||Multilingual|
|Radio Mirchi||98.3 MHz||Multilingual|
|Vividh Bharti (All India Radio)||100.1 MHz||Multilingual|
|AIR FM Rainbow||102.6 MHz||Hindi|
|Fever 104||104.0 MHz||Hindi|
|Oye 104.8||104.8 MHz||Hindi|
|Gyan Vani||105.6 MHz||Hindi|
|AIR FM Gold||105.6 MHz||Hindi|
|Radio Nasha||107.2 MHz||Hindi|
|Noida FM||107.4 MHz||Hindi|
|Gurgaon Ki Awaz||107.8 MHz||Hindi|
- Radio SRFTI (90.4 MHz, Available in and around the film institute area)
- Radio JU (90.8 MHz, Available within a 5 km radius of the University, from 11:00 AM to 7:30 PM)
- Y FM NSHM (91.2 MHz, Available within a 10 km radius of the institute, from 9:00 AM to 7:00 PM)
- Friends FM (91.9 MHz)
- Big FM (92.7 MHz)
- Red FM (93.5 MHz)
- Radio One (94.3 MHz)
- Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz)
- AIR FM Gold (100.1 MHz)
- AIR FM Vividh Bharati (101.8 MHz)
- Fever 104 FM (104 MHz)
- Ishq FM (104.8 MHz)
- Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz)
- Aamar FM (106.2 MHz)
- AIR FM Rainbow (107 MHz)
- Radio City (91.1 MHz)
- Red FM (93.5 MHz)
- MY FM (94.3 MHz)
- Tadka (95.0 MHz)
- Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz)
- Radio Selfie (90.8 MHz)
- All India Radio (100.3 MHz)
- All India Radio(Jaipur) (101.2 MHz)
- love mirchi (104.0)
- Radio Mirchi - 98.3 FM (Times Group)
- My FM - 94.3 FM D B Corp Ltd.
- Red FM - 93.5 FM (Sun Group
- Radio City - 91.1 FM (Music Broadcast Limited)
- Radio One - 95.0 FM (Only Bollywood Retro Station of Ahmedabad)
- AIR Vividh Bharati - 96.7 FM (All India Radio)
- Micavaani - 90.4 FM (Mudra Institute of Communications)
- AIR Gyan Vaani - 105.4 FM (All India Radio)
- Mirchi Love - 104 FM (Times Group)
- All India radio - 100.1 FM
- Radio Nazariya - 107.8 FM (Drishti)
- Bol 90.4 FM - 90.4 - Multilingual
- Radio City - 91.1 - Telugu
- Big 92.7 FM - 92.7 - Telugu/Hindi
- Red FM - 93.5 - Telugu
- Fever FM - 94.3 - Hindi
- Radio Mirchi - 95 - Hindi
- Radio Mirchi - 98.3 - Telugu
- All India Radio (AIR / AIR / Twin Cities FM Rainbow)- 101.9 - Telugu
- All India Radio (AIR / AIR / Vvd Bharti) - 102.8 - Hindi
- Kool 104 - 104 - English
- Gyan Vani - 105.6 - Hindi
- Magic Fm - 106.4 -Telugu
- Radio Charminar - 107.8 - Telugu/Hindi
- Deccan Radio - 107.8 - Hindi
- Bansal FM 95.5
- Vividh Bharati
- Jago Mumbai 90.8
- Radio City 91.1FM
- Big FM 92.7
- Red FM 93.5
- Radio One 94.3 (Only English Radio station of Mumbai)
- Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM 98.3
- Radio Dhamaal 106.4
- AIR FM Gold 100.7
- RAINBOW FM 102.2
- Fever 104 FM 104.0
- Oye 104.8 104.8
- AIR FM Rainbow 107.1
- Mumbai One
- Redtro 106.4
- Gyan Vani
- Radio MUST
- Radio City 91.1 FM - Kannada
- Indigo 91.9 FM FM - (English, Devotional)
- Big 92.7 FM - Kannada
- Red FM 93.5 FM - Hindi
- Radio ONE FM 94.3 - English
- Mirchi 95 95 FM - Hindi
- Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM Hindi
- Ragam 100.1 FM (Classical)
- FM Rainbow 101.3 FM (Kannada, Hindi, English)
- Vividh Bharti 102.9 FM (Kannada, Hindi)
- Fever FM 104 FM (Hindi)
- Radio Active Community Radio 106.4 FM (Kannada, English, Hindi)
- Radio Mattoli FM 90.4, Wayanad
- Radio DC FM 90.4, Thiruvananthapuram
- Radio Macfast FM 90.4, Thiruvalla
- AIR Real FM 103.6 in Kozhikkode
- Best FM 95.00 in Thrissur & Kannur
- Radio Mango 91.9, in Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode & Kannur
- Red FM 93.5 in Thiruvanathapuram, Kochi, Kozhikkode & Kannur
- Red FM 91.1 in Thrissur
- Club FM 94.3 in Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi & Kannur ;
- ClubFM 104.8 in Thrissur
- Radio Mirchi 98.3 in Thiruvananthapuram,
- BIG FM 92.7 in Thiruvananthapuram
- AIR FM Rainbow 107.5 in Kochi
- AIR Ananthapuri FM 101.9 in Thiruvanathapuram,
- AIR Thiruvananthapuram 106.5
- AIR Thrissur 101.1
- AIR Kochi FM 102.3
- AIR Kannur 101.5
- AIR Devikulam 101.4
- AIR Manjeri FM 102.7
- AIR Gyan Vani-Kochi 106.5
- Radio Media Village Changanacherry FM 90.8
- Global Radio 91.2 FM Alappuzha
- Radio Mirchi 104 Kochi
- Radio Neythal 90.8 FM Alappuzha
Traditionally, radio accounts for 7% to 8% of advertiser expenditures around the world. In India, it is less than 2% at present.
The ministry of broadcasting in India is setting up more (86) FM Radio to all parts of India by March 2017.
List of FM Stations in Jaipur:
- 98.3 Radio Mirchi (Listenership; 12 lacs plus)
- 93.5 Red FM (Listenership; 11 lacs plus)
- 94.3 MY FM (Listenership;15 lacs plus)
- 91.1 Radio City (Listenership; 10 lacs plus)
- 95 Tadka (Listenership; 8 lacs plus)
Current allocation process
In FM Phase II — the latest round of the long-delayed opening up of private FM in India — some 338 frequencies were offered of which about 237 were sold.
- http://allindiaradio.org/milestone.html Archived May 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Sen, Biswarup (26 August 2014). "A new kind of radio: FM broadcasting in India". Media Culture & Society. 36 (8): 1084–1099. doi:10.1177/0163443714544998.
- Radio City (Indian radio station)
- "Control freakery". The Indian Express. Oct 19, 2013. Retrieved Oct 19, 2013.
- "Why not let private radio stations air news?". Hindustan Times. October 17, 2013. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "FM Radio Stations in". trace.bharatiyamobile.com. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- "Delhi Radio Stations on FM, mediumwave and shortwave". www.asiawaves.net. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- "FM Radio Stations in Gujarat". trace.bharatiyamobile.com. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- "FM Radio Stations in Maharashtra". fmstations.bharatiyamobile.com. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- "FM Radio Stations in Karnataka". fmstations.bharatiyamobile.com. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- "86 new AIR stations to come up by March 2017".