Folate receptor 1

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Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases FOLR1, FBP, FOLR, Folate receptor 1, folate receptor 1 (adult)
External IDs MGI: 95568 HomoloGene: 7322 GeneCards: FOLR1
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 11 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 11 (human)[1]
Chromosome 11 (human)
Genomic location for FOLR1
Genomic location for FOLR1
Band 11q13.4 Start 72,189,558 bp[1]
End 72,196,323 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE FOLR1 204437 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 11: 72.19 – 72.2 Mb Chr 11: 101.86 – 101.87 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Folate receptor alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOLR1 gene.[5][6]

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the folate receptor (FOLR) family. Members of this gene family have a high affinity for folic acid and for several reduced folic acid derivatives, and mediate delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the interior of cells.

This gene is composed of 7 exons; exons 1 through 4 encode the 5' UTR and exons 4 through 7 encode the open reading frame. Due to the presence of 2 promoters, multiple transcription start sites, and alternative splicing of exons, several transcript variants are derived from this gene. These variants differ in the lengths of 5' and 3' UTR, but they encode an identical amino acid sequence.[6]

Clinical significance[edit]

FRA can be overexpressed by a number of epithelial-derived tumors including ovarian, breast, renal, lung, colorectal, and brain. Hence antibodies to it are used in targeted therapies and diagnostic tests, e.g. farletuzumab in phase III trial for ovarian cancer.

Autoantibodies to the FRA have been linked to neurodevelopmental diseases,[7] particularly cerebral folate deficiency[8] schizophrenia[8] and autism spectrum disorder.[9] Recent studies have shown that these neurodevelopmental disorders can be treated with leucovorin calcium.[9][10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000110195 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000001827 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ Campbell IG, Jones TA, Foulkes WD, Trowsdale J (Oct 1991). "Folate-binding protein is a marker for ovarian cancer". Cancer Res. 51 (19): 5329–38. PMID 1717147. 
  6. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: FOLR1 folate receptor 1 (adult)". 
  7. ^ Frye, RE; Slattery, JC; Quadros, EV (3 August 2017). "Folate metabolism abnormalities in autism: potential biomarkers". Biomarkers in medicine. doi:10.2217/bmm-2017-0109. PMID 28770615. 
  8. ^ a b Ramaekers VT, Rothenberg SP, Sequeira JM, Opladen T, Blau N, Quadros EV, Selhub J (May 2005). "Autoantibodies to folate receptors in the cerebral folate deficiency syndrome". The New England Journal of Medicine. 352 (19): 1985–91. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa043160. PMID 15888699. 
  9. ^ a b Frye RE, Sequeira JM, Quadros EV, James SJ, Rossignol DA (March 2013). "Cerebral folate receptor autoantibodies in autism spectrum disorder". Molecular Psychiatry. 18 (3): 369–81. doi:10.1038/mp.2011.175. PMC 3578948Freely accessible. PMID 22230883. 
  10. ^ Frye RE, Slattery J, Delhey L, Furgerson B, Strickland T, Tippett M, Sailey A, Wynne R, Rose S, Melnyk S, Jill James S, Sequeira JM, Quadros EV (October 2016). "Folinic acid improves verbal communication in children with autism and language impairment: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial". Molecular Psychiatry. doi:10.1038/mp.2016.168. PMID 27752075. 

Further reading[edit]