FREMM multipurpose frigate
Italian first FREMM Carlo Bergamini (F590)
|Builders:||France and Italy|
|Planned:||20 (Italy 10, France 8, Morocco 1, Egypt 1)|
|Cancelled:||9 out of originally 17 for the French navy|
|Active:||12 (Italy 6, France 4, Morocco 1, Egypt 1)|
|Draft:||Italy: 5.1 m (17 ft)|
|Crew:||Italy: 131 GP version / 133 ASW version; add 14 crew for one helo on board or add 23 crew for two helos on board|
The FREMM ("European multi-purpose frigate"; French: Frégate européenne multi-mission; Italian: Fregata europea multi-missione) is a class of multi-purpose frigates designed by DCNS/Armaris and Fincantieri for the navies of France and Italy. The lead ship of the class, Aquitaine, was commissioned in November 2012 by the French Navy. In France the class is known as the Aquitaine class, while in Italy they are known as the Bergamini class. Italy has ordered six general purpose variants and four anti-submarine variants; the last two Italian general purpose FREMMs will have anti-aircraft warfare, anti-ballistic missile and surface attack capabilities. France has ordered six anti-submarine variants, and two air-defence variants.
- 1 Background
- 2 Country-specific equipment
- 3 Ships of the class
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Three original variants of the FREMM were proposed; an anti-submarine variant (ASW) and a general-purpose variant (GP) and a land-attack variant (AVT) to replace the existing classes of frigates within the French and Italian navies. A total of 27 FREMM were to be constructed - 17 for France and 10 for Italy - with additional aims to seek exports, however budget cuts and changing requirements has seen this number drop significantly for France, while the order for Italy remained invaried. The land-attack variant (AVT) was subsequently cancelled.
A third anti-air warfare variant of FREMM was proposed by DCNS in repose to French requirements for a new air-defence frigate, the new variant became known as FREDA ("FREgates de Défense Aériennes", "Air defence frigate"). This new French requirement was due to the third and fourth Horizon-class frigates being cancelled after the first two cost €1,350m each, but this decision left French Navy still in-need of replacements for its ageing Cassard-class air-defence frigates.
As of 2009, the FREDA design features a more powerful version of the Herakles (radar) passive electronically scanned array radar and 32 cells of SYLVER A50 in place of the 16 cells of A43 and 16 cells of A70. The SYLVER A50 would allow it to fire the 120 kilometres (75 mi)-range Aster 30 missile; the towed array sonar would not be fitted.
At Euronaval 2012 DCNS showed a new concept called FREMM-ER for the FREDA requirement, again based on the FREMM, but specifically mentioning the ballistic missile defence mission as well as anti-air. FREMM-ER has a modified superstructure replacing Héraklès with the new Thales Sea Fire 500 radar, whose four fixed plates resemble those of the US Navy's AN/SPY-1. However unlike the Héraklès and the SPY-1 (both using passive electronically scanned array technology), the Sea Fire 500 has active electronically scanned array antennas.
Original plans were for 17 FREMM to replace the nine D'Estienne d'Orves-class avisos and nine anti-submarine frigates of the Tourville and Georges Leygues classes. In November 2005 France announced a contract of €3.5 billion for development and the first eight hulls, with options for nine more costing €2.95 billion split over two tranches (totaling 17).
Following the cancellation of the third and fourth of the Horizon-class frigates in 2005 on budget grounds, requirements for an air-defence derivative of the FREMM called FREDA were placed – with DCNS coming up with several proposals. Expectations were that the last two ships of the 17 FREMM planned would be built to FREDA specifications; however, by 2008 the plan was revised down to just 11 FREMM (9 ASW variants and 2 FREDA variants) at a cost of €8.75 billion (FY13, ~US$12 billion). The 11 ships would cost €670 million (~US$760m) each in FY2014, or €860m (~US$980m) including development costs.
The 2013 White Paper on Defence and National Security committed France to 15 front-line frigates, which was initially wrongly interpreted as 2 Horizons, 5 La Fayettes and a reduction in the FREMM fleet down to 8 ships. The 2014/2019 defence plan restated a target of 11 FREMMs; the current[when?] plan is to deliver six ASW variants to replace the Georges Leygues-class frigates by 2019, followed by two anti-air variants to replace the ageing Cassard-class frigates and a decision will be taken in 2016 on what version the remaining three will be. In 2014, the French Navy's Chief of Staff, Adm. Bernard Rogel, confirmed that 11 FREMM frigates had been ordered but in 2015 the order was cut to 8 in order to allow the purchase of five FTI Mid-Size frigates from 2023. The FTI will replace the La Fayette-class class, which will be fitted with a sonar as an interim measure.
Planning assumptions for the Italian Navy are 10 FREMM-IT (4 ASW variants and 6 GP variants) at a cost of €5.8 billion. FREMM-IT will replace the Maestrale and Lupo-class frigates in service with the Italian Navy.
In the 2013 Italian budget, the Italian government laid out the necessary financing for two more GP variants (FREMM-IT 7 & 8) and the contract was awarded in September 2013. On 15 April 2015, the Italian Parliament confirmed the deal between OCCAR and Orizzonte Sistemi Navali Spa (Fincantieri and Finmeccanica, since 2017 Leonardo) to begin building units 9 and 10, for 764 million Euros.
As of 16 April 2015, the Italian government has approved funding for all ten FREMM-IT to be delivered to the Italian Navy (4 ASW variants and 6 GP variants).
FREMM-IT 9 & 10 will have AAW & ATBM capabilities and will have A70 VLS for cruise & Aster Block 2 missiles, and the new Leonardo Kronos Quad C-band AESA 3D radar (a dual-band radar).
The Leonardo Kronos Quad (an evolution of the EMPAR-MFRA) will have four flat radar sensors, with three times the original range and full ATBM capabilities.
All 10 Italian FREMM-ITs have extended AAW capabilities, with SAAM-ESD CMS and Aster 30 (& Aster 15) missiles for extended area defence.
SAAM-ESD CMS use Leonardo MFRA, a 3D active radar (AESA), an evolved version of the Leonardo EMPAR PESA radar (previously embarked on Horizon-class destroyers and the aircraft carrier Cavour).
Since the 7th FREMM-IT, there will be updates, such as new conformal IFF antenna.
Since the 8th or 9th FREMM-IT, there will be updates to other systems:
- the COC and bridge will be integrated
- the cruise speed will be enhanced to 19/20 knots (with more powerful diesel engines)
- would be fitted with ATAS VDS sonar and SLAT anti-torpedo system
On 10 July 2017 it was reported that the US Congress is pushing foreign designs such as the Fincantieri FREMM for the FFG(X) Guided-Missile Frigate Program.According to Rep. Rob Wittman, chairman of the House Armed Services Committee’s Seapower and Projection Forces Subcommittee, Congress is comfortable with models such as Fincantieri’s partnership with Lockheed Martin to build the Freedom version of the LCS.. If the Italian FREMM design is selected, the Marinette Marine shipyard in Wisconsin, part of the Fincantieri group, would build the guided-missile frigates. Marinette Marine is best known for the US Navy Freedom-class littoral combat ship. As of September 2017, 5 Freedom class LCS ships have been commissioned for the US Navy, another 3 have been launched, while another 2 have been laid down. On 30 June 2017, it was announced that Leonardo and BAE Systems will collaborate to provide the US military forces with a wide range of upgraded munitions for advanced, large-calibre weapon systems such as the Leonardo Vulcano and Strales/DART guided munitions.
On 24 October 2007 it was announced that the Royal Moroccan Navy had ordered one FREMM to replace its Descubierta-class corvette. The contract was signed on 18 April 2008 and construction of the Moroccan FREMM began in the summer 2008 with delivery expected in 2012 or 2013; Mohammed VI was launched in September 2011 and handed over on 30 January 2014. The Moroccan ship is similar to the French anti-submarine version, without SYLVER A70 tubes for SCALP Naval, and cost €470m.
On 22 January 2009 the Hellenic Navy announced an order for six FREMM to replace an equal number of Elli-class frigates. After the Greek government-debt crisis this was cut down to between two and four ships equipped with SCALP Naval, with France alleged to have offered them to Greece at no cost for the first five years. Germany objected to this deal in October 2011 and no deal has been signed. In February 2013 though and during the formal visit of the President of France, François Hollande, in Athens, according to press reports an agreement which includes the long-term leasing of two FREMM frigates (Normandie and Provence according to initial reports) to the Hellenic Navy has been reached.
In April 2013, the French government showcased the FREMM class in Halifax with the hope of selling to the Royal Canadian Navy for the Single Class Surface Combatant Project. Canada's Defence Minister at the time, Peter MacKay, commented "I have never seen… such an impressive vessel". DCNS is widely considered one of the leading bidders towards the Single Class Surface Combatants.
On 16 February 2015, The Egyptian Navy ordered one FREMM vessel to enter service before the opening of the New Suez Canal, as part of a larger deal (including 24 Rafales and a supply of missiles) worth US$5.9 billion (€5.2 billion). In order to keep to Egypt's deadlines, France offered to send Normandie, originally intended for the French Navy. The SYLVER A70 VLS and NETTUNO-4100 jamming equipment were removed due to export limitations for such sensitive equipment. The crew will be around 126 sailors compared to 108 in the French Navy. The SATCOM antenna for the French Syracuse satellites was also taken down; however, Egypt will use its own military telecommunications satellite, supplied by Airbus Defence and Space and Thales Alenia Space, in conjunction with its naval vessels. From March 2015, DCNS trained the Egyptian crew in the technology of the ship and DCNS and its partners accompanied the crew for a period of 15 months. On 23 June 2015, French naval shipbuilder DCNS transferred the FREMM frigate Tahya Misr ( ex-Normandie) to the Egyptian navy. A ceremony took place to transfer Normandie, renamed Tahya Misr ("Long Live Egypt") to Egypt, in the presence of General Sedki Sobhy, the Egyptian Minister of Defense, Jean-Yves Le Drian, the French Minister of Defense, Admiral Osama Rabie, Egyptian Navy Commander in Chief, Admiral Bernard Rogel, the French Chief of Navy and Hervé Guillou, Chairman & CEO of DCNS
On 1 September 2016, Fincantieri has signed a contract with the Australian Government to participate in the Competitive Evaluation Process, conducted by the Department of Defence, to deliver nine Future Frigates—to be built in Adelaide, South Australia—for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) under the SEA 5000 programme; this was an agreement to participate in the competition, and not awarding the final contract.
- Leonardo OTO Melara 76/62 mm Super Rapid gun (on Italian Navy versions with Davide/Strales guided-ammunition)
- 2 x torpedo launchers Eurotorp/WASS B515/3 for MU 90 torpedoes with Calzoni AHS (Automatic Handling System)
- 1 x Leonardo NA-25 DARDO-F fire control system for the 76mm cannon
- 2 x SLAT (Systeme de Lutte Anti-Torpille) anti-torpedo system (into Italian Navy only for ASW version) ASW DLS (Anti Submarine Weapon Decoy Launcher System) based on Thales ALERT sonar system, DCNS RATO command system and WASS CMAT weapon system (with 12 tube launcher for 127 mm's WASS C-310 decoy and jammers)
- NH90 helicopter, with capability for AW101, Cougar and Caracal
- Thales UMS 4110 CL hull sonar
- Thales UMS 4249 CAPTAS4 towed sonar (anti-submarine versions only)
- Thales TUUM-6 Underwater Telephone
- 2 x Sigen MM/SMQ-765 EW system: with JASS (Jamming Antenna Sub System) ECM, Nettuno 4100, by ELT Elettronica and Thales ESM (Communications and Radar ESM)
- 2 x SOFRESUD Quick Pointing Devices "QPD"
- 16 cells MBDA SYLVER A43 VLS for MBDA Aster 15 missiles
- 16 cells MBDA SYLVER A70 VLS for MBDA SCALP Naval cruise missile with a range up to 1000 km
- MBDA MM-40 Exocet block 3, for naval and land attack
- 3 x Nexter 20mm Narwhal remote weapon systems
- NGDS decoy launcher
- Héraklès radar
- Terma Scanter 2001 radar
- Thales Artemis IRST
- SETIS combat system
- Sagem Najir fire control system for the 76mm gun
- Samahé helicopter handling system
- 16 cells MBDA Sylver Vertical Launching System A50 VLS for MBDA Aster 15 missiles and MBDA Aster 30 missiles
- Space reserved for MBDA SYLVER A70 launchers for 16 MBDA SCALP Naval or similar cruise missile, but not fitted
- Leonardo IRST SASS
- another one Leonardo NA-25 DARDO-F fire control system for the second cannon (76/62 mm or 127/54 mm)
- Leonardo Kronos Grand Naval (MFRA) AESA, 3D, C band radar
- Leonardo RASS (RAN-30X-I) surface radar (OTH)
- Leonardo SPS-732, 2D LPI Surveillance X band Radar (surface and air surveillance at low level); since the 7th FREMM-IT replaced by more powerful Leonardo SPS-732(V2)
- Leonardo SPN-730 LPI navigation radar and two navigation radar GEM-Elettronica MM/SPN-753
- Leonardo SPN-720 radar for helicopter precision approach
- Leonardo IFF SIR M-E; since the 7th FREMM-IT replaced with Leonardo IFF SIR M5-PA with phased array antenna
- Leonardo Athena combat system (CMS), with 21, three displays, MFC (Multi Functional Consolle): 17 into COC, 2 in backup COC, 1 on bridge and 1 into Command Planning Room
- Leonardo SAAM-ESD extended area AAW combat system (for Aster 15 & Aster 30 missiles)
- 2 x Leonardo (OTO Melara) SCLAR-H DLS Multipurpose Rocket Launcher
- 8 x MBDA Teseo\Otomat Mk-2/A block 4, for naval and land attack
- 2 x Leonardo (Oto Melara/Oerlikon) KBA 25/80 mm, remote weapon system, controlled by close CMS
- Curtiss-Wright TC-ASIST helicopter handling system (for both helicopters)
- Leonardo (WASS) SNA-2000-I, Mine Avoidance Sonar
- L-3 ELAC Nautik SeaBeam 3050, Multi-beam echo sounder (only on ASW version)
- 1 x 7 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat release and recovery lateral systems (Stemar 6,8 m, FNM HPEP 225 HP engine, 38 knots, 6 crew )
- 1 x 11 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat release and recovery lateral systems
- 1 x 11 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat fast, stern release and recovery system (only on GP version, for CABI Cattaneo CABAT boat)
- ASW version: 2 x Leonardo OTO Melara 76/62 mm Davide/Strales CIWS guns, one on the hangar (both with Strales guided-ammunitions) and 4 MBDA MILAS ASW missile
- GP version: 1 x Leonardo OTO Melara 127/64 mm gun with Vulcano guided ammunition, with a range up to 120 km, and AAHS (Automated Ammunition Handling System) with 350 rounds + 56 in turret and a second Leonardo (OTO Melara) 76/62 mm Davide/Strales CIWS gun on the hangar (with Strales guided-ammunitions)
Ships of the class
|Pennant no.||Builder||Variant||Role||Name||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Homeport|
|D650||DCNS, Lorient||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Aquitaine||2007||29 April 2010||23 November 2012||Brest|
|D652||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Provence||2010||18 September 2013||12 June 2015||Brest|
|D653||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Languedoc||2011||12 July 2014||16 March 2016||Toulon|
|D654||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Auvergne||2012||2 September 2015||11 April 2017||Toulon|
|D655||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Bretagne||2013||16 September 2016||2018||Brest|
|Royal Moroccan Navy|
|701||DCNS, Lorient||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Mohammed VI||2008||14 September 2011||30 January 2014||Ksar es Seghir|
|FFG-1001||DCNS, Lorient||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Tahya Misr
|2009||18 October 2012||17 March 2016 ||Alexandria |
|F590||Fincantieri, Muggiano||IT‑GP||General purpose||Carlo Bergamini||4 February 2008||16 July 2011||29 May 2013||La Spezia|
|F591||IT‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Virginio Fasan||12 May 2009||31 March 2012||19 December 2013||La Spezia|
|F592||IT‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Carlo Margottini||21 April 2010||29 June 2013||27 February 2014||La Spezia|
|F593||IT‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Carabiniere||6 April 2011||29 March 2014||28 April 2015 ||Taranto|
|F594||IT‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Alpino||23 February 2012||13 December 2014||30 September 2016||Taranto|
|F595||IT‑GP||General purpose||Luigi Rizzo||5 March 2013||19 December 2015||20 April 2017||La Spezia|
|F596||IT‑GP||General purpose||Federico Martinengo||5 June 2014 ||4 March 2017||April 2018||Taranto|
|F597||IT‑GP||General purpose||Antonio Marceglia||12 July 2015||December 2017||April 2019||Taranto|
|F598||IT‑GP||General purpose||Spartaco Schergat||February 2017 ||March 2019||April 2020||La Spezia|
|F599||IT‑GP||General purpose||Emilio Bianchi||January 2018||March 2020||April 2021 ||Taranto|
- Type 26, a potential future British design
- F125-class frigate, a German class of frigates
- European multilateral defence procurement
- Iver Huitfeldt-class frigate, of the Danish Navy has roughly the same tonnage
- Norwegian Fridtjof Nansen-class frigates are slightly smaller
- "Projet de loi de finances pour 2015 : Défense : équipement des forces" (in French). Senate of France. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
- Djama, Nasser (30 January 2014). "A Brest, le Maroc prend possession de sa frégate Fremm Mohammed VI". L'Usine Nouvelle (in French). Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Caractéristiques". FREMM Aquitaine (D 650) (in French). Minstère de la Défense. 12 August 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Fregate Europee Multi Missione - FREMM" (in Italian). Ministero Della Difesa. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "FREMM : 11 frégates multi-missions pour la flotte française". Mer et Marine (in French). 26 October 2008.
- "Frégates : Le point sur les futures FREDA". Mer et Marine (in French). 12 October 2009.
- "DCNS to unveil new FREMM Frigate variant, updated BRAVE supply ship design at Euronaval 2012". Belgium: Navy Recognition. 4 October 2012.
- Nodwell, Bethan (2013). "Extending Navy Capabilities FREMM-ER". FrontLine Defence. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "FREMM : Supprimer des frégates, un non sens économique et stratégique?". Mer et Marine (in French). 19 September 2007.
- "White Paper on Defense and National Security 2013" (PDF). Minstère de la Défense. 29 April 2013. p. 91. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
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- "Update to French Military Planning Law Means New Capabilities for Lafayette Class Frigates". Navy Reocgnition. 2015-05-21.
- "Navy Steers Well Away From An LCS Frigate". Breaking Defense. 2017-07-10.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "The US Navy eyes foreign designs". Defense News. 2017-09-01.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "BAE Systems and Leonardo to partner for new Vulcano precision-guided munitions". Naval Technology. 2017-06-30.
- Accord conclu pour la vente d'une frégate française au Maroc | Mer et Marine Archived November 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- La construction de la FREMM marocaine débute à Lorient | Mer et Marine Archived April 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "ΑΠΟΚΛΕΙΣΤΙΚΟ: O Ε. Μεϊμαράκης ανακοίνωσε πρόγραμμα εξοπλισμών" (in Greek). DefenceNet.gr. 23 January 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Germans Question Contract : France to Sell Frigates to Greece in Controversial Deal". Der Spiegel. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "La Grèce va louer 2 frégates françaises". Le Figaro (in French). 19 February 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "French pitch new warships for next Canadian navy vessels". CBC News. 20 April 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- Brewster, Murray (2016-10-26). "Frigate replacement program kicks off with design competition". CBC News.
- Lert, Frédéric (16 February 2015). "Egypt officially signs for 24 Rafales, FREMM frigate, and missiles". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Official French Navy Statement on the Sale of a FREMM Multi-Mission Frigate to Egypt". 13 February 2015.
- "FREMM pour l’Egypte : Ça se précise…". 17 December 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "DCNS Transferred the FREMM Frigate Tahya Misr to the Egyptian Navy". 24 June 2015.
- "Un satellite Airbus-Thalès vendu à l'Egypte". 19 April 2016.
- "DCNS Transfers the FREMM Tahya Misr to the Egyptian Navy". 24 June 2015.
- "Egypt receives its first FREMM frigate". Janes.com. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- Anderson, Stephanie (18 April 2016). "Malcolm Turnbull says 12 offshore patrol vessels to be built in Adelaide". ABC News. ABC News (Australia). Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "Fincantieri Signs the Future Frigate Participant Services Contract". 2016-09-01.
-  Archived December 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Stemar RIB 6.8 MM" (in Italian). FNN Marine Diesel Engine. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- R.I.D. Rivista italiana difesa, gennaio 2013
- "La Marine réceptionne la FREMM Aquitaine" (in French). Minstère de la Défense. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "DCNS delivers multi-mission frigate Auvergne, the fourth FREMM for the French Navy" (in eng). dcnsgroup.com. 11 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "Egypt receives its first FREMM frigate". 23 June 2015.
- "Egypt's Sisi attends navy manoeuvre, raises flag over new frigate". english.ahram.org.eg. 17 March 2016.
- "La FREMM Tahia Misr en route pour Alexandrie" (in French). 23 July 2015.
- Gaiani, Gianandrea (26 November 2012). "Modifiche E Qualche Ritocco Per Le Fremm" (in Italian). Analisi Difesa. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "The first multipurpose frigate launched: the "Carlo Bergamini"" (Press release). Trieste: Fincantieri. 16 July 2011.
- "Italian FREMM FOC GP Carlo BERGAMINI Delivered To The Italian Navy" (Press release). OCCAR. 29 May 2013.
- "Second multipurpose frigate launched: Virginio Fasan" (Press release). Trieste: Fincantieri. 31 March 2012.
- "Second Italian FREMM frigate 'Virginio Fasan' Delivered". Orizzonte Sistemi Navali. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "The first multipurpose frigate launched: the "Carlo Margottini"" (Press release). Trieste: Fincantieri. 29 June 2013.
- "FREMM again" (Press release). OCCAR. 27 February 2014.
- "CARABINIERE: 4th Italian FREMM launched" (Press release). OCCAR. 29 March 2014.
- "FREMM "Carabiniere" delivered to the Italian Navy" (Press release). Trieste: Fincantieri. 28 April 2015.
- "The fifth multipurpose frigate launched - the "Alpino"" (Press release). Trieste: Fincantieri. 13 December 2014.
- "FREMM "Alpino" delivered to the Italian Navy" (Press release). Trieste: Fincantieri. 30 September 2016.
- "The sixth multipurpose frigate "Luigi Rizzo" launched" (Press release). Trieste: Fincantieri. 19 December 2015.
- "FREMM "Rizzo" delivered to the Italian Navy" (Press release). Trieste: Fincantieri. 20 April 2017.
- "Fincantieri, Riva Trigoso: iniziati i lavori per la settima Fremm" (in Italian). The Medi Telegraph. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "The seventh multipurpose frigate “Federico Martinengo” launched" (Press release). Trieste: Fincantieri. 4 March 2017.
- "Laying down Ceremony for the 8th Italian FREMM" (Press release). OCCAR. 12 July 2015.
- "Riva Trigoso: Fincantieri, Iniziano Lavori 8ª Unità Programma FREMM" (in Italian). Agenzia Giornalistica Globalpress. 25 February 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
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