FREMM multipurpose frigate
Italian first FREMM Carlo Bergamini (F590)
|Planned:||29 (France 17, Italy 10, Morocco 1, Egypt 1)|
|Active:||9 (Italy 4, France 3, Morocco 1, Egypt 1)|
|Laid up:||7 (France 3, Italy 4)|
|Crew:||Italy: 131 GP version / 133 ASW version; add 14 crew for one helo on board or add 23 crew for two helos on board|
The FREMM ("European multi-purpose frigate"; French: Frégate européenne multi-mission; Italian: Fregata europea multi-missione) is a class of multi-purpose frigates designed by DCNS/Armaris and Fincantieri for the navies of France and Italy. The lead ship of the class, Aquitaine, was commissioned in November 2012 by the French Navy. In France the class is known as the Aquitaine class, while in Italy they are known as the Bergamini class. Italy has ordered six general purpose variants and four anti-submarine variants; the last two Italian general purpose FREMMs will have anti-aircraft warfare, anti-ballistic missile and surface attack capabilities. France has ordered six anti-submarine variants, and two air-defence variants.
- 1 Background
- 2 Country-specific equipment
- 3 Ships of the class
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Three original variants of the FREMM were proposed; an anti-submarine variant (ASW) and a general-purpose variant (GP) and a land-attack variant (AVT) to replace the existing classes of frigates within the French and Italian navies. A total of 27 FREMM were to be constructed - 17 for France and 10 for Italy - with additional aims to seek exports, however budget cuts and changing requirements has seen this number drop significantly (for France). The land-attack variant (AVT) was subsequently cancelled.
A third anti-air warfare variant of FREMM was proposed by DCNS in repose to French requirements for a new air-defence frigate, the new variant became known as FREDA ("FREgates de Défense Aériennes", "Air defence frigate"). This new French requirement was due to the third and fourth Horizon-class frigates being cancelled after the first two cost €1,350m each, but this decision left French Navy still in-need of replacements for its ageing Cassard-class air-defence frigates.
As of 2009, the FREDA design features a more powerful version of the Thales Herakles passive electronically scanned array radar and 32 cells of SYLVER A50 in place of the 16 cells of A43 and 16 cells of A70. The SYLVER A50 would allow it to fire the 120 kilometres (75 mi)-range Aster 30 missile; the towed array sonar would not be fitted.
At Euronaval 2012 DCNS showed a new concept called FREMM-ER for the FREDA requirement, again based on the FREMM, but specifically mentioning the ballistic missile defence mission as well as anti-air. FREMM-ER has a modified superstructure replacing Héraklès with the new Thales Sea Fire 500 radar, whose four fixed plates resemble those of the US Navy's AN/SPY-1. However unlike the Héraklès and the SPY-1 (both using passive electronically scanned array technology), the Sea Fire 500 has active electronically scanned array antennas.
Original plans were for 17 FREMM to replace the nine D'Estienne d'Orves-class avisos and nine anti-submarine frigates of the Tourville and Georges Leygues classes. In November 2005 France announced a contract of €3.5 billion for development and the first eight hulls, with options for nine more costing €2.95 billion split over two tranches (totaling 17).
Following the cancellation of the third and fourth of the Horizon-class frigates in 2005 on budget grounds, requirements for an air-defence derivative of the FREMM called FREDA were placed – with DCNS coming up with several proposals. Expectations were that the last two ships of the 17 FREMM planned would be built to FREDA specifications; however, by 2008 the plan was revised down to just 11 FREMM (9 ASW variants and 2 FREDA variants) at a cost of €8.75 billion (FY13, ~US$12 billion). The 11 ships would cost €670 million (~US$760m) each in FY2014, or €860m (~US$980m) including development costs.
The 2013 White Paper on Defence and National Security committed France to 15 front-line frigates, which was initially wrongly interpreted as 2 Horizons, 5 La Fayettes and a reduction in the FREMM fleet down to 8 ships. The 2014/2019 defence plan restated a target of 11 FREMMs; the current[when?] plan is to deliver six ASW variants to replace the Georges Leygues-class frigates by 2019, followed by two anti-air variants to replace the ageing Cassard-class frigates and a decision will be taken in 2016 on what version the remaining three will be. In 2014, the French Navy's Chief of Staff, Adm. Bernard Rogel, confirmed that 11 FREMM frigates had been ordered but in 2015 the order was cut to 8 in order to allow the purchase of five FTI Mid-Size frigates from 2023. The FTI will replace the La Fayette-class class, which will be fitted with a sonar as an interim measure.
Planning assumptions for the Italian Navy are 10 FREMM-IT (4 ASW variants and 6 GP variants) at a cost of €5.8 billion. FREMM-IT will replace the Maestrale and Lupo-class frigates in service with the Italian Navy.
As of 16 April 2015, the Italian government has approved funding for all ten FREMM-IT to be delivered to the Italian Navy (4 ASW variants and 6 GP variants). In the 2013 Italian budget, the Italian government laid-out the necessary financing for two more GP variants (FREMM-IT 7 & 8) and the contract was awarded in September 2013. On 15 April 2015, Italian Parliamentary confirmed the deal between OCCAR and Orizzonte Sistemi Navali Spa (Fincantieri and Finmeccanica, dal 2016 Leonardo-Finmeccanica) to beginning built units 9 and 10, for Euro 764 millions.
FREMM-IT 9 & 10 will have AAW & ATBM capabilities and will have A70 VLS for cruise missiles. All Italian FREMM-ITs have extended AAW capabilities, with SAAM-ESD CMS and Aster 30 (& Aster 15) missiles for extended area defence. SAAM-ESD CMS use Selex ES MFRA, a 3D active radar (AESA), an evolved version of the Selex ES EMPAR PESA radar (previously embarked on Horizon-class destroyers and the aircraft carrier Cavour).
The Selex ES MFRA 4FF (EMPAR's evolved version, destined for the 9th and 10th FREMM) will have four flat radar sensors, with three times the original range and full ATBM capabilities.
Since the 7th FREMM-IT, there will be updates to other systems, such as:
- the COC and bridge will be integrated
- the cruise speed will be enhanced to 19/20 knots (with more powerful diesel engines)
On 24 October 2007 it was announced that the Royal Moroccan Navy had ordered one FREMM to replace its Descubierta-class corvette. The contract was signed on 18 April 2008 and construction of the Moroccan FREMM began in the summer 2008 with delivery expected in 2012 or 2013; Mohammed VI was launched in September 2011 and handed over on 30 January 2014. The Moroccan ship is similar to the French anti-submarine version, without SYLVER A70 tubes for SCALP Naval, and cost €470m.
On 22 January 2009 the Hellenic Navy announced an order for six FREMM to replace an equal number of Elli-class frigates. After the Greek government-debt crisis this was cut down to between two and four ships equipped with SCALP Naval, with France alleged to have offered them to Greece at no cost for the first five years. Germany objected to this deal in October 2011 and no deal has been signed. In February 2013 though and during the formal visit of the President of France, François Hollande, in Athens, according to press reports an agreement which includes the long-term leasing of two FREMM frigates (Normandie and Provence according to initial reports) to the Hellenic Navy has been reached.
In April 2013, the French government showcased the FREMM class in Halifax with the hope of selling to the Royal Canadian Navy for the Single Class Surface Combatant Project. Canada's Defence Minister at the time, Peter MacKay, commented "I have never seen… such an impressive vessel". The FREMM Class design will not be in the fifteen Canadian Surface Combatants. However, Canada could purchase one or two vessels for the interim.
On 16 February 2015, The Egyptian Navy ordered one FREMM vessel to enter service before the opening of the New Suez Canal, as part of a larger deal (including 24 Rafales and a supply of missiles) worth US$5.9 billion (€5.2 billion). In order to keep to Egypt's deadlines, France offered to send Normandie, originally intended for the French Navy. The SYLVER A70, jamming equipment and satellite communications have been removed, and the crew will be 126 in Egyptian service compared to 108 as a French ship. From March 2015, DCNS trained the Egyptian crew in the technology of the ship and DCNS and its partners accompanied the crew for a period of 15 months. On 23 June 2015, French naval shipbuilder DCNS transferred the FREMM frigate Tahya Misr ( ex-Normandie) to the Egyptian navy. A ceremony took place to transfer Normandie,renamed Tahya Misr ("Long Live Egypt") to Egypt, in the presence of General Sedki Sobhy, the Egyptian Minister of Defense, Jean-Yves Le Drian, the French Minister of Defense, Admiral Osama Rabie, Egyptian Navy Commander in Chief, Admiral Bernard Rogel, the French Chief of Navy and Hervé Guillou, Chairman & CEO of DCNS 
- OTO Melara 76/62 mm Super Rapid gun (on Italian Navy versions with Davide/Strales guided-ammunition)
- 2 x torpedo launchers Eurotorp/WASS B515/3 for MU 90 torpedoes with Calzoni AHS (Automatic Handling System)
- 1 x Selex ES NA-25 DARDO-F fire control system for the 76mm cannon
- 2 x SLAT (Systeme de Lutte Anti-Torpille) anti-torpedo system (into Italian Navy only for ASW version) ASW DLS (Anti Submarine Weapon Decoy Launcher System) based on Thales ALERT sonar system, DCNS RATO command system and WASS CMAT weapon system (with 12 tube launcher for 127 mm's WASS C-310 decoy and jammers)
- NH90 helicopter, with capability for AW101, Cougar and Caracal
- Thales UMS 4110 CL hull sonar
- Thales UMS 4249 CAPTAS4 towed sonar (anti-submarine versions only)
- Thales TUUM-6 Underwater Telephone
- 2 x Sigen MM/SMQ-765 EW system: with JASS (Jamming Antenna Sub System) ECM, Nettuno 4100, by ELT Elettronica and Thales ESM (Communications and Radar ESM)
- 2 x SOFRESUD Quick Pointing Devices "QPD"
- 16 cells of SYLVER A43 VLS for Aster 15
- 16 cells of Sylver A70 VLS for SCALP Naval cruise missile with a range up to 1000 km
- MM-40 Exocet block 3, for naval and land attack
- Three Nexter 20mm Narwhal remote weapon systems
- NGDS decoy launcher
- Héraklès radar
- Terma Scanter 2001 radar
- Thales Artemis IRST
- SETIS combat system
- Sagem Najir fire control system for the 76mm gun
- Samahé helicopter handling system
- 16 cells of SYLVER A50 VLS for Aster 15 and Aster 30 missiles
- Space reserved for SYLVER A70 launchers for 16 SCALP Naval or similar cruise missile, but not fitted
- Selex ES IRST SASS
- another one Selex ES NA-25 DARDO-F fire control system for the second cannon (76/62 mm or 127/54 mm)
- Selex ES EMPAR active 3D radar (MFRA).
- Selex ES RASS (RAN-30X-I) surface radar (OTH)
- LPI navigation radar Selex ES SPN-730 and two navigation radar GEM-Elettronica MM/SPN-753
- Selex ES IFF SIR M5-PA
- Selex ES Athena combat system (CMS), with 21, three displays, MFC (Multi Functional Consolle): 17 into COC, 2 in backup COC, 1 on bridge and 1 into Command Planning Room
- Selex ES SAAM-ESD extended area AAW combat system (for Aster 15 & Aster 30 missiles)
- 2 x OTO Melara SCLAR-H DLS Multipurpose Rocket Launcher
- 8 x Teseo\Otomat Mk-2/A block 4, for naval and land attack
- 2 x Oto Melara/Oerlikon 25/80 mm, remote weapon system, controlled by close CMS
- Curtiss-Wright TC-ASIST helicopter handling system (for both helicopters)
- WASS SNA-2000-I, Mine Avoidance Sonar
- L-3 ELAC Nautik SeaBeam 3050, Multi-beam echo sounder (only on ASW version)
- 1 x 7 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat release and recovery lateral systems (Stemar 6,8 m, FNM HPEP 225 HP engine, 38 knots, 6 crew )
- 1 x 11 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat release and recovery lateral systems
- 11 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat fast release and recovery system (only on GP version)
- ASW version: 2 x OTO Melara 76/62 mm Davide/Strales CIWS guns, one on the hangar (both with Strales guided-ammunitions) and 4 MILAS ASW missile
- GP version: 1 x OTO Melara 127/64 mm gun with Vulcano guided ammunition, with a range up to 120 km, and AAHS (Automated Ammunition Handling System) with 350 rounds + 56 in turret and a second OTO Melara 76/62 mm Davide/Strales CIWS gun on the hangar (with Strales guided-ammunitions)
Ships of the class
|Pennant no.||Variant||Role||Name||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Homeport|
|D650||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Aquitaine||2007||29 April 2010||23 November 2012||Brest|
|D652||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Provence||2010||18 September 2013||12 June 2015||Brest|
|D653||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Languedoc||2011||12 July 2014||16 March 2016||Toulon|
|D654||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Auvergne||2012||2 September 2015||2017||Toulon|
|Pennant no.||Variant||Role||Name||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Homeport|
|701||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Mohammed VI||2008||14 September 2011||30 January 2014||Ksar es Seghir|
|Pennant no.||Variant||Role||Name||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Homeport|
|FFG-1001||FR‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Tahya Misr (ex-Normandie) ||2009||18 October 2012||17 March 2016 ||Alexandria |
|F590||IT‑GP||General purpose||Carlo Bergamini||6145||4 February 2008||16 July 2011||29 May 2013 ||La Spezia|
|F591||IT‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Virginio Fasan||6146||12 May 2009||31 March 2012||19 December 2013||La Spezia|
|F592||IT‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Carlo Margottini||6209||21 April 2010||29 June 2013||27 February 2014 ||La Spezia|
|F593||IT‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Carabiniere||6210||6 April 2011||29 March 2014||28 April 2015 ||La Spezia|
|F594||IT‑ASW||Anti‑submarine warfare||Alpino||6211||23 February 2012||13 December 2014||May 2016|
|F595||IT‑GP||General purpose||Luigi Rizzo||6212||5 March 2013||19 December 2015||February 2017|
|F596||IT‑GP||General purpose||Federico Martinengo||6247||5 June 2014 ||2017||Spring 2018|
|F597||IT‑GP||General purpose||6248||12 July 2015  ||2018||2019|
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- "Egypt's Sisi attends navy manoeuvre, raises flag over new frigate". english.ahram.org.eg. 17 March 2016.
- "La FREMM Tahia Misr en route pour Alexandrie" (in French). 23 July 2015.
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