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Unlike the vocoder used in FS-1015, CELP provides more natural speech. However, due to quite low bit rate and early development (1991), the speech quality is very noisy and below that of commercial cellular speech codec such as AMR. FS-1016 is no longer used since its follower MELP provides better performance in all applications.
The variation of CELP used in the FS-1016 is so-called ternary codebook, meaning that all excitation amplitudes are either +1, −1 or 0. The sub frame gain is calculated and sent to the receiver.
- "CELP-3.2a and LPC-10" Speech at Carnegie Mellon University
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