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Aliases FSTL1, FRP, FSL1, MIR198, follistatin like 1, OCC-1, OCC1, tsc36
External IDs MGI: 102793 HomoloGene: 5144 GeneCards: FSTL1
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 3 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 3 (human)[1]
Chromosome 3 (human)
Genomic location for FSTL1
Genomic location for FSTL1
Band No data available Start 120,392,293 bp[1]
End 120,451,253 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE FSTL1 208782 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 3: 120.39 – 120.45 Mb Chr 3: 37.78 – 37.84 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Follistatin-related protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FSTL1 gene.[5][6][7]


This gene encodes a protein with similarity to follistatin, an BMP-4-binding protein.[8] It binds to BMP-4 and TGF-β1, but not Activin A.[8] It contains an FS module (a follistatin-like sequence containing 10 conserved cysteine residues), a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor domain, 2 EF hand domains, and a Von Willebrand factor type C domain.[7]

Clinical significance[edit]


FSTL1 has a role in development,[9][10] such as lung development,[8][11] ureter development,[12] central nervous system development,[13] and skeletal development.[11]


This gene product is thought to be an autoantigen associated with rheumatoid arthritis.[7]

FSTL1 up-regulates proinflammatory mediators important in the pathology of arthritis, and serum levels of FSTL1 correlate with severity of arthritis.[14][15][16]

Cardiovascular diseases[edit]

FSTL1 protein seems to have a cardioprotective role. FSTL1 attenuated hypertrophy following pressure overload[17] and prevented myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in a mouse or pig model of ischemia/reperfusion.[18] Muscle-derived Fstl1 modulates vascular remodelling in response to injury.[19]

FSTL1 has been shown to have a pronounced ability as a possible therapeutic to stimulate regeneration following myocardial infarction. Treating experimental animals (mouse and pig) with FSTL1 after myocardial infarction progressively restored heart function, at least in part by stimulating replication of normally non-dividing heart muscle cells[20]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163430 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000022816 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ Zwijsen A, Blockx H, Van Arnhem W, Willems J, Fransen L, Devos K, Raymackers J, Van de Voorde A, Slegers H (Nov 1994). "Characterization of a rat C6 glioma-secreted follistatin-related protein (FRP). Cloning and sequence of the human homologue". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 225 (3): 937–46. PMID 7957230. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.0937b.x. 
  6. ^ Tanaka M, Ozaki S, Osakada F, Mori K, Okubo M, Nakao K (Sep 1998). "Cloning of follistatin-related protein as a novel autoantigen in systemic rheumatic diseases". International Immunology. 10 (9): 1305–14. PMID 9786430. doi:10.1093/intimm/10.9.1305. 
  7. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: FSTL1 follistatin-like 1". 
  8. ^ a b c Geng Y, Dong Y, Yu M, Zhang L, Yan X, Sun J, Qiao L, Geng H, Nakajima M, Furuichi T, Ikegawa S, Gao X, Chen YG, Jiang D, Ning W (Apr 2011). "Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 signaling antagonist in controlling mouse lung development". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (17): 7058–63. PMC 3084141Freely accessible. PMID 21482757. doi:10.1073/pnas.1007293108. 
  9. ^ Umezu T, Yamanouchi H, Iida Y, Miura M, Tomooka Y (Mar 2010). "Follistatin-like-1, a diffusible mesenchymal factor determines the fate of epithelium". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (10): 4601–6. PMC 2842048Freely accessible. PMID 20176958. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909501107. 
  10. ^ Sylva M, Moorman AF, van den Hoff MJ (Mar 2013). "Follistatin-like 1 in vertebrate development". Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today. 99 (1): 61–9. PMID 23723173. doi:10.1002/bdrc.21030. 
  11. ^ a b Sylva M, Li VS, Buffing AA, van Es JH, van den Born M, van der Velden S, Gunst Q, Koolstra JH, Moorman AF, Clevers H, van den Hoff MJ (3 August 2011). "The BMP antagonist follistatin-like 1 is required for skeletal and lung organogenesis". PLOS ONE. 6 (8): e22616. PMC 3149603Freely accessible. PMID 21826198. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022616. 
  12. ^ Xu J, Qi X, Gong J, Yu M, Zhang F, Sha H, Gao X (2012). "Fstl1 antagonizes BMP signaling and regulates ureter development". PLOS ONE. 7 (4): e32554. PMC 3317656Freely accessible. PMID 22485132. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032554. 
  13. ^ Yang Y, Liu J, Mao H, Hu YA, Yan Y, Zhao C (Oct 2009). "The expression pattern of Follistatin-like 1 in mouse central nervous system development". Gene Expression Patterns. 9 (7): 532–40. PMID 19595790. doi:10.1016/j.gep.2009.07.001. 
  14. ^ Chaly Y, Marinov AD, Oxburgh L, Bushnell DS, Hirsch R (Apr 2012). "FSTL1 promotes arthritis in mice by enhancing inflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 64 (4): 1082–8. PMC 3276726Freely accessible. PMID 22006268. doi:10.1002/art.33422. 
  15. ^ Chaly Y, Blair HC, Smith SM, Bushnell DS, Marinov AD, Campfield BT, Hirsch R (Jul 2015). "Follistatin-like protein 1 regulates chondrocyte proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 74 (7): 1467–73. PMID 24641944. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204822. 
  16. ^ Chaly Y, Fu Y, Marinov A, Hostager B, Yan W, Campfield B, Kellum JA, Bushnell D, Wang Y, Vockley J, Hirsch R (May 2014). "Follistatin-like protein 1 enhances NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion from monocytes and macrophages". European Journal of Immunology. 44 (5): 1467–79. PMID 24470197. doi:10.1002/eji.201344063. 
  17. ^ Shimano M, Ouchi N, Nakamura K, van Wijk B, Ohashi K, Asaumi Y, Higuchi A, Pimentel DR, Sam F, Murohara T, van den Hoff MJ, Walsh K (Oct 2011). "Cardiac myocyte follistatin-like 1 functions to attenuate hypertrophy following pressure overload". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (43): E899–906. PMC 3203781Freely accessible. PMID 21987816. doi:10.1073/pnas.1108559108. 
  18. ^ Ogura Y, Ouchi N, Ohashi K, Shibata R, Kataoka Y, Kambara T, Kito T, Maruyama S, Yuasa D, Matsuo K, Enomoto T, Uemura Y, Miyabe M, Ishii M, Yamamoto T, Shimizu Y, Walsh K, Murohara T (Oct 2012). "Therapeutic impact of follistatin-like 1 on myocardial ischemic injury in preclinical models". Circulation. 126 (14): 1728–38. PMC 3548325Freely accessible. PMID 22929303. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.115089. 
  19. ^ Miyabe M, Ohashi K, Shibata R, Uemura Y, Ogura Y, Yuasa D, Kambara T, Kataoka Y, Yamamoto T, Matsuo K, Joki Y, Enomoto T, Hayakawa S, Hiramatsu-Ito M, Ito M, Van Den Hoff MJ, Walsh K, Murohara T, Ouchi N (Jul 2014). "Muscle-derived follistatin-like 1 functions to reduce neointimal formation after vascular injury". Cardiovascular Research. 103 (1): 111–20. PMC 4834864Freely accessible. PMID 24743592. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvu105. 
  20. ^ Wei K, Serpooshan V, Hurtado C, Diez-Cuñado M, Zhao M, Maruyama S, Zhu W, Fajardo G, Noseda M, Nakamura K, Tian X, Liu Q, Wang A, Matsuura Y, Bushway P, Cai W, Savchenko A, Mahmoudi M, Schneider MD, van den Hoff MJ, Butte MJ, Yang PC, Walsh K, Zhou B, Bernstein D, Mercola M, Ruiz-Lozano P (Sep 2015). "Epicardial FSTL1 reconstitution regenerates the adult mammalian heart". Nature. 525 (7570): 479–85. PMC 4762253Freely accessible. PMID 26375005. doi:10.1038/nature15372. 

Further reading[edit]