The gens Fabia was one of the most ancient patrician families at Rome. The gens played a prominent part in history soon after the establishment of the Republic, and three brothers were invested with seven successive consulships, from 485 to 479 BC, thereby cementing the high repute of the family. The house derived its greatest lustre from the patriotic courage and tragic fate of the 306 Fabii in the Battle of the Cremera, 477 BC. But the Fabii were not distinguished as warriors alone; several members of the gens were also important in the history of Roman literature and the arts.
The family is generally thought to have been counted amongst the gentes maiores, the most prominent of the patrician houses at Rome, together with the Aemilii, Claudii, Cornelii, Manlii, and Valerii; but no list of the gentes maiores has survived, and even the number of families so designated is a complete mystery. Until 480 BC, the Fabii were staunch supporters of the aristocratic policies favoring the patricians and the senate against the plebs. However, following a great battle that year against the Veientes, in which victory was achieved only by cooperation between the generals and their soldiers, the Fabii aligned themselves with the people. Throughout the history of the Republic, they were frequently allied with other prominent families against the Claudii, the proudest and most aristocratic of all Roman gentes, and the champions of the established order.
The most famous legend of the Fabii asserts that, following the last of the seven consecutive consulships in 479 BC, the gens undertook the war with Veii as a private obligation. A militia consisting of over three hundred men of the gens, together with their friends and clients, amounting to a total of some four thousand men, took up arms and stationed itself on a hill overlooking the Cremera, a little river between Rome and Veii. The cause of this secession is said to have been the enmity between the Fabii and the patricians, who regarded them as traitors for advocating the causes of the plebeians. The Fabian militia remained in their camp on the Cremera for two years, successfully opposing the Veientes, until at last they were lured into an ambush, and destroyed.
Three hundred and six Fabii of fighting age were said to have perished in the disaster, leaving only a single survivor to return home. By some accounts he was the only survivor of the entire gens; but it seems unlikely that the camp of the Fabii included not only all of the men, but the women and children of the family as well. They and the elders of the gens probably remained at Rome. The day on which the Fabii perished was forever remembered, as it was the same day that the Gauls defeated the Roman army at the Battle of the Allia in 390 BC. This was the fifteenth day before the kalends of Sextilis, or July 18, according to the modern calendar.
The name of the Fabii was associated with one of the two colleges of the Luperci, the priests who carried on the sacred rites of the ancient religious festival of the Lupercalia. The other college bore the name of the Quinctilii, suggesting that in the earliest times these two gentes superintended these rites as a sacrum gentilicum, much as the Pinarii and Potitii maintained the worship of Hercules. Such sacred rites were gradually transferred to the state, or opened to the Roman populus; a well-known legend attributed the destruction of the Potitii to the abandonment of its religious office. In later times the privilege of the Lupercalia had ceased to be confined to the Fabii and the Quinctilii.
One of the thirty-five voting tribes into which the Roman people were divided was named after the Fabii; several tribes were named after important gentes, including the tribes Aemilia, Claudia, Cornelia, Fabia, Papiria, Publilia, Sergia, and Veturia. Several of the others appear to have been named after lesser families.
According to legend, the Fabii claimed descent from Hercules, who visited Italy a generation before the Trojan War, and from Evander, his host. This brought the Fabii into the same tradition as the Pinarii and Potitii, who were said to have welcomed Hercules and learned from him the sacred rites which for centuries afterward they performed in his honor.
Another early legend stated that at the founding of Rome, the followers of the brothers Romulus and Remus were called the Quinctilii and the Fabii, respectively. The brothers were said to have offered up sacrifices in the cave of the Lupercal at the base of the Palatine Hill, which became the origin of the Lupercalia. This story is certainly connected with the tradition that the two colleges of the Luperci bore the names of these ancient gentes.
The nomen of the Fabii is said originally to have been Fovius, Favius, or Fodius; Plinius stated that it was derived from faba, a bean, a vegetable which the Fabii were said to have first cultivated. A more fanciful explanation derives the name from fovae, ditches, which the ancestors of the Fabii were said to have used in order to capture wolves.
It is uncertain whether the Fabii were of Latin or Sabine origin. Niebuhr, followed by Göttling, considered them Sabines. However, other scholars are unsatisfied with their reasoning, and point out that the legend associating the Fabii with Romulus and Remus would place them at Rome before the incorporation of the Sabines into the nascent Roman state.
It may nonetheless be noted that, even supposing this tradition to be based on actual historical events, the followers of the brothers were described as "shepherds," and presumably included many of the people then living in the countryside where the city of Rome was to be built. The hills of Rome were already inhabited at the time of the city's legendary founding, and they stood in the hinterland between the Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans. Even if many the followers of Romulus and Remus were Latins from the ancient city of Alba Longa, many may also have been Sabines already living in the surrounding countryside.
The earliest generations of the Fabii favored the praenomina Caeso, Quintus, and Marcus. Soon after the destruction of the Fabii at the Cremera, the name Numerius first appears in the family. The Fabii were the only patrician family to use this praenomen regularly, although it occasionally appears in other patrician gentes, such as the Furii and Valerii, both of which habitually used old or uncommon praenomina. According to legend, Numerius entered the gens when Quintus Fabius Vibulanus married a daughter of Numerius Octacilius Maleventanus, and bestowed his father-in-law's name on his son.
Although the Fabii Ambusti and some later branches of the family used the praenomen Gaius, Quintus is the name most frequently associated with the Fabii of the later Republic. The Fabii Maximi used it to the exclusion of all other names until the end of the Republic, when they revived the ancient praenomen Paullus. This was done in honor of the Aemilii Paulli, from whom the later Fabii Maximi were descended, having been adopted into the Fabia gens at the end of the 3rd century BC. A variety of surnames associated with the Aemilii were also used by this family, and one of the Fabii was called Africanus Fabius Maximus, although his proper name was Quintus Fabius Maximus Africanus.
Branches and cognomina
The cognomina of the Fabii under the Republic were Ambustus, Buteo, Dorso or Dorsuo, Labeo, Licinus, Maximus (with the agnomina Aemilianus, Allobrogicus, Eburnus, Gurges, Rullianus, Servilianus, and Verrucosus), Pictor, and Vibulanus. Other cognomina belonged to persons who were not, strictly speaking, members of the gens, but who were freedmen or the descendants of freedmen, or who had been enrolled as Roman citizens under the Fabii. The only cognomina appearing on coins are Hispaniensis, Labeo, Maximus, and Pictor.
In imperial times it becomes difficult to distinguish between members of the gens and unrelated persons sharing the same nomen. Members of the gens are known as late as the 2nd century, but persons bearing the name of Fabius continue to appear into the latest period of the Empire.
The eldest branch of the Fabii bore the cognomen Vibulanus, which may allude to an ancestral home of the gens. The surname Ambustus, meaning "burnt", replaced Vibulanus at the end of the 5th century BC; the first of the Fabii to be called Ambustus was a descendant of the Vibulani. The most celebrated stirps of the Fabia gens, which bore the surname Maximus, was in turn descended from the Fabii Ambusti. This family was famous for its statesmen and its military exploits, which lasted from the Samnite Wars, in the 4th century BC until the wars with the Germanic invaders of the 2nd century BC. Most, if not all of the later Fabii Maximi were descendants of Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, one of the Aemilii Paulli, who as a child was adopted into that illustrious family.[i]
Buteo, signifying a kind of hawk, was originally given to a member of the Fabia gens because such a bird on one occasion settled upon his ship with a favorable omen. This tradition, related by Plinius, does not indicate which of the Fabii first obtained this surname, but it was probably one of the Fabii Ambusti.
The surname Pictor, borne by another family of the Fabii, signifies a painter, and the earliest known member of this family was indeed a painter, famed for his work in the temple of Salus, built by Gaius Junius Bubulcus Brutus between 307 and 302 BC. The later members of this family, several of whom were distinguished in the arts, appear to have been his descendants, and must have taken their cognomen from this ancestor.
- Caeso Fabius Vibulanus, father of Quintus, Caeso, and Marcus, consuls from 485 to 479 BC.
- Quintus Fabius K. f. Vibulanus, consul in 485 and 482 BC.
- Caeso Fabius K.f. Vibulanus, consul in 484, 481, and 479 BC.
- Marcus Fabius K. f. Vibulanus, consul in 483 and 480 BC.
- Quintus Fabius M. f. K. n. Vibulanus, consul in 467, 465, and 459 BC, and a member of the second decemvirate in 450; triumphed over the Aequi and Volsci.
- Marcus Fabius Q. f. M. n. Vibulanus, consul in 442 and tribunus militum consulari potestate in 433 BC.
- Numerius Fabius Q. f. M. n. Vibulanus, consul in 421, and tribunus militum consulari potestate in 415 and 407 BC.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. M. n. Vibulanus, consul in 423 and tribunus militum consulari potestate in 416 and 414 BC.
- Quintus Fabius M. f. Q. n. Vibulanus Ambustus, consul in 412 BC.
- Quintus Fabius M. f. Q. n. Vibulanus Ambustus, consul in 412 BC.
- Caeso Fabius M. f. Q. n. Ambustus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 404, 401, 395, and 390 BC.
- Numerius Fabius M. f. Q. n. Ambustus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 406 and 390 BC.
- Quintus Fabius M. f. Q. n. Ambustus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 390 BC.
- Marcus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Ambustus, pontifex maximus in 390 BC.
- Marcus Fabius K. f. M. n. Ambustus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 381 and 369 BC, and censor in 363; supported the lex Licinia Sextia, which granted the plebeians the right to hold the consulship.
- Fabia M. f. K. n., married Servius Sulpicius Praetextatus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 377, 376, 370, and 368 BC.
- Fabia M. f. K. n., married Gaius Licinius Calvus Stolo, consul in 364 and 361 BC.
- Marcus Fabius N. f. M. n. Ambustus, consul in 360, 356, and 354 BC, princeps senatus triumphed over the Tiburtines.
- Gaius Fabius N. f. M. n. Ambustus, consul in 358 BC.
- Marcus Fabius M. f. N. n. Ambustus, magister equitum in 322 BC.
- Quintus Fabius Ambustus, nominated dictator in 321 BC, but compelled to resign due to a fault in the auspices.
- Gaius Fabius M. f. N. n. Ambustus, appointed magister equitum in 315 BC, in place of Quintus Aulius, who fell in battle.
Fabii Dorsuones et Licini
- Gaius Fabius Dorsuo, bravely left the Capitoline Hill to perform a sacrifice when Rome was occupied by the Gauls following the Battle of the Allia in 390 BC, eluding the Gallic sentries both on his departure and his return.
- Marcus Fabius (C. f.) Dorsuo, consul in 345 BC, carried on the war against the Volsci and captured Sora.
- Gaius Fabius M. f. M. n. Dorsuo Licinus, consul in 273 BC, died during his year of office.
- Marcus Fabius C. f. M. n. Licinus, consul in 246 BC.
- Quintus Fabius M. f. N. n. Maximus Rullianus, consul in 322, 310, 308, 297, and 295 BC, dictator in 315 and censor in 304, princeps senatus; triumphed in 322 and 295.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. M. n. Maximus Gurges, consul in 292, 276, and 265 BC, princeps senatus; triumphed in 292, 291, and 276.
- Quintus Fabius (Q. f. Q. n.) Maximus, aedile in 265 BC, assaulted the ambassadors of Apollonia, and was remanded to the custody of the Apolloniates, but was dismissed unharmed.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Verrucosus, afterwards surnamed Cunctator, consul in 233, 228, 215, 214 and 209 BC, censor in 230, and dictator in 221 and 217, princeps senatus; triumphed in 233.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus, consul in 213 BC.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus, appointed augur in 203 BC.
- Quintus Fabius Maximus, praetor peregrinus in 181 BC.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Aemilianus, consul in 145 BC, the son of Lucius Aemilius Paullus, conqueror of Macedonia; as a child he was adopted by Quintus Fabius Maximus the praetor.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Allobrogicus, consul in 121 BC, and censor in 108; triumphed over the Allobroges.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Allobrogicus, son of the consul of 121 BC; remarkable only for his vices.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Servilianus, consul in 142 BC.
- Quintus Fabius Maximus Eburnus, consul in 116 BC, he condemned one of his sons to death; being accused by Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, he went into exile.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus, legate of Caesar, and consul suffectus in 45 BC.
- Paullus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus, consul in 11 BC.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Africanus, sometimes called Africanus Fabius Maximus, consul in 10 BC.
- Paullus Fabius Paulli f. Q. n. Persicus, consul in AD 34.
- Gaius Fabius M. f. Pictor, painted the interior of the temple of Salus, dedicated in 302 BC.
- Gaius Fabius C. f. M. n. Pictor, consul in 269 BC.
- Numerius Fabius C. f. M. n. Pictor, consul in 266 BC, triumphed over the Sassinates, and again over the Sallentini and Messapii.
- Quintus Fabius C. f. C. n. Pictor, the earliest of the Latin historians, he was an important source for later annalists, but most of his own work has been lost.
- Quintus Fabius (Q. f. C. n.) Pictor, praetor in 189 BC, received Sardinia as his province, but was compelled by the pontifex maximus to remain at Rome, because he was Flamen Quirinalis; his abdication was rejected by the senate, which designated him praetor peregrinus.
- Servius Fabius (Q. f. Q. n.) Pictor, an annalist and antiquarian of the 2nd century BC.
- Numerius Fabius Q. f. Pictor, father of the triumvir monetalis.
- Numerius Fabius N. f. Q. n. Pictor, triumvir monetalis in 126 BC, was probably also Flamen Quirinalis.
- Numerius Fabius M. f. M. n. Buteo, consul in 247 BC, during the First Punic War.
- Marcus Fabius M. f. M. n. Buteo, consul in 245 BC, censor, probably in 241; appointed dictator in 216 to fill the vacancies in the senate after the Battle of Cannae.
- Fabius M. f. M. n. Buteo, according to Orosius, accused of theft, and slain in consequence by his own father.
- Marcus Fabius Buteo, praetor in 201 BC, obtained Sardinia as his province.
- Quintus Fabius Buteo, praetor in 196 BC, obtained the province of Hispania Ulterior.
- Quintus Fabius Buteo, praetor in 181 BC, obtained Gallia Cisalpina as his province.
- Numerius Fabius Buteo, praetor in 173 BC, obtained the province of Hispania Citerior, but died at Massilia on his way to his province.
- Quintus Fabius Buteo, quaestor in 134 BC; apparently the son of Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, and nephew of Scipio Aemilianus, by whom he was entrusted with the command of four thousand volunteers during the Numantine War.
- Quintus Fabius Q. f. Labeo, consul in 183 BC, triumphed in 189.
- Gaius Fabius Hadrianus, governor of Africa circa 87 to 84 BC; his government was so oppressive that the colonists and merchants at Utica burnt him to death in his own praetorium.
- Fabius Dorsennus, a Latin comic playwright, whose style and care was criticized by Quintus Horatius Flaccus.
- Quintus Fabius Sanga, warned Cicero about the conspiracy of Catiline, after being informed by the ambassadors of the Allobroges.
- Quintus Fabius Vergilianus, legate of Appius Claudius Pulcher in Cilicia in 51 BC; during the Civil War, he espoused the cause of Pompeius.
- Fabius Rusticus, a historian of the mid-1st century AD, frequently quoted by Tacitus on the life of Nero.
- Fabius Fabullus, legate of the fifth legion, chosen as a leader of the soldiers who mutinied against Aulus Caecina Alienus in AD 69; perhaps the same man to whom the murder of the emperor Galba was attributed.
- Gaius Fabius Valens, one of the principal generals of Vitellius, and consul suffectus ex kal. Sept. in AD 69.
- Fabius Priscus, one of the legates sent against Civilis in AD 70.
- Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, the most celebrated of Roman rhetoricians, granted the insignia and title of consul by Domitian.
- Fabius Justus, a distinguished rhetorician, and a friend of both Tacitus and the younger Pliny.
- Lucius Julius Gainius Fabius Agrippa. A Roman descendant of the Herodian dynasty, gymnasiarch of Apamea and one of the most prominent citizens of the city in the 110s. Possibly an ancestor to usurper Jotapianus, though it is unclear if the initial "F." in Jotapianus' name stands for "Fabius".
- Ceionia Fabia, an adoptive granddaughter of Hadrian, and sister of the emperor Lucius Verus. Her name indicates descent from the gens Fabia, though her ancestry is obscure.
- Quintus Fabius Catullinus, consul in AD 130.
- Fabius Cornelius Repentinus, appointed praefectus praetorio in the reign of Antoninus Pius.
- Fabius Mela, an eminent jurist, probably of the mid-2nd century.
- Lucius Fabius Cilo Septimianus, consul suffectus in AD 193 and consul in 204.
- Fabius Sabinus, one of the consiliarii of Alexander Severus, perhaps the same Sabinus later driven out of Rome by order of Elagabalus.
- Fabia Orestilla, supposedly the wife of Gordian I, and mother of his children. Her name appears only in the Augustan History.
- Quintus Fabius Clodius Agrippianus Celsinus, Proconsul of Caria in 249.
- Fabianus, Pope from 236 to 250. Supposedly of noble Roman birth, his father's name was reportedly Fabius.
- Titus Fabius Titianus, consul in AD 337.
- Fabius Aconius Catullinus Philomathius, Praetorian Prefect of Italy in 341-342.
- Aconia Fabia Paulina, a pagan priestess during the late fourth century, wife of Vettius Agorius Praetextatus.
- Saint Fabiola, a Christian ascetic of the late fourth century, she was later declared a saint.
- Quintus Fabius Memmius Symmachus, a politician of the late fourth and early fifth century, who was appointed Quaestor at the age of ten. Possibly a pagan, he was alleged to have built a temple to Flora.
- Fabius Planciades Fulgentius, a Latin grammarian, probably not earlier than the sixth century.
- Fabia Eudocia, first empress-consort of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius. She was born in the Exarchate of Africa, and died in AD 612, reportedly due to epilepsy. One of her two known children was Constantine III.
- Although some sources state that they were adopted by Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, who died in 203 BC, it has been argued that their father, Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, as the only surviving member of the Aemilii Paulli following the Battle of Cannae, would not have allowed his two elder children to be adopted out of the gens until after the birth of his two younger sons, circa 180–177 BC.
- Livy, Ab urbe condita, ii. 42
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, Editor.
- Leon Homo (17 June 2013). Roman Political Institutions. Routledge. pp. 7–. ISBN 978-1-136-19811-3.
- C. J. Smith (9 March 2006). The Roman Clan: The Gens from Ancient Ideology to Modern Anthropology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 290–. ISBN 978-0-521-85692-8.
- Livy, ii. 46, 47.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia, ix. 11, 13.
- Livy, ii. 48-50.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, ix. 15-23.
- Livy, ii. 50; vi. 1.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, ix. 22.
- Ovid, Fasti, ii. 237.
- Plutarch, Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, "Camillus", 19.
- Tacitus, Historiae, ii. 91.
- Barthold Georg Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. ii. p. 194.
- Cicero, Philippicae, ii. 34, xiii. 15, Pro Caelio, 26.
- Sextus Aurelius Propertius, Elegies, iv. 26.
- Plutarch, "Caesar", 61.
- Ovid, Fasti, ii. 237; ex Ponticae iii. 3. 99.
- Juvenal, Satires, viii. 14.
- Plutarch, "Fabius Maximus", 1.
- Paulus Diaconus, epitome of Festus, De Significatu Verborum (epitome of Marcus Verrius Flaccus), ed. Karl Otfried Müller s. v. Favii.
- Ovid, Fasti, ii. 361f, 375f.
- Sextus Aurelius Victor, De Origo Gentis Romanae (attributed), 22.
- Plutarch, "Romulus", 22.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac Dictorum Memorabilium libri IX, ii. 2. § 9.
- Pliny the Elder, Historia Naturalis, xviii. 3.
- Niebuhr, History of Rome.
- Karl Wilhelm Göttling, Geschichte der Römische Staatsverfassung (1840), pp. 109, 194.
- Festus, epitome of Flaccus, s. v. Numerius, pp. 170, 173, ed. Müller.
- Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft.
- Joseph Hilarius Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum Veterum, vol. v. p. 209 ff.
- Pliny, Historia Naturalis, x. 8. § 10.
- D.P. Simpson, Cassell's Latin & English Dictionary (1963).
- Livy, ii. 41-43, 46; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, viii. 77, 82, 90, ix. 11.
- Livy, ii. 41-43, 46, 47-50; Dionysius of Halicarnassus], viii. 77ff, 82-86, ix. 1ff, 11, 13-22; Joannes Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum, vii. 17; Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium, ix. 3. § 5; Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, xvii. 21; Ovid, Fasti, ii. 195ff; Cassius Dio, Roman History, fragment no. 26, ed. Reim; Sextus Pompeius Festus, epitome of Flaccus, s. v. Scerlerata porta; Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. ii. p. 177ff; Göttling, Geschichte der Römische Staatsverfassung, p. 308; Becker, Handbuch der Römischen Alterhümer, vol. ii. part ii. p. 93.
- Livy, ii. 42-47; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, viii. 87, 88, ix. 5-13, 15; Sextus Julius Frontinus, Strategemata, i. 11. § 1; Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium, v. 5. § 2.
- Livy, iii. 1-3, 9, 22-25, 35, 41, 58; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, ix. 59, 61, 69, x. 20-22, 58, xi. 23, 46.
- Livy, iv. 11, 17, 19, 25, 27, 28, v. 41; Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica, xii. 34, 58.
- Livy, iv. 43, 49, 58; Diodorus Siculus, xiii. 24, xiv. 3.
- Livy, iv. 37, 49, 51; Diodorus Siculus, xiii. 9, 38.
- Livy, iv. 52.
- Livy, iv. 54, 61, v. 10, 24, 35, 36, 41.
- Plutarch, "Camillus", 17.
- Livy, iv. 58, v. 35, 36, 41.
- Livy, v. 35, 36, 41.
- Livy, vi. 22, 34, 36.
- Fasti Capitolini.
- Livy, vi. 34.
- Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum, vii. 24.
- Aurelius Victor, De Viris Illustribus, 20.
- Livy, vii. 11, 17, 22, viii. 33.
- Fasti Triumphales.
- Livy, vii. 12.
- Livy, viii. 38.
- Livy, ix. 7.
- Livy, ix. 23.
- Livy, v. 46, 52.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium, i. 1. § 11.
- Livy, vii. 28.
- Diodorus Siculus, xvi. 66.
- Marcus Velleius Paterculus, Compendium of Roman History, i. 14.
- Eutropius, Breviarium historiae Romanae, ii. 15.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium, vi. 6. § 5.
- Livy, Epitome, xv.
- Cassius Dio, Fragment 43.
- Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum, viii. 8.
- Livy, xxiv. 9, 11, 12, 20, 43-45, 46, xxviii. 9.
- Plutarch, "Fabius Maximus", 24.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Natura Deorum, iii. 32; Tusculanae Quaestiones, iii. 28; Cato Maior de Senectute, 4; Epistulae ad Familiares, iv. 6.
- Livy, xxx. 26; xxxiii. 42.
- Livy, xl. 19; xxxix. 29.
- Cicero, Tusculanae Quaestiones, i. 33.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium, iii. 5. § 2.
- Appian, Hispanica, 70; Iberica, 67.
- Paulus Orosius, Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII, v. 4.
- Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum, xii. 5.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium, vi. 1. § 5, viii. 5. § 1.
- Cicero, De Oratore, i. 26, Pro Balbo, 11.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium, vi. 1. § 5.
- Paulus Orosius, Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII, v. 16.
- Cicero, In Vatinium Testem, 11; Epistulae ad Familiares, vii. 30.
- Gaius Julius Caesar (attributed), De Bello Hispaniensis, 2, 41.
- Cassius Dio, xliii. 42, 46.
- Pliny the Elder, vii. 53.
- Livy, Epitome, 116.
- Pliny, Historia Naturalis, xxxv. 4. s. 7.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium, viii. 14. § 6.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 16.6.
- Cicero, Tusculanae Quaestiones, i. 2. § 4.
- Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. iii. § 356.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium, iv. 3. § 9.
- Livy, xxxvii. 47, 50, 51; 45.44.
- Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum, viii. 16.
- Livy, xxiii. 22, 23.
- Plutarch, "Fabius Maximus", 9.
- Orosius, Historiarum Adversum Paganos, iv. 13.
- Livy, xxx. 26, 40.
- Livy, xxiii. 24, 26.
- Livy, xl. 18, 36, 43; xlv.13.
- Livy, xli. 33,; xlii. 1, 4.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium, viii. 15. § 4.
- Appian, Hispanica, 84.
- Livy, xxxiii. 42; xxxvii. 47, 50, 60; xxxviii. 39, 47, xxxix. 32, 44, 45, xl. 42.
- Cicero, De Officiis, i. 10.
- Cicero, In Verrem, i. 27, v. 36.
- Pseudo-Asconius, in Verr. p. 179, ed. Orelli.
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica, Fragmenta Vaticana’’, p. 138, ed. Dind.
- Livy, Epitome, 86.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium, ix. 10. § 2.
- Orosius, Historiarum Adversum Paganos, v. 20.
- Horace, Epistulae, ii. 1. 173.
- Pliny, Historia Naturalis, xiv. 15.
- Seneca the Younger, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, 89.
- Sallust, The Conspiracy of Catiline, 41.
- Appian, Bellum Civile, ii. 4.
- Cicero, In Pisonem, 31.
- Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, iii. 3, 4, Epistulae ad Atticum, viii. 11.
- Tacitus, Agricola, 10.
- Plutarch, "Galba", 27.
- Tacitus, Historiae i. 44, iii. 14.
- Tacitus, Historiae, iv. 79.
- Tacitus, Dialogus de Oratoribus.
- Pliny the Younger, Epistulae, i. 11, vii. 2.
- Julius Capitolinus, Antoninus Pius, 8.
- Digesta seu Pandectae, 46. tit. 3. s. 39, 50 tit. 16. s. 207, 9. tit. 2. s. 11, 19. tit. 1. s. 17, tit. 9. s. 3.
- Cassius Dio, Roman History, lxxvii. 4, lxxviii. 11.
- Aelius Spartianus, Caracalla, 4.
- Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus, 20.
- Aelius Lampridius, Alexander Severus, c. 68, Elagabalus, c. 16.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.