Type of site
|Social networking service|
|Available in||111 languages|
|Area served||Worldwide, except blocking countries|
|Alexa rank||6 (As of 5 September 2020[update])|
|Registration||Required to do any activity|
|Users||2.70 billion monthly active users (As of 31 June 2020[update])|
|Launched||February 4, 2004|
|Written in||C++, PHP (as HHVM), D|
Facebook (stylized as facebook) is an American online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California, and a flagship service of the namesake company Facebook, Inc. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes.
The founders initially limited Facebook membership to Harvard students. Membership was expanded to Columbia, Stanford, and Yale before being expanded to the rest of the Ivy League, MIT, and higher education institutions in the Boston area, then various other universities, and lastly high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though this may vary depending on local laws. The name comes from the face book directories often given to American university students.
Facebook can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers, tablets and smartphones. After registering, users can create a profile revealing information about themselves. They can post text, photos and multimedia which is shared with any other users that have agreed to be their "friend", or, with a different privacy setting, with any reader. Users can also use various embedded apps, join common-interest groups, buy and sell items or services on Marketplace, and receive notifications of their Facebook friends' activities and activities of Facebook pages they follow. Facebook claimed that it had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018, and it was the most downloaded mobile app of the 2010s globally.
Facebook has been the subject of numerous controversies, often involving user privacy (as with the Cambridge Analytica data scandal), political manipulation (as with the 2016 U.S. elections), psychological effects such as addiction and low self-esteem, and content such as fake news, conspiracy theories, copyright infringement, and hate speech. Commentators have accused Facebook of willingly facilitating the spread of such content.
2003–2006: Thefacebook, Thiel investment, and name change
Zuckerberg built a website called "Facemash" in 2003 while attending Harvard University. The site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online face books of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person". Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. The site was sent to several campus group listservs, but was shut down a few days later by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy. Ultimately, the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam. He uploaded all art images to a website, each of which was accompanied by a comments section, then shared the site with his classmates.
A "face book" is a student directory featuring photos and personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Zuckerberg told The Harvard Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard. ... I think it's kind of silly that it would take the University a couple of years to get around to it. I can do it better than they can, and I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is readily available ... the benefits are many." Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, and each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com.
Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They later sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares (worth $300 million at Facebook's IPO).
Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia, Stanford and Yale. It then became available to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. In June 2004, the company moved to Palo Alto, California. It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name Facebook.com for US$200,000. The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation.
In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. Eligibility expanded to include employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft.
2006–2012: Public access, Microsoft alliance, and rapid growth
In May 2006, Facebook hired its first intern, Julie Zhuo. After a month, Zhuo was hired as a full-time engineer. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages on which companies promoted themselves. Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion. Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international advertisements.
In May 2007, at the first f8 developers conference, Facebook announced the launch of the Facebook Developer Platform, providing a framework for software developers to create applications that interact with core Facebook features. By the second annual f8 developers conference on July 23, 2008, the number of applications on the platform had grown to 33,000, and the number of registered developers had exceeded 400,000.
In October 2008, Facebook announced that its international headquarters would locate in Dublin, Ireland. In September 2009, Facebook said that it had achieved positive cash flow for the first time. A January 2009 Compete.com study ranked Facebook the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users.
The company announced 500 million users in July 2010. Half of the site's membership used Facebook daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site from mobile devices. A company representative called the milestone a "quiet revolution." In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc. (an exchange for privately held companies' shares), Facebook's value was $41 billion. The company had slightly surpassed eBay to become the third largest American web company after Google and Amazon.com.
On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5 million in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history.
In February 2011, Facebook announced plans to move its headquarters to the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park, California. In March 2011, it was reported that Facebook was removing about 20,000 profiles daily for violations such as spam, graphic content and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber security. Statistics showed that Facebook reached one trillion page views in the month of June 2011, making it the most visited website tracked by DoubleClick. According to a Nielsen study, Facebook had in 2011 become the second-most accessed website in the U.S. behind Google.
China blocked Facebook in 2009.
2012–2013: IPO, lawsuits, and one-billionth user
Facebook's initial public offering came on May 17, 2012, at a share price of US$38. The company was valued at $104 billion, the largest valuation to that date. The IPO raised $16 billion, the third-largest in U.S. history, after Visa Inc. in 2008 and AT&T Wireless in 2000. Based on its 2012 income of $5 billion, Facebook joined the Fortune 500 list for the first time in May 2013, ranked 462. The shares set a first day record for trading volume of an IPO (460 million shares). The IPO was controversial given the immediate price declines that followed, and was the subject of lawsuits, while SEC and FINRA both launched investigations.
Zuckerberg announced at the start of October 2012 that Facebook had one billion monthly active users, including 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads and 140 billion friend connections.
2013–2014: Site developments, A4AI, and 10th anniversary
On January 15, 2013, Facebook announced Facebook Graph Search, which provides users with a "precise answer", rather than a link to an answer by leveraging data present on its site. Facebook emphasized that the feature would be "privacy-aware", returning results only from content already shared with the user. On April 3, 2013, Facebook unveiled Facebook Home, a user-interface layer for Android devices offering greater integration with the site. HTC announced HTC First, a phone with Home pre-loaded.
On April 15, 2013, Facebook announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of Attorneys General, to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social networking profiles. On April 19 Facebook modified its logo to remove the faint blue line at the bottom of the "F" icon. The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box.
Following a campaign by 100 advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate speech. The campaign highlighted content promoting domestic violence and sexual violence against women and led 15 advertisers to withdrawal, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque and Nationwide UK. The company initially stated, "while it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our policies". It took action on May 29.
On June 12, Facebook announced that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending discussions, or search what others are talking about on a topic. San Mateo County, California, became the top wage-earning county in the country after the fourth quarter of 2012 because of Facebook. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the average salary was 107% higher than the previous year, at $168,000 a year, more than 50% higher than the next-highest county, New York County (better known as Manhattan), at roughly $110,000 a year.
Facebook joined Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) in October, as it launched. The A4AI is a coalition of public and private organizations that includes Google, Intel and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable to ease access in the developing world.
The company celebrated its 10th anniversary during the week of February 3, 2014. In January 2014, over one billion users connected via a mobile device. As of June, mobile accounted for 62% of advertising revenue, an increase of 21% from the previous year. By September Facebook's market capitalization had exceeded $200 billion.
Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin. Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the "Internet czar" for his influence in China's online policy, on December 8.
2015–present: Improvement; fake news, and other external misusage
As of 2015[update], Facebook's algorithm was revised in an attempt to filter out false or misleading content, such as fake news stories and hoaxes. It relied on users who flag a story accordingly. Facebook maintained that satirical content should not be intercepted. The algorithm was accused of maintaining a "filter bubble", where material the user disagrees with and posts with few likes would be deprioritized. In November, Facebook extended paternity leave from 4 weeks to 4 months.
On April 12, 2016, Zuckerberg outlined his 10-year vision, which rested on three main pillars: artificial intelligence, increased global connectivity, and virtual and augmented reality. In July, a US$1 billion suit was filed against the company alleging that it permitted Hamas to use it to perform assaults that cost the lives of four people. Facebook released its blueprints of Surround 360 camera on GitHub under an open-source license. In September, it won an Emmy for its animated short "Henry". In October, Facebook announced a fee-based communications tool called Workplace that aims to "connect everyone" at work. Users can create profiles, see updates from co-workers on their news feed, stream live videos and participate in secure group chats.
Following the 2016 presidential election, Facebook announced that it would combat fake news by using fact-checkers from sites like FactCheck.org and Associated Press (AP), making reporting hoaxes easier through crowdsourcing, and disrupting financial incentives for abusers.
On January 17, 2017, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg planned to open Station F, a startup incubator campus in Paris, France. On a six-month cycle, Facebook committed to work with ten to 15 data-driven startups there. On April 18, Facebook announced the beta launch of Facebook Spaces at its annual F8 developer conference. Facebook Spaces is a virtual reality version of Facebook for Oculus VR goggles. In a virtual and shared space, users can access a curated selection of 360-degree photos and videos using their avatar, with the support of the controller. Users can access their own photos and videos, along with media shared on their newsfeed. In September, Facebook announced it would spend up to US$1 billion on original shows for its Facebook Watch platform. On October 16, it acquired the anonymous compliment app tbh, announcing its intention to leave the app independent.
In May 2018 at F8, the company announced it would offer its own dating service. Shares in competitor Match Group fell by 22%. Facebook Dating includes privacy features and friends are unable to view their friends' dating profile. In July, Facebook was charged £500,000 by UK watchdogs for failing to respond to data erasure requests. On July 18, Facebook established a subsidiary named Lianshu Science & Technology in Hangzhou City, China, with $30 million of capital. All its shares are held by Facebook Hong. Approval of the registration of the subsidiary was then withdrawn, due to a disagreement between officials in Zhejiang province and the Cyberspace Administration of China. On July 26, Facebook became the first company to lose over $100 billion worth of market capitalization in one day, dropping from nearly $630 billion to $510 billion after disappointing sales reports. On July 31, Facebook said that the company had deleted 17 accounts related to the 2018 U.S. midterm elections. On September 19, Facebook announced that, for news distribution outside the United States, it would work with U.S. funded democracy promotion organizations, International Republican Institute and the National Democratic Institute, which are loosely affiliated with the Republican and Democratic parties. Through the Digital Forensic Research Lab Facebook partners with the Atlantic Council, a NATO-affiliated think tank. In November, Facebook launched smart displays branded Portal and Portal Plus (Portal+). They support Amazon's Alexa (intelligent personal assistant service). The devices include video chat function with Facebook Messenger.
Criticized for its role in vaccine hesitancy, Facebook announced in March 2019 that it would provide users with "authoritative information" on the topic of vaccines. A study in the journal Vaccine of advertisements posted in the three months prior to that found that 54% of the anti-vaccine advertisements on Facebook were placed by just two organisations funded by well-known anti-vaccination activists. The Children's Health Defense / World Mercury Project chaired by Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and Stop Mandatory Vaccination, run by campaigner Larry Cook, posted 54% of the advertisements. The ads often linked to commercial products, such as natural remedies and books.
On March 14, the Huffington Post reported that Facebook's PR agency had paid someone to tweak Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg's Wikipedia page, as well as adding a page for the global head of PR, Caryn Marooney.
In March 2019, the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand used Facebook to stream live footage of the attack as it unfolded. Facebook took 29 minutes to detect the livestreamed video, which was eight minutes longer than it took police to arrest the gunman. About 1.3m copies of the video were blocked from Facebook but 300,000 copies were published and shared. Facebook has promised changes to its platform; spokesman Simon Dilner told Radio New Zealand that it could have done a better job. Several companies, including the ANZ and ASB banks, have stopped advertising on Facebook after the company was widely condemned by the public. Following the attack, Facebook began blocking white nationalist, white supremacist, and white separatist content, saying that they could not be meaningfully separated. Previously, Facebook had only blocked overtly supremacist content. The older policy had been condemned by civil rights groups, who described these movements as functionally indistinct. Further bans were made in mid-April 2019, banning several British far-right organizations and associated individuals from Facebook, and also banning praise or support for them.
NTJ's member Moulavi Zahran Hashim, a radical Islamist imam believed to be the mastermind behind the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings, preached on a pro-ISIL Facebook account, known as "Al-Ghuraba" media.
On May 2, 2019 at F8, the company announced its new vision with the tagline "the future is private". A redesign of the website and mobile app was introduced, dubbed as "FB5". The event also featured plans for improving groups, a dating platform, end-to-end encryption on its platforms, and allowing users on Messenger to communicate directly with WhatsApp and Instagram users.
On July 31, 2019, Facebook announced a partnership with University of California, San Francisco to build a non-invasive, wearable device that lets people type by simply imagining themselves talking.
Facebook News, which features selected stories from news organizations, was launched on October 25. Facebook's decision to include far-right website Breitbart News as a "trusted source" was negatively received.
On November 17, 2019, the banking data for 29,000 Facebook employees was stolen from a payroll worker's car. The data was stored on unencrypted hard drives and included bank account numbers, employee names, the last four digits of their social security numbers, salaries, bonuses, and equity details. The company didn't realize the hard drives were missing until November 20. Facebook confirmed that the drives contained employee information on November 29. Employees weren't notified of the break-in until December 13, 2019.
On March 10, 2020, Facebook appointed two new directors Tracey Travis and Nancy Killefer to their board of members.
In June 2020, several major companies including Adidas, Aviva, Coca-Cola, Ford, HP, Intercontinental Hotels Group, Mars, Starbucks, Target, and Unilever, announced they would pause adverts on Facebook for July in support of the Stop Hate for Profit campaign which claimed the company was not doing enough to remove hateful content. The BBC noted that this was unlikely to affect the company as most of Facebook's advertising revenue comes from small- to medium-sized businesses.
On 14 August 2020, Facebook started integrating the direct messaging service of Instagram with its own Messenger for both iOS and Android devices. After the update, an update screen is said to pop up on Instagram’s mobile app with the following message, “There’s a New Way to Message on Instagram” with a list of additional features. As part of the update, the regular DM icon on the top right corner of Instagram will be replaced by the Facebook Messenger logo.
On 15 September 2020, Facebook launched a climate science information centre to promote authoritative voices on climate change and provide access of “factual and up-to-date” information on climate science. It featured facts, figures and data from organizations, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Met Office, UN Environment Programme (UNEP), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO), with relevant news posts.
This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. The reason given is: Facebook no longer uses HipHop for PHP. (August 2020)
The website's primary color is blue as Zuckerberg is red–green colorblind, a realization that occurred after a test undertaken around 2007. Facebook is built in PHP, compiled with HipHop for PHP, a "source code transformer" built by Facebook engineers that turns PHP into C++. The deployment of HipHop reportedly reduced average CPU consumption on Facebook servers by 50%.
Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. According to an interview in 2012 with Facebook build engineer Chuck Rossi, Facebook compiles into a 1.5 GB binary blob which is then distributed to the servers using a custom BitTorrent-based release system. Rossi stated that it takes about 15 minutes to build and 15 minutes to release to the servers. The build and release process has zero downtime. Changes to Facebook are rolled out daily.
Facebook used a combination platform based on HBase to store data across distributed machines. Using a tailing architecture, events are stored in log files, and the logs are tailed. The system rolls these events up and writes them to storage. The user interface then pulls the data out and displays it to users. Facebook handles requests as AJAX behavior. These requests are written to a log file using Scribe (developed by Facebook).
Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe stores. It tails the log files and pulls data out. Ptail data are separated into three streams and sent to clusters in different data centers (Plugin impression, News feed impressions, Actions (plugin + news feed)). Puma is used to manage periods of high data flow (Input/Output or IO). Data is processed in batches to lessen the number of times needed to read and write under high demand periods (A hot article generates many impressions and news feed impressions that cause huge data skews). Batches are taken every 1.5 seconds, limited by memory used when creating a hash table.
Data is then output in PHP format. The backend is written in Java. Thrift is used as the messaging format so PHP programs can query Java services. Caching solutions display pages more quickly. The data is then sent to MapReduce servers where it is queried via Hive. This serves as a backup as the data can be recovered from Hive.
Content delivery network (CDN)
On March 20, 2014, Facebook announced a new open-source programming language called Hack. Before public release, a large portion of Facebook was already running and "battle tested" using the new language.
On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a cleaner look. Facebook began migrating users to the new version in September 2008.
User profile/personal timeline
Each registered user on Facebook has a personal profile that shows their posts and content. The format of individual user pages was revamped in September 2011 and became known as "Timeline", a chronological feed of a user's stories, including status updates, photos, interactions with apps and events. The layout let users add a "cover photo". Users were given more privacy settings. In 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Pages for brands and celebrities to interact with their fanbase. 100,000 Pages launched in November. In June 2009, Facebook introduced a "Usernames" feature, allowing users to choose a unique nickname used in the URL for their personal profile, for easier sharing.
In February 2014, Facebook expanded the gender setting, adding a custom input field that allows users to choose from a wide range of gender identities. Users can also set which set of gender-specific pronoun should be used in reference to them throughout the site. In May 2014, Facebook introduced a feature to allow users to ask for information not disclosed by other users on their profiles. If a user does not provide key information, such as location, hometown, or relationship status, other users can use a new "ask" button to send a message asking about that item to the user in a single click.
News Feed appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events and friends' birthdays. This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause. Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, others were concerned that it made it too easy for others to track individual activities (such as relationship status changes, events, and conversations with other users). Zuckerberg apologized for the site's failure to include appropriate privacy features. Users then gained control over what types of information are shared automatically with friends. Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts and newly added friends.
On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a patent on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the activity of another user. The sorting and display of stories in a user's News Feed is governed by the EdgeRank algorithm.
The Photos application allows users to upload albums and photos. Each album can contain 200 photos. Privacy settings apply to individual albums. Users can "tag", or label, friends in a photo. The friend receives a notification about the tag with a link to the photo. This photo tagging feature was developed by Aaron Sittig, now a Design Strategy Lead at Facebook, and former Facebook engineer Scott Marlette back in 2006 and was only granted a patent in 2011.
On June 7, 2012, Facebook launched its App Center to help users find games and other applications.
In January 2017, Facebook launched Facebook Stories for iOS and Android in Ireland. The feature, following the format of Snapchat and Instagram stories, allows users to upload photos and videos that appear above friends' and followers' News Feeds and disappear after 24 hours.
On October 11, 2017, Facebook introduced the 3D Posts feature to allow for uploading interactive 3D assets. On January 11, 2018, Facebook announced that it would change News Feed to prioritize friends/family content and de-emphasize content from media companies.
The "like" button, stylized as a "thumbs up" icon, was first enabled on February 9, 2009, and enables users to easily interact with status updates, comments, photos and videos, links shared by friends, and advertisements. Once clicked by a user, the designated content is more likely to appear in friends' News Feeds. The button displays the number of other users who have liked the content. The like button was extended to comments in June 2010. In February 2016, Facebook expanded Like into "Reactions", choosing among five pre-defined emotions, including "Love", "Haha", "Wow", "Sad", or "Angry". In late April 2020, during the coronavirus pandemic, a new "Care" reaction was added.
Facebook Messenger is an instant messaging service and software application. It began as Facebook Chat in 2008, was revamped in 2010 and eventually became a standalone mobile app in August 2011, while remaining part of the user page on browsers.
Complementing regular conversations, Messenger lets users make one-to-one and group voice and video calls. Its Android app has integrated support for SMS and "Chat Heads", which are round profile photo icons appearing on-screen regardless of what app is open, while both apps support multiple accounts, conversations with optional end-to-end encryption and "Instant Games". Some features, including sending money and requesting transportation, are limited to the United States. In 2017, Facebook added "Messenger Day", a feature that lets users share photos and videos in a story-format with all their friends with the content disappearing after 24 hours; Reactions, which lets users tap and hold a message to add a reaction through an emoji; and Mentions, which lets users in group conversations type @ to give a particular user a notification.
Businesses and users can interact through Messenger with features such as tracking purchases and receiving notifications, and interacting with customer service representatives. Third-party developers can integrate apps into Messenger, letting users enter an app while inside Messenger and optionally share details from the app into a chat. Developers can build chatbots into Messenger, for uses such as news publishers building bots to distribute news. The M virtual assistant (U.S.) scans chats for keywords and suggests relevant actions, such as its payments system for users mentioning money. Group chatbots appear in Messenger as "Chat Extensions". A "Discovery" tab allows finding bots, and enabling special, branded QR codes that, when scanned, take the user to a specific bot.
Facebook enables users to control access to individual posts and their profile through privacy settings. The user's name and profile picture (if applicable) are public. Facebook's revenue depends on targeted advertising, which involves analyzing user data (from the site and the broader internet) to inform the targeting. These facilities have changed repeatedly since the service's debut, amid a series of controversies covering everything from how well it secures user data, to what extent it allows users to control access, to the kinds of access given to third parties, including businesses, political campaigns and governments. These facilities vary according to country, as some nations require the company to make data available (and limit access to services), while the European Union's GDPR regulation mandates additional privacy protections.
Facebook Bug Bounty Program
On July 29, 2011, Facebook announced its Bug Bounty Program that paid security researchers a minimum of $500 for reporting security holes. The company promised not to pursue "white hat" hackers who identified such problems. This led researchers in many countries to participate, particularly in India and Russia.
User growth and decline
Facebook's rapid growth began as soon as it became available and continued through 2018, before beginning to decline.
Facebook passed 100 million registered users in 2008, and 500 million in July 2010. According to the company's data at the July 2010 announcement, half of the site's membership used Facebook daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site by mobile.
In October 2012 Facebook's monthly active users passed one billion, with 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads, and 140 billion friend connections. The 2 billion user mark was crossed in June 2017.
In November 2015, after skepticism about the accuracy of its "monthly active users" measurement, Facebook changed its definition to a logged-in member who visits the Facebook site through the web browser or mobile app, or uses the Facebook Messenger app, in the 30 day period prior to the measurement. This excluded the use of third-party services with Facebook integration, which was previously counted.
From 2017 to 2019, the percentage of the U.S. population over the age of 12 who use Facebook has declined, from 67% to 61% (a decline of some 15 million U.S. users), with a higher drop-off among younger Americans (a decrease in the percentage of U.S. 12- to 34-year-olds who are users from 58% in 2015 to 29% in 2019. The decline coincided with an increase in the popularity of Instagram, which is also owned by Facebook Inc.
Historically, commentators have offered predictions of Facebook's decline or end, based on causes such as a declining user base; the legal difficulties of being a closed platform, inability to generate revenue, inability to offer user privacy, inability to adapt to mobile platforms, or Facebook ending itself to present a next generation replacement; or Facebook's role in Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.
The highest number of Facebook users as of October 2018 are from India and the United States, followed by Indonesia, Brazil and Mexico. Region-wise, the highest number of users are from Asia-Pacific (947 million) followed by Europe (381 million) and US-Canada (242 million). The rest of the world has 750 million users.
Over the 2008-2018 period, the percentage of users under 34 declined to less than half of the total.
In many countries the social networking sites and mobile apps have been blocked temporarily or permanently, including China, Iran, Syria, and North Korea. In May 2018, the government of Papua New Guinea announced that it would ban Facebook for a month while it considered the impact of the website on the country, though no ban has since occurred. In 2019, Facebook announced that influencers are no longer able to promote any vape, tobacco products, or weapons on its platforms.
Criticisms and controversies
Facebook's importance and scale has led to criticisms in many domains. Issues include Internet privacy, excessive retention of user information, its facial recognition software, its addictive quality and its role in the workplace, including employer access to employee accounts.
Facebook has been criticized for electricity usage, tax avoidance, real-name user requirement policies, censorship and its involvement in the United States PRISM surveillance program.
Facebook has been criticized for allowing users to publish illegal and/or offensive material. Specifics include copyright and intellectual property infringement, hate speech, incitement of rape and terrorism, fake news, and crimes, murders, and livestreaming violent incidents.
Sri Lanka blocked both Facebook and WhatsApp in May 2019 after anti-Muslim riots, the worst in the country since the Easter Sunday bombing in the same year as a temporary measure to maintain peace in Sri Lanka.
Facebook removed 3 billion fake accounts only during the last quarter of 2018 and the first quarter of 2019. This is considered to be a wildly high number given that the social network reports only 2.39 billion monthly active users.
Facebook has faced a steady stream of controversies over how it handles user privacy, repeatedly adjusting its privacy settings and policies.
On November 29, 2011, Facebook settled Federal Trade Commission charges that it deceived consumers by failing to keep privacy promises. In August 2013 High-Tech Bridge published a study showing that links included in Facebook messaging service messages were being accessed by Facebook. In January 2014 two users filed a lawsuit against Facebook alleging that their privacy had been violated by this practice.
On June 7, 2018, Facebook announced that a bug had resulted in about 14 million Facebook users having their default sharing setting for all new posts set to "public".
On April 4, 2019, half a billion records of Facebook users were found exposed on Amazon cloud servers, containing information about users’ friends, likes, groups, and checked-in locations, as well as names, passwords and email addresses.
The phone numbers of at least 200 million Facebook users were found to be exposed on an open online database in September 2019. They included 133 million US users, 18 million from the UK, and 50 million from users in Vietnam. After removing duplicates, the 419 million records have been reduced to 219 million. The database went offline after TechCrunch contacted the web host. It is thought the records were amassed using a tool that Facebook disabled in April 2018 after the Cambridge Analytica controversy. A Facebook spokeswoman said in a statement: "The dataset is old and appears to have information obtained before we made changes last year...There is no evidence that Facebook accounts were compromised."
A "shadow profile" refers to the data Facebook collects about individuals without their explicit permission. For example, the "like" button that appears on third-party websites allows the company to collect information about an individual's internet browsing habits, even if the individual is not a Facebook user. Data can also be collected by other users. For example, a Facebook user can link their email account to their Facebook to find friends on the site, allowing the company to collect the email addresses of users and non-users alike. Over time, countless data points about an individual are collected; any single data point perhaps cannot identify an individual, but together allows the company to form a unique "profile."
This practice has been criticized by those who believe people should be able to opt-out of involuntary data collection. Additionally, while Facebook users have the ability to download and inspect the data they provide to the site, data from the user's "shadow profile" is not included, and non-users of Facebook do not have access to this tool regardless. The company has also been unclear whether or not it is possible for a person to revoke Facebook's access to their "shadow profile."
Facebook customer Global Science Research sold information on over 87 million Facebook users to Cambridge Analytica, a political data analysis firm led by Alexander Nix. While approximately 270,000 people used the app, Facebook's API permitted data collection from their friends without their knowledge. At first Facebook downplayed the significance of the breach, and suggested that Cambridge Analytica no longer had access. Facebook then issued a statement expressing alarm and suspended Cambridge Analytica. Review of documents and interviews with former Facebook employees suggested that Cambridge Analytica still possessed the data. This was a violation of Facebook's consent decree with the Federal Trade Commission. This violation potentially carried a penalty of $40,000 per occurrence, totaling trillions of dollars.
According to The Guardian both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica threatened to sue the newspaper if it published the story. After publication, Facebook claimed that it had been "lied to". On March 23, 2018, The English High Court granted an application by the Information Commissioner's Office for a warrant to search Cambridge Analytica's London offices, ending a standoff between Facebook and the Information Commissioner over responsibility.
On March 25, Facebook published a statement by Zuckerberg in major UK and US newspapers apologizing over a "breach of trust".
You may have heard about a quiz app built by a university researcher that leaked Facebook data of millions of people in 2014. This was a breach of trust, and I'm sorry we didn't do more at the time. We're now taking steps to make sure this doesn't happen again.
We've already stopped apps like this from getting so much information. Now we're limiting the data apps get when you sign in using Facebook.
We're also investigating every single app that had access to large amounts of data before we fixed this. We expect there are others. And when we find them, we will ban them and tell everyone affected.
Finally, we'll remind you which apps you've given access to your information – so you can shut off the ones you don't want anymore.
Thank you for believing in this community. I promise to do better for you.
On March 26, the Federal Trade Commission opened an investigation into the matter. The controversy led Facebook to end its partnerships with data brokers who aid advertisers in targeting users.
On April 24, 2019, Facebook said it could face a fine between $3 billion to $5 billion as the result of an investigation by the Federal Trade Commission. The agency has been investigating Facebook for possible privacy violations, but has not announced any findings yet.
Facebook also implemented additional privacy controls and settings in part to comply with the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which took effect in May. Facebook also ended its active opposition to the California Consumer Privacy Act.
Some, such as Meghan McCain have drawn an equivalence between the use of data by Cambridge Analytica and the Barack Obama's 2012 campaign, which, according to Investor's Business Daily, "encouraged supporters to download an Obama 2012 Facebook app that, when activated, let the campaign collect Facebook data both on users and their friends." Carol Davidsen, the Obama for America (OFA) former director of integration and media analytics, wrote that "Facebook was surprised we were able to suck out the whole social graph, but they didn't stop us once they realised that was what we were doing." PolitiFact has rated McCain's statements "Half-True", on the basis that "in Obama's case, direct users knew they were handing over their data to a political campaign" whereas with Cambridge Analytica, users thought they were only taking a personality quiz for academic purposes, and while the Obama campaign only used the data "to have their supporters contact their most persuadable friends", Cambridge Analytica "targeted users, friends and lookalikes directly with digital ads."
On September 28, 2018, Facebook experienced a major breach in its security, exposing the data of 50 million users. The data breach started in July 2017 and was discovered on September 16. Facebook notified users affected by the exploit and logged them out of their accounts.
In March 2019, Facebook confirmed a password compromise of millions of Facebook lite application users, however in April the company further stated that it was not just limited to Facebook but had also affected millions of Instagram users. The reason cited was the storage of password as plain text instead of encryption which could be read by its employees.
On December 19, 2019, security researcher Bob Diachenko discovered a database containing more than 267 million Facebook user IDs, phone numbers, and names that were left exposed on the web for anyone to access without a password or any other authentication.
In February 2020, Facebook encountered a major security breach in which its official Twitter account was hacked by a Saudi Arabia-based group called "OurMine". The group has a history of actively exposing high-profile social media profiles’ vulnerabilities.
Phone data and activity
After acquiring Onavo in 2013, Facebook used its Onavo Protect virtual private network (VPN) app to collect information on users' web traffic and app usage. This allowed Facebook to monitor its competitors' performance, and motivated Facebook to acquire WhatsApp in 2014. Media outlets classified Onavo Protect as spyware. In August 2018, Facebook removed the app in response to pressure from Apple, who asserted that it violated their guidelines.
In 2016, Facebook Research launched Project Atlas, offering some users between the ages of 13 and 35 up to $20 per month in exchange for their personal data, including their app usage, web browsing history, web search history, location history, personal messages, photos, videos, emails and Amazon order history. In January 2019, TechCrunch reported on the project. This led Apple to temporarily revoke Facebook's Enterprise Developer Program certificates for one day, preventing Facebook Research from operating on iOS devices and disabling Facebook's internal iOS apps.
Ars Technica reported in April 2018 that the Facebook Android app had been harvesting user data, including phone calls and text messages, since 2015. In May 2018, several Android users filed a class action lawsuit against Facebook for invading their privacy.
In January 2020, Facebook launched the Off-Facebook Activity page, which allows users to see information collected by Facebook about their non-Facebook activities. Washington Post columnist Geoffrey A. Fowler found that this included what other apps he used on his phone, even while the Facebook app was closed, what other web sites he visited on his phone, and what in-store purchases he made from affiliated businesses, even while his phone was completely off.
The company first apologized for its privacy abuses in 2009.
Facebook apologies have appeared in newspapers, television, blog posts and on Facebook. On March 25, 2018, leading US and UK newspapers published full-page ads with a personal apology from Zuckerberg. Zuckerberg issued a verbal apology on CNN. In May 2010, he apologized for discrepancies in privacy settings.
Previously, Facebook had its privacy settings spread out over 20 pages, and has now put all of its privacy settings on one page, which makes it more difficult for third-party apps to access the user's personal information. In addition to publicly apologizing, Facebook has said that it will be reviewing and auditing thousands of apps that display "suspicious activities" in an effort to ensure that this breach of privacy does not happen again. In a 2010 report regarding privacy, a research project stated that not a lot of information is available regarding the consequences of what people disclose online so often what is available are just reports made available through popular media. In 2017, a former Facebook executive went on the record to discuss how social media platforms have contributed to the unraveling of the "fabric of society".
Facebook relies on its users to generate the content that bonds its users to the service. The company has come under criticism both for allowing objectionable content, including conspiracy theories and fringe discourse, and for prohibiting other content that it deems inappropriate.
Vaidhyanathan (2018) Antisocial Media claims that there's no evidence that Cambridge Analytica and similar companies have delivered anything of value to anyone who has paid them, but Facebook is "growing on every continent. And it’s undermining democracy everywhere. Facebook is doing the data analysis internally. Facebook is working directly with campaigns — many of which support authoritarian and nationalist candidates. You don’t need Cambridge Analytica if you have Facebook. The impact of Facebook on democracy is corrosive. ... A campaign like Trump’s can issue small, cheap advertisements via platforms like Facebook and Instagram that disappear after a day or get locked forever in Facebook’s servers. That’s bad for transparency. That’s exactly what happened. That story has not echoed as far as the one about Cambridge Analytica and psychographics. But it’s the real story." Facebook has tools that allow an advertiser to profitably target ads "at groups as small as twenty, and then disappear, so they are never examined or debated." These may have made a substantive contribution to Mr. Trump's victory in the 2016 United States presidential election.
It has been criticised as a vector for 'fake news', and has been accused of bearing responsibility for the conspiracy theory that the United States created ISIS, false anti-Rohingya posts being used by Myanmar's military to fuel genocide and ethnic cleansing, enabling climate change denial and Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting conspiracy theorists, and anti-refugee attacks in Germany. The government of the Philippines has also used Facebook as a tool to attack its critics.
In 2017, Facebook partnered with fact checkers from the Poynter Institute's International Fact-Checking Network to identify and mark false content, though most ads from political candidates are exempt from this program. Critics of the program accuse Facebook of not doing enough to remove false information from its website.
Professor Ilya Somin reported that he had been the subject of death threats on Facebook in April 2018 from Cesar Sayoc, who threatened to kill Somin and his family and "feed the bodies to Florida alligators". Somin's Facebook friends reported the comments to Facebook, which did nothing except dispatch automated messages. Sayoc was later arrested for the October 2018 United States mail bombing attempts directed at Democratic politicians.
Facebook has repeatedly amended its content policies. In July 2018, it stated that it would "downrank" articles that its fact-checkers determined to be false, and remove misinformation that incited violence. Zuckerberg once stated that it was unclear whether Holocaust deniers on Facebook intended to deceive others, for which he later apologized. Facebook stated that content that receives "false" ratings from its fact-checkers can be demonetized and suffer dramatically reduced distribution. Specific posts and videos that violate community standards can be removed on Facebook.
In May 2019, Facebook banned a number of "dangerous" commentators from its platform, including Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, Paul Joseph Watson, Paul Nehlen, David Duke, and Laura Loomer, for allegedly engaging in "violence and hate".
In May 2020, Facebook agreed to a preliminary settlement of $52 million to compensate U.S.-based Facebook content moderators for their psychological trauma suffered on the job. Other legal actions around the world, including in Ireland, await settlement.
In September 2020, the Government of Thailand used the Computer Crime Act for the first time, to take action against Facebook and Twitter for ignoring requests to take down content and for not complying to the court orders.
Facebook was criticized for allowing InfoWars to publish falsehoods and conspiracy theories. Facebook defended its actions in regards to InfoWars, saying "we just don't think banning Pages for sharing conspiracy theories or false news is the right way to go." Facebook provided only six cases in which it fact-checked content on the InfoWars page over the period September 2017 to July 2018. In 2018 InfoWars falsely claimed that the survivors of the Parkland shooting were "actors". Facebook pledged to remove InfoWars content making the claim, although InfoWars videos pushing the false claims were left up, even though Facebook had been contacted about the videos. Facebook stated that the videos never explicitly called them actors. Facebook also allowed InfoWars videos that shared the Pizzagate conspiracy theory to survive, despite specific assertions that it would purge Pizzagate content. In late July 2018 Facebook suspended the personal profile of InfoWars head Alex Jones for 30 days. In early August 2018, Facebook banned the four most active InfoWars-related pages for hate speech.
In 2018, Facebook stated that during 2018 they had identified "coordinated inauthentic behavior" in "many Pages, Groups and accounts created to stir up political debate, including in the US, the Middle East, Russia and the UK."
Campaigns operated by the British intelligence agency unit, called Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group, have broadly fallen into two categories; cyber attacks and propaganda efforts. The propaganda efforts utilize "mass messaging" and the "pushing [of] stories" via social media sites like Facebook. Israel's Jewish Internet Defense Force, China's 50 Cent Party and Turkey's AK Trolls also focus their attention on social media platforms like Facebook.
In July 2018, Samantha Bradshaw, co-author of the report from the Oxford Internet Institute (OII) at Oxford University, said that "The number of countries where formally organised social media manipulation occurs has greatly increased, from 28 to 48 countries globally. The majority of growth comes from political parties who spread disinformation and junk news around election periods."
In October 2018, The Daily Telegraph reported that Facebook "banned hundreds of pages and accounts that it says were fraudulently flooding its site with partisan political content – although they came from the United States instead of being associated with Russia."
In December 2018, The Washington Post reported that "Facebook has suspended the account of Jonathon Morgan, the chief executive of a top social media research firm" New Knowledge, "after reports that he and others engaged in an operation to spread disinformation" on Facebook and Twitter during the 2017 United States Senate special election in Alabama.
In May 2019, Tel Aviv-based private intelligence agency Archimedes Group was banned from Facebook for “coordinated inauthentic behavior” after Facebook found fake users in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. Facebook investigations revealed that Archimedes had spent some $1.1 million on fake ads, paid for in Brazilian reais, Israeli shekels and US dollars. Facebook gave examples of Archimedes Group political interference in Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Angola, Niger and Tunisia. The Atlantic Council's Digital Forensic Research Lab said in a report that "The tactics employed by Archimedes Group, a private company, closely resemble the types of information warfare tactics often used by governments, and the Kremlin in particular."
On May 23, 2019, Facebook released its Community Standards Enforcement Report highlighting that it has identified several fake accounts through artificial intelligence and human monitoring. In a period of six months, October 2018-March 2019, the social media website removed a total of 3.39 billion fake accounts. The number of fake accounts was reported to be more than 2.4 billion real people on the platform.
In July 2019, Facebook advanced its measures to counter deceptive political propaganda and other abuse of its services. The company removed more than 1,800 accounts and pages that were being operated from Russia, Thailand, Ukraine and Honduras.
On October 30, 2019, Facebook deleted several accounts of the employees working at the Israeli NSO Group, stating that the accounts were “deleted for not following our terms”. The deletions came after WhatsApp sued the Israeli surveillance firm for targeting 1,400 devices with spyware.
The Thailand government is forcing Facebook to take down a Facebook group called Royalist Marketplace with 1 million members following potentially illegal posts shared. The authority also threatened the Facebook representative of facing criminal proceeding. In response, Facebook is planning to take legal action against the Thai government for suppression of freedom of expression and violation of human rights.
In 2018, Special Counsel Robert Mueller indicted 13 Russian nationals and three Russian organizations for "engaging in operations to interfere with U.S. political and electoral processes, including the 2016 presidential election."
Mueller contacted Facebook subsequently to the company's disclosure that it had sold more than $100,000 worth of ads to a company (Internet Research Agency, owned by Russian billionaire and businessman Yevgeniy Prigozhin) with links to the Russian intelligence community before the 2016 United States presidential election. In September 2017, Facebook's chief security officer Alex Stamos wrote the company "found approximately $100,000 in ad spending from June 2015 to May 2017 — associated with roughly 3,000 ads — that was connected to about 470 inauthentic accounts and Pages in violation of our policies. Our analysis suggests these accounts and Pages were affiliated with one another and likely operated out of Russia." Clinton and Trump campaigns spent $81 million on Facebook ads.
The company pledged full cooperation in Mueller's investigation, and provided all information about the Russian advertisements. Members of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees have claimed that Facebook had withheld information that could illuminate the Russian propaganda campaign. Russian operatives have used Facebook to organize Black Lives Matter rallies and anti-immigrant rallies on U.S. soil, as well as anti-Clinton rallies and rallies both for and against Donald Trump. Facebook ads have also been used to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims by simultaneously sending contrary messages to different users based on their political and demographic characteristics in order to sow discord. Zuckerberg has stated that he regrets having dismissed concerns over Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
In January 2019, Facebook removed 289 Pages and 75 coordinated accounts linked to the Russian state-owned news agency Sputnik which had misrepresented themselves as independent news or general interest Pages. Facebook later identified and removed an additional 1,907 accounts linked to Russia found to be engaging in "coordinated inauthentic behaviour". In 2018, a UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) select committee report had criticised Facebook for its reluctance to investigate abuse of its platform by the Russian government, and for downplaying the extent of the problem, referring to the company as 'digital gangsters'..
“Democracy is at risk from the malicious and relentless targeting of citizens with disinformation and personalised ‘dark adverts’ from unidentifiable sources, delivered through the major social media platforms we use every day,” Damian Collins, DCMS Committee Chair
In February 2019, Glenn Greenwald wrote that a cybersecurity company New Knowledge, which is behind one of the Senate reports on Russian social media election interference, "was caught just six weeks ago engaging in a massive scam to create fictitious Russian troll accounts on Facebook and Twitter in order to claim that the Kremlin was working to defeat Democratic Senate nominee Doug Jones in Alabama. The New York Times, when exposing the scam, quoted a New Knowledge report that boasted of its fabrications..."
In 2018, Facebook took down 536 Facebook pages, 17 Facebook groups, 175 Facebook accounts, and 16 Instagram accounts linked to the Myanmar military. Collectively these were followed by over 10 million people. The New York Times reported that:
after months of reports about anti-Rohingya propaganda on Facebook, the company acknowledged that it had been too slow to act in Myanmar. By then, more than 700,000 Rohingya had fled the country in a year, in what United Nations officials called “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing.”
Anti-Muslim propaganda and Hindu nationalism in India
A 2019 book titled The Real Face of Facebook in India, co-authored by the journalists Paranjoy Guha Thakurta and Cyril Sam, alleged that Facebook helped enable and benefited from the rise of Narendra Modi's Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in India.
Ankhi Das, Facebook's policy director for India and South and Central Asia, apologized publicly in August 2020 for sharing a Facebook post that called Muslims in India a "degenerate community". She said she shared the post “to reflect my deep belief in celebrating feminism and civic participation". She is reported to have prevented action by Facebook against anti-Muslim content and supported the BJP in internal Facebook messages.
In 2020, Facebook executives overrode their employees' recommendations that the BJP politician T. Raja Singh should be banned from the site for hate speech and rhetoric that could lead to violence. Singh had said on Facebook that Rohingya Muslim immigrants should be shot and had threatened to destroy mosques. Current and former Facebook employees told The Wall Street Journal that the decision was part of a pattern of favoritism by Facebook toward the BJP as it seeks more business in India. Facebook also took no action after BJP politicians made posts accusing Muslims of intentionally spreading COVID-19, an employee said.
Early Facebook investor and former Zuckerberg mentor Roger McNamee described Facebook as having "the most centralized decision-making structure I have ever encountered in a large company." Nathan Schneider, a professor of media studies at the University of Colorado Boulder argued for transforming Facebook into a platform cooperative owned and governed by the users.
Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes states that CEO Mark Zuckerberg has too much power, that the company is now a monopoly, and that, as a result, it should be split into multiple smaller companies. Hughes called for the breakup of Facebook in an op-ed on The New York Times. Hughes says he's concerned that Zuckerberg has surrounded himself with a team that doesn't challenge him and that as a result, it's the U.S. government's job to hold him accountable and curb his "unchecked power." Hughes also said that "Mark's power is unprecedented and un-American." Several U.S. politicians agree with Hughes. EU Commissioner for Competition Margrethe Vestager has stated that splitting Facebook should only be done as "a remedy of the very last resort", and that splitting Facebook would not solve Facebook's underlying problems.
The company has been subject to repeated litigation. Its most prominent case addressed allegations that Zuckerberg broke an oral contract with Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra to build the then-named "HarvardConnection" social network in 2004.
In 2019 British solicitors representing a bullied Syrian schoolboy, sued Facebook over false claims. They claimed that Facebook protected prominent figures from scrutiny instead of removing content that violates its rules and that the special treatment was financially driven.
In October 2018 a Texan woman sued Facebook, claiming she had been recruited into the sex trade at the age of 15 by a man who "friended" her on the social media network. Facebook responded that it works both internally and externally to ban sex traffickers.
Definers Public Affairs
In October 2017, Facebook expanded its work with Definers Public Affairs, a PR firm that had originally been hired to monitor press coverage of the company to address concerns primarily regarding Russian meddling, then mishandling of user data by Cambridge Analytica, hate speech on Facebook, and calls for regulation. Company spokesman Tim Miller stated that a goal for tech firms should be to "have positive content pushed out about your company and negative content that's being pushed out about your competitor". Definers claimed that George Soros was the force behind what appeared to be a broad anti-Facebook movement, and created other negative media, along with America Rising, that was picked up by larger media organisations like Breitbart. Facebook cut ties with the agency in late 2018, following public outcry over their association.
Transcribing user audio
On August 13, 2019, it was revealed that Facebook had enlisted hundreds of contractors to create and obtain transcripts of the audio messages of users. This was especially common of Facebook Messenger, where the contractors frequently listened to and transcribed voice messages of users. After this was first reported on by Bloomberg News, Facebook released a statement confirming the report to be true, but also stated that the monitoring program was now suspended.
A commentator in The Washington Post noted that Facebook constitutes a "massive depository of information that documents both our reactions to events and our evolving customs with a scope and immediacy of which earlier historians could only dream". Especially for anthropologists, social researchers, and social historians—and subject to proper preservation and curation—the website "will preserve images of our lives that are vastly crisper and more nuanced than any ancestry record in existence".
Economists have noted that Facebook offers many non-rivalrous services that benefit as many users as are interested without forcing users to compete with each other. By contrast, most goods are available to a limited number of users. E.g., if one user buys a phone, no other user can buy that phone. Three areas add the most economic impact: platform competition, the market place and user behavior data.
Facebook began to reduce its carbon impact after Greenpeace attacked it for its long-term reliance on coal and resulting carbon footprint.
Facebook provides a development platform for many social gaming, communication, feedback, review, and other applications related to online activities. This platform spawned many businesses and added thousands of jobs to the global economy. Zynga Inc., a leader in social gaming, is an example of such a business. An econometric analysis found that Facebook's app development platform added more than 182,000 jobs in the U.S. economy in 2011. The total economic value of the added employment was about $12 billion.
Facebook was one of the first large-scale social networks. In The Facebook Effect, David Kirkpatrick stated that Facebook's structure makes it difficult to replace, because of its "network effects".[neutrality is disputed] As of 2016, it is estimated that 44 percent of the US population gets news through Facebook.
A 2020 experimental study in the American Economic Review found that deactivating Facebook led to increased subjective well-being.
Studies have associated social networks with positive and negative impacts on emotional health. Studies have associated Facebook with feelings of envy, often triggered by vacation and holiday photos. Other triggers include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty—such feelings leave people dissatisfied with their own lives. A joint study by two German universities discovered that one out of three people were more dissatisfied with their lives after visiting Facebook, and another study by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about themselves following an increase in time on Facebook.
Professor Larry D. Rosen stated that teenagers on Facebook exhibit more narcissistic tendencies, while young adults show signs of antisocial behavior, mania and aggressiveness. Positive effects included signs of "virtual empathy" towards online friends and helping introverted persons learn social skills.
In a blog post in December 2017, the company highlighted research that has shown "passively consuming" the News Feed, as in reading but not interacting, left users with negative feelings afterwards, whereas interacting with messages pointed to improvements in well-being.
In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). In August 2010, one of North Korea's official government websites and the country's official news agency, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook.
During the Arab Spring many journalists claimed that Facebook played a major role in the 2011 Egyptian revolution. On January 14, the Facebook page of "We are all Khaled Said" was started by Wael Ghoniem to invite the Egyptian people to "peaceful demonstrations" on January 25. According to Mashable,[unreliable source?] in Tunisia and Egypt, Facebook became the primary tool for connecting protesters and led the Egyptian government to ban Facebook, Twitter and other websites on January 26 then ban all mobile and Internet connections for all of Egypt on January 28. After 18 days, the uprising forced President Hosni Mubarak to resign.
In a Bahraini uprising that started on February 14, 2011, Facebook was utilized by the Bahraini regime and regime loyalists to identify, capture and prosecute citizens involved in the protests. A 20-year-old woman named Ayat Al Qurmezi was identified as a protester using Facebook and imprisoned.
In 2011, Facebook filed paperwork with the Federal Election Commission to form a political action committee under the name FB PAC. In an email to The Hill, a spokesman for Facebook said "Facebook Political Action Committee will give our employees a way to make their voice heard in the political process by supporting candidates who share our goals of promoting the value of innovation to our economy while giving people the power to share and make the world more open and connected."
During the Syrian civil war, the YPG, a libertarian army for Rojava recruited westerners through Facebook in its fight against ISIL. Dozens joined its ranks. The Facebook page's name "The Lions of Rojava" comes from a Kurdish saying which translates as "A lion is a lion, whether it's a female or a male", reflecting the organization's feminist ideology.
In recent years, Facebook's News Feed algorithms have been identified as a cause of political polarization, for which it has been criticized. It has likewise been accused of amplifying the reach of 'fake news' and extreme viewpoints, as when it may have enabled conditions which led to the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis.
Facebook first played a role in the American political process in January 2008, shortly before the New Hampshire primary. Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates. Facebook users took part in debate groups on specific topics, voter registration and message questions.
Over a million people installed the Facebook application "US Politics on Facebook" in order to take part which measured responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates. A poll by CBS News, UWIRE and The Chronicle of Higher Education claimed to illustrate how the "Facebook effect" had affected youthful voters, increasing voting rates, support of political candidates, and general involvement.
The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, connected hundreds of millions of people. By 2008, politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message. By the 2016 election, political advertising to specific groups had become normalized. Facebook offered the most sophisticated targeting and analytics platform. ProPublica noted that their system enabled advertisers to direct their pitches to almost 2,300 people who expressed interest in the topics of "Jew hater," "How to burn Jews," or, "History of 'why Jews ruin the world".
Facebook has used several initiatives to encourage its users to register to vote and vote. An experiment in 2012 involved showing Facebook users pictures of their friends who reported that they had voted; users who were shown the pictures were about 2% more likely to report that they had also voted compared to the control group, which was not encouraged to vote. In 2020, Facebook announced the goal of helping four million voters register in the US, saying that it had registered 2.5 million by September.
The Cambridge Analytica data scandal offered another example of the perceived attempt to influence elections. The Guardian claimed that Facebook knew about the security breach for two years, but did nothing to stop it until it became public.
Facebook banned political ads to prevent the manipulation of voters in the US's November’s election. However, industry experts suggested that there are several other ways for misinformation to reach voters on social media platforms and blocking political ads will not serve as a proven solution to the problem.
Ahead of the 2019 general elections in India, Facebook has removed 103 pages, groups and accounts on Facebook and Instagram platforms originating from Pakistan. Facebook said its investigation found a Pakistani military link, along with a mix of real accounts of ISPR employees, and a network of fake accounts created by them that have been operating military fan pages, general interest pages but were posting content about Indian politics while trying to conceal their identity. Owing to the same reasons, Facebook also removed 687 pages and accounts of Congress because of coordinated inauthentic behavior on the platform.
Facebook and Zuckerberg have been the subject of music, books, film and television. The 2010 film The Social Network, directed by David Fincher and written by Aaron Sorkin, stars Jesse Eisenberg as Zuckerberg and went on to win three Academy Awards and four Golden Globes.
In 2008, Collins English Dictionary declared "Facebook" as its new Word of the Year. In December 2009, the New Oxford American Dictionary declared its word of the year to be the verb "unfriend", defined as "To remove someone as a 'friend' on a social networking site such as Facebook".
In August 2013, Facebook founded Internet.org in collaboration with six other technology companies to plan and help build affordable Internet access for underdeveloped and developing countries. The service, called Free Basics, includes various low-bandwidth applications such as AccuWeather, BabyCenter, BBC News, ESPN, and Bing. There was severe opposition to Internet.org in India, where the service started in partnership with Reliance Communications in 2015 was banned a year later by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI). In 2018, Zuckerberg claimed that "Internet.org efforts have helped almost 100 million people get access to the internet who may not have had it otherwise."
- "Facebook Interface Languages". Facebook (Select your language).
- "facebook.com Competitive Analysis, Marketing Mix and Traffic". Alexa Internet. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
- "Facebook Reports Second Quarter 2020 Results". Facebook Investor Relations. July 31, 2020. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
- "Our History". Facebook. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "Facebook.com Traffic, Demographics and Competitors - Alexa". www.alexa.com. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
- Clarke, Gavin (February 2, 2010). "Facebook re-write takes PHP to an enterprise past". The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Bridgwater, Adrian (October 16, 2013). "Facebook Adopts D Language". Dr Dobb's. San Francisco.
- Levin, Sam (July 3, 2018). "Is Facebook a publisher? In public it says no, but in court it says yes" – via www.theguardian.com.
- Gebel, Meira. "In 15 years Facebook has amassed 2.3 billion users — more than followers of Christianity". Business Insider.
- Miller, Chance (December 17, 2019). "These were the most-downloaded apps and games of the decade". 9to5Mac. Retrieved December 17, 2019.
- Mahdawi, Arwa (December 21, 2018). "Is 2019 the year you should finally quit Facebook? | Arwa Mahdawi". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
- Medrano, Kastalia. "Facebook Spreads Viral Fake News Story About Vaccines". Newsweek.
- Raphael, Rina. "A shockingly large majority of health news shared on Facebook is fake or misleading". Fast Company.
- "Facebook will not remove fake news - but will 'demote' it". BBC.
- Funke, Daniel. "Forget fake news stories. False text posts are getting massive engagement on Facebook". Poynter.
- Shontell, Alyson (May 16, 2011). "This Person Was The First Face of Facebook". Business Insider. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- Kaplan, Katharine A. (November 19, 2003). "Facemash Creator Survives Ad Board". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- McGirt, Ellen (May 1, 2007). "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg: Hacker. Dropout. CEO". Fast Company. Mansueto Ventures. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- Kincaid, Jason (October 24, 2009). "Startup School: An Interview With Mark Zuckerberg". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- Phillips, Sarah (July 25, 2007). "A brief history of Facebook". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- Tabak, Alan T. (February 9, 2004). "Hundreds Register for New Facebook Website". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- Hoffman, Claire (September 15, 2010). "The Battle For Facebook". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- Rothman, Lily (February 4, 2015). "Happy Birthday, Facebook". Time. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- Carlson, Nicholas (March 5, 2010). "In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg Broke Into A Facebook User's Private Email Account". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Stone, Brad (June 28, 2008). "Judge Ends Facebook's Feud With ConnectU". New York Times blog.
- Rushe, Dominic (February 2, 2012). "Facebook IPO sees Winklevoss twins heading for $300m fortune". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Phillips, Sarah (July 25, 2007). "A brief history of Facebook". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Weinberger, Matt (September 7, 2017). "33 photos of Facebook's rise from a Harvard dorm room to world domination". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
- "Facebook: a timeline of the social network". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. February 1, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
- Rosmarin, Rachel (September 11, 2006). "Open Facebook". Forbes. New York. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Nguyen, Lananh (April 12, 2004). "Online network created by Harvard students flourishes". The Tufts Daily. Medford, MA. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
- Rosen, Ellen (May 26, 2005). "Student's Start-Up Draws Attention and $13 Million". The New York Times. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- "Company Timeline" (Press release). Facebook. January 1, 2007. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- "Why you should beware of Facebook". The Age. Melbourne. January 20, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- Williams, Christopher (October 1, 2007). "Facebook wins Manx battle for face-book.com". The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "Jim Breyer (via Accel Partners)". CNBC. May 22, 2012. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014.
- Dempsey, Laura (August 3, 2006). "Facebook is the go-to Web site for students looking to hook up". Dayton Daily News. Ohio.
- Lacy, Sarah (September 12, 2006). "Facebook: Opening the Doors Wider". BusinessWeek. New York. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
- "Facebook's Julie Zhuo: She's not just pushing pixels". Fortune. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
- Abram, Carolyn (September 26, 2006). "Welcome to Facebook, everyone". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- "Facebook Expansion Enables More People to Connect with Friends in a Trusted Environment". Facebook Newsroom. September 26, 2006. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- Richmond, Riva (November 27, 2007). "Enterprise: Facebook, a Marketer's Friend; Site Offers Platform To Tout Products, Interact With Users". Wall Street Journal. New York. p. B4.
- Greenstein, Howard (May 27, 2009). "Facebook Pages vs Facebook Groups: What's the Difference?". Mashable.com. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- "Microsoft gets a piece of Facebook". CNNMoney. CNN. October 24, 2007. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Sherrets, Doug (October 24, 2007). "Microsoft invests $240M in Facebook, as Facebook develops ad product". VentureBeat. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- "Facebook Expands Power of Platform Across the Web and Around the World". About Facebook. July 24, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- "Facebook to Establish International Headquarters in Dublin, Ireland" (Press release). Facebook. October 2, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Facebook 'cash flow positive,' signs 300M users". CBC News. Toronto. September 16, 2009. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Kazeniac, Andy (February 9, 2009). "Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter Climbs". Compete Pulse blog. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2009.[better source needed]
- Wauters, Robin (July 21, 2010). "Zuckerberg Makes It Official: Facebook Hits 500 Million Members". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Arthur, Charles; Kiss, Jemima (July 21, 2010). "Facebook reaches 500 million users". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Curtis, Sophie (February 3, 2014). "Facebook at 10: Zuckerberg hails 'incredible journey'". The Telegraph. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Womack, Brian (November 15, 2010). "Facebook Becomes Third Biggest US Web Company". Jakarta Globe. BeritaSatu Media Holdings. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- "FB.com acquired by Facebook". NameMon News. January 11, 2011. Archived from the original on February 4, 2011.
- Parr, Ben. "These Are Facebook's New Offices [PHOTOS]". Mashable. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Brundage, Sandy. "Facebook packs up for Menlo Park". www.almanacnews.com. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "Facebook deletes 20,000 underage profiles daily". IBN Live. Noida, Uttar Pradesh. Press Trust of India. March 24, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- Protalinski, Emil (August 24, 2011). "Facebook is first with 1 trillion page views, according to Google". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- Solomon, Kate (August 25, 2011). "Facebook hit 1 trillion page views in June". TechRadar. Future plc. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- "Google and Facebook top 2011's most visited sites in US". BBC News. March 8, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- Fleming, Ryan (December 29, 2011). "Google and Facebook top the most visited websites of 2011". Digital Trends. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- Wauters, Robin (July 7, 2009). "China Blocks Access To Twitter, Facebook After Riots". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- "Facebook app store launches amid mobile revenue worries". BBC News. May 10, 2012.
- Mark Milian and Marcus Chan (May 18, 2012). "Facebook's Valuation: What $104 Billion Is Worth". Bloomberg Technology. Retrieved January 11, 2014.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Kerr, Dara. "Facebook stock hits a record high, since IPO". C|Net News. C|Net. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- Andrew Tangel; Walter Hamilton (May 17, 2012). "Stakes are high on Facebook's first day of trading". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- Evelyn M. Rusli; Peter Eavis (May 17, 2012). "Facebook Raises $16 Billion in I.P.O." The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- Bernard Condon (May 17, 2012). "Questions and answers on blockbuster Facebook IPO". U.S. News. Associated Press. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- Krantz, Matt (May 6, 2013). "Facebook squeaks onto the Fortune 500". USA Today. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
- "Facebook Sets Record For IPO Trading Volume". The Wall Street Journal. May 18, 2012. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
- Facebook shares fall valuation doubts. Yahoo! Finance
- Tepid honeymoon of Facebook and NASDAQ does not deliver the big bang. forbes.com
- Henry Blodget (May 22, 2012). "Facebook Bankers Secretly Cut Facebook's Revenue Estimates In Middle Of IPO Roadshow". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- Facebook IPO underscores shutting out the masses. sfgate.com
- "Listing of Recent Securities Lawsuits Filed Against Facebook". Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- Matt Nesto (May 23, 2012). "Fury Over Facebook IPO Grows, Lawsuits Mount". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- Smith, Aaron; Segal, Laurie; Cowley, Stacy (October 4, 2012). "Facebook reaches one billion users". CNN. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Ionescu, Daniel (October 4, 2012). "Facebook rules the social networking world with 1 billion users". PC World. International Data Group. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Tsukayama, Hayley (January 15, 2013). "Facebook introduces social search feature". The Washington Post.
- Claburn, Thomas (January 16, 2013). "Meet Facebook's Graph Search Tool". Information Week.
- Seifert, Dan (April 4, 2013). "HTC and Facebook announce the First smartphone with AT&T, arriving April 12th for $99.99". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Lunden, Ingrid (April 15, 2013). "Facebook Links Up With Attorneys General In 19 U.S. States For Teen Social Networking Safety Program". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Murphy, Samantha (November 18, 2011). "New Facebook Logo Made Official". Mashable. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Nelson, Sara C. (May 28, 2013). "#FBrape: Will Facebook Heed Open Letter Protesting 'Endorsement Of Rape & Domestic Violence'?". The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Carroll, Rory (May 29, 2013). "Facebook gives way to campaign against hate speech on its pages". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Dey, Aditya (June 13, 2013). "Facebook Introduces Hashtags to its Users". TechStake-Technology News Blog. Archived from the original on June 14, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- Thurm, Scott (July 2, 2013). "How Facebook's IPO Created the Best-Paid County In America". Corporate Intelligence blog. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
- Gibbs, Samuel (October 7, 2013). "Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Google lead coalition for cheaper internet". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Rushe, Dominic (January 29, 2014). "Facebook posts record quarterly results and reports $1.5bn profit for 2013". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- McDuling, John. "Facebook's mobile user base has crossed the 1 billion threshold – Quartz". Qz.com. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Lewis DVorkin (July 29, 2014). "Inside Forbes: Mobile Part II, Or 4 More Charts That Offer a Peek Into the Future of Journalism". Forbes. Forbes LLC. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- Luckerson, Victor (September 8, 2014). "Facebook Is Now Worth $200 Billion". Time. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- La Monica, Paul R. (September 9, 2014). "A lot to 'like': Facebook now worth $200 billion". CNNMoney. CNN. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- "Facebook Valuation Tops $200 Billion". Bloomberg L.P. September 8, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Oreskovic, Alexei (January 20, 2015). "Facebook clamps down on fake news stories". Reuters. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- Bakshy, Eytan; Messing, Solomon; Adamic, Lada A. (June 5, 2015). "Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook". Science. 348 (6239): 1130–1132. Bibcode:2015Sci...348.1130B. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1160. PMID 25953820. S2CID 206632821.
- "Facebook Is Hiding Your Friends' Updates From You | Unicorn Booty". Unicorn Booty. May 28, 2015. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- gong (November 28, 2015). "페이스북, 전세계 '아빠 출산휴가' 4주→4개월로 확대".
- "Zuckerberg unveils 10-year plan to expand Facebook empire, with political tones". USA TODAY. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Ackerman, Gwen (July 11, 2016). "Facebook Sued for $1B for Alleged Use of Medium for Terror". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- Constine, Josh (July 26, 2016). "Facebook open sources Surround 360 camera with Ikea-style instructions". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "Facebook wins first Emmy for Visual animated short "Henry"". September 20, 2016. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- Hu, Howard (October 11, 2016). "Facebook's Workplace Could Replace All Emails Within Your Company". Forbes. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Alba, Davey. "Facebook's Cracking Down on Fake News Starting Today". WIRED. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- Plunkett, Luke (March 25, 2014). "Facebook Buys Oculus Rift For $2 Billion". Kotaku.com. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- Shead, Sam (January 17, 2017). "Facebook is planning to open a startup incubator in Paris". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Matt Burgess (February 1, 2017). "More than 100 entrepreneurs sign up to help Facebook and Station F find the best startups". WIRED. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- Nick Statt (April 18, 2017). "Facebook's bold and bizarre VR hangout app is now available for the Oculus Rift". THE VERGE. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- Janko Roettgers (April 18, 2017). "A Closer Look at Facebook Spaces, the Company's First Social VR App". Variety. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- Etherington, Darrell. "Facebook plans to spend up to $1B on original shows in 2018". TechCrunch. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
- Constine, Josh. "Facebook acquires anonymous teen compliment app tbh, will let it run". TechCrunch. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- "Facebook has bought tbh, the anonymous app loved by teens". Business Insider. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- "Facebook Buys TBH App Popular With Teens for Anonymous Messaging". Bloomberg.com. October 16, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- "tbh has a new home!". tbh. Archived from the original on October 17, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- "Facebook F8: Zuckerberg's dating service takes on Tinder". BBC News. May 2, 2018. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- "Facebook wants to get you a date – CBC News".
- "Facebook faces maximum fine for data misuse". BBC News. July 11, 2018. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
- "Facebook sets up China subsidiary". Channel News Asia. July 24, 2018.
- Mozur, Paul (July 25, 2018). "China Said to Quickly Withdraw Approval for New Facebook Venture". New York Times.
- Imbert, Fred; Francolla, Gina (July 26, 2018). "Facebook's $100 billion-plus rout is the biggest loss in stock market history". CNBC. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Newton, Casey (July 26, 2018). "Facebook's stock market decline is the largest one-day drop in US history". The Verge. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Joseph Menn (September 19, 2018). "Facebook expands fake election news fight, but falsehoods still rampant". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- "Facebook Portal brings Alexa and Messenger video chats to one device". CNET. October 8, 2018. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- "You can buy Facebook's Portal smart displays starting today". CNET. November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- "Why everybody's doing the 10 year challenge (with the best so far)". January 15, 2019.
- "Facebook '10 year challenge' could be used for good and evil thanks to AI". January 16, 2019.
- Graham, Jefferson (March 7, 2019). "Facebook announces anti-vaxx crackdown, will block ads with vaccine misinformation". USA Today (Gannett). Retrieved March 8, 2019.
- Jamison, Amelia M.; Broniatowski, David A.; Dredze, Mark; Wood-Doughty, Zach; Khan, Dureaden; Quinn, Sandra Crouse (2020). "Vaccine-related advertising in the Facebook Ad Archive". Vaccine. 38 (3): 512–520. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.10.066. PMC 6954281. PMID 31732327.
- "Majority of anti-vaxx ads on Facebook are funded by just two organizations". The Guardian. November 14, 2019. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- Feinberg, Askley (March 14, 2019). "Facebook, Axios And NBC Paid This Guy To Whitewash Wikipedia Pages". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Anderson, Charles (March 24, 2019). "Censor bans 'manifesto' of Christchurch mosque shooter" – via www.theguardian.com.
- Romm, Tony; Dwoskin, Elizabeth (March 27, 2019). "Facebook says it will now block white-nationalist, white-separatist posts". Washington Post. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- O'Sullivan, Donie (March 27, 2019). "Facebook bans white nationalism two weeks after New Zealand attack". CNN. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- "Facebook bans far right groups and leaders". BBC News. April 18, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
- Vincent, James (April 18, 2019). "Facebook bans UK's biggest far-right organizations, including EDL, BNP, and Britain First". The Verge. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
- "Sri Lanka bombings 'retaliation' for Christchurch mosque attacks, minister says". NZ Herald. April 23, 2019.
- "Sri Lanka 'bombing mastermind' named as Moulvi Zahran Hashim". The Daily Telegraph. April 23, 2019.
- Statt, Nick (April 30, 2019). "Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg says the "future is private"". The Verge. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- "Facebook pivots to what it wishes it was". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- "Analysis | The Technology 202: Facebook's new emphasis on groups could leave it more vulnerable to disinformation". Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- Hunt, Elle (May 1, 2019). "Will Facebook's Secret Crush end the unbearable pain of unrequited love?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- Isaac, Mike (April 30, 2019). "Facebook Unveils Redesign as It Tries to Move Past Privacy Scandals". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- "All the important stuff from Facebook's F8 keynote". Engadget. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- "Takeaways from F8 and Facebook's next phase". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- "Facebook Reality Labs- UCSF working on tech that reads your mind". Preview Tech. August 17, 2019.
- "Facebook Dating launches in the US, adds Instagram integration". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
- Dwyer, Colin; Chappell, Bill. "Facebook News: App Will Offer Hand-Picked Stories From NPR, Other Outlets". NPR. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- Robertson, Adi (October 25, 2019). "Mark Zuckerberg is struggling to explain why Breitbart belongs on Facebook News". The Verge. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- Ellefson, Lindsey; Burch, Sean (October 25, 2019). "Facebook News Criticized for Including Breitbart as 'Trusted' Source". TheWrap. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- Lee, Dami (December 13, 2019). "A thief stole unencrypted hard drives filled with 29,000 Facebook employees' information". The Verge. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
- "Facebook Names Two New Directors, Making Board 40% Women". BloombergQuint. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- Wakefield, Jane (June 30, 2020). "UK hotel and insurance giants pause Facebook ads". BBC News. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- Clayton, James (June 29, 2020). "Could a boycott kill Facebook?". BBC News. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- "Facebook begins merging Instagram and Messenger chats in new update". The Verge. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
- "Facebook launches climate information centre following California wildfires and misinformation criticisms". Sky News. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
- Zadie Smith (November 25, 2010). "Generation Why?". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Jose Antonio Vargas (September 20, 2010). "LETTER FROM PALO ALTO: THE FACE OF FACEBOOK". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Haiping Zhao (February 2, 2010). "Developer Blog – HipHop for PHP: Move Fast". Facebook Developers. Facebook. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- Paul, Ryan (April 5, 2012). "Exclusive: a behind-the-scenes look at Facebook release engineering". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- "Facebook's New Real-time Analytics System: HBase To Process 20 Billion Events Per Day". Highscalability.com. March 22, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- "The Evolution of Advanced Caching in the Facebook CDN". April 7, 2016.
- Dwarakanath, Navya (August 12, 2019). [[[:Template:Service.canonical]] "What I Learned About How Facebook Infrastructure Serves Our Photos"] Check
|url=value (help). Template:Service.siteName. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
- "An Analysis of Facebook Photo Caching".
- "Does Facebook use any other CDN apart from Akamai? Encountered fbcdn.net subdomain that does not belong to Akamai". Web Applications Stack Exchange.
- Farahbakhsh, Reza; Cuevas, Angel; Ortiz, Antonio M.; Han, Xiao; Crespi, Noel (2015). "How far is Facebook from me? Facebook network infrastructure analysis". IEEE Communications Magazine. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 53 (9): 134–142. arXiv:1705.00717. doi:10.1109/mcom.2015.7263357. ISSN 0163-6804. S2CID 7987529.
- Metz, Cade (March 20, 2014). "Facebook Introduces 'Hack', the Programming Language of the Future". Wired.
- Havenstein, Heather (July 21, 2008). "Facebook Facelift Targets Aging Users and New Competitors". The New York Times.
- Slee, Mark (September 10, 2008). "Moving to the new Facebook". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved September 12, 2008.
- Knibbs, Kate (December 11, 2015). "How Facebook's design has changed over the last 10 years". The Daily Dot. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Schulman, Jacob (September 22, 2011). "Facebook introduces Timeline: 'a new way to express who you are'". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Gayomali, Chris (September 22, 2011). "Facebook Introduces 'Timeline': The 'Story' of Your Life". Time. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Panzarino, Matthew (September 22, 2011). "Facebook introduces radical new profile design called Timeline: The story of your life [Video]". The Next Web. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Weaver, Jason (March 30, 2012). "The Evolution of Facebook for Brands". Mashable. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- "Before Graph Search: Facebook's Biggest Changes". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. January 15, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Hof, Rob (November 6, 2007). "Facebook Declares New Era for Advertising". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Parr, Ben (June 9, 2009). "Facebook to Launch Vanity URLs for All". Mashable. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- O'Neill, Nick (June 9, 2009). "Facebook Begins Rolling Out Free Profile Usernames For Vanity URLs". Adweek. Beringer Capital. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Crook, Jordan; Constine, Josh (February 13, 2014). "Facebook Opens Up LGBTQ-Friendly Gender Identity And Pronoun Options". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "Facebook expands gender options: transgender activists hail 'big advance'". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. February 14, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Oreskovic, Alexei (February 13, 2014). "In new profile feature, Facebook offers choices for gender identity". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Machkovech, Sam (May 16, 2014). "Facebook adds naggy "ask" button to profile pages". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Stampler, Laura (May 19, 2014). "Facebook's New 'Ask' Button Gives You a Whole New Way to Badger Friends About Their Relationship Status". Time. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Sanghvi, Ruchi (September 6, 2006). "Facebook Gets a Facelift". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
- "Facebook: Celebrate Your Birthday Every Day". Colnect blog. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
- Lacy, Sarah (September 8, 2006). "Facebook Learns from Its Fumble". BusinessWeek. New York. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
- Gonsalves, Antone (September 8, 2006). "Facebook Founder Apologizes In Privacy Flap; Users Given More Control". InformationWeek. New York. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
- US patent 7669123
- "US Patent No. 7669123". Social Media. March 1, 2010. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
- "EdgeRank". EdgeRank. October 29, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- Arrington, Michael (May 24, 2007). "Facebook Launches Facebook Platform; They are the Anti-MySpace". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "Share More Memories with Larger Photo Albums". Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- "Photos". Facebook. Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
- Shontell, Alyson (May 13, 2011). "The First 20 Facebook Employees: Where Are They Now?". Business Insider. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- Cutler, Kim-Mai (May 17, 2011). "Facebook Wins Patents For Tagging In Photos, Other Digital Media". Adweek. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- "Facebook to launch App Center". The Times Of India. June 8, 2012. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012.
- "Introducing Instant Articles – Facebook Media". fb.com. Archived from the original on May 14, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- "Facebook launches "Instant Articles"". Preview Tech. May 14, 2015.
- Constine, Josh (January 25, 2017). "Facebook Stories puts a Snapchat clone above the News Feed". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Franklin, Rachel (October 11, 2017). "Building Connections Through Creativity and Opening VR to Everyone". Oculus. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- Isaac, Mike (2018). "Facebook Overhauls News Feed to Focus on What Friends and Family Share". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- Kincaid, Jason (February 9, 2009). "Facebook Activates "Like" Button; FriendFeed Tires Of Sincere Flattery". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Mangalindan, JP (April 21, 2015). "Facebook Likes don't go as far as they used to in News Feed update". Mashable. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Constine, Josh (September 6, 2016). "How Facebook News Feed Works". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- "Like and React to Posts". Facebook Help Center. Facebook. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Albanesius, Chloe (June 17, 2010). "Facebook Adds Ability to 'Like' Comments". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Newton, Casey (February 24, 2016). "Facebook rolls out expanded Like button reactions around the world". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Stinson, Liz (February 24, 2016). "Facebook Reactions, the Totally Redesigned Like Button, Is Here". Wired. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Garun, Natt (May 3, 2017). "Facebook reactions have now infiltrated comments". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Cohen, David (May 3, 2017). "Facebook Just Extended Reactions to Comments". Adweek. Beringer Capital. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Hendrickson, Mark (April 6, 2008). "Facebook Chat Launches, For Some". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Siegler, MG (November 15, 2010). "Facebook's Modern Messaging System: Seamless, History, And A Social Inbox". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Kincaid, Jason (August 9, 2011). "Facebook Launches Standalone iPhone/Android Messenger App (And It's Beluga)". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- King, Hope (April 27, 2015). "Facebook Messenger now lets you make video calls". CNN. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Statt, Nick (December 19, 2016). "Facebook Messenger now lets you video chat with up to 50 people". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Hamburger, Ellis (January 16, 2013). "Facebook launches free calling for all iPhone users in the US". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Constine, Josh (April 27, 2015). "Facebook Messenger Launches Free VOIP Video Calls Over Cellular And Wi-Fi". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Arthur, Charles (December 4, 2012). "Facebook turns Messenger into a text message killer". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- "Chat Heads come to Facebook Messenger for Android". The Verge. Vox Media. April 12, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Perez, Sarah (February 11, 2016). "Facebook Tests SMS Integration In Messenger, Launches Support For Multiple Accounts". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Greenberg, Andy (October 4, 2016). "You Can All Finally Encrypt Facebook Messenger, So Do It". Wired. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Constine, Josh (November 29, 2016). "Facebook Messenger launches Instant Games". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Constine, Josh (March 17, 2015). "Facebook Introduces Free Friend-To-Friend Payments Through Messages". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Hawkins, Andrew J. (December 16, 2015). "Facebook Messenger now lets you hail an Uber car". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Vincent, James (March 9, 2017). "Facebook's Snapchat stories clone, Messenger Day, is now rolling out globally". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Vincent, James (March 23, 2017). "Facebook Messenger gets reactions for individual messages and @ notifications". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- King, Hope (March 25, 2015). "7 big changes coming to Facebook". CNN. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Newton, Casey (April 12, 2016). "Facebook launches a bot platform for Messenger". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Statt, Nick (April 6, 2017). "Facebook's AI assistant will now offer suggestions inside Messenger". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Constine, Josh (April 6, 2017). "Facebook Messenger's AI 'M' suggests features to use based on your convos". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Constine, Josh (April 18, 2017). "Facebook Messenger launches group bots and bot discovery tab". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Hamburger, Ellis (December 5, 2012). "Facebook snubs 'Subscribe' button in favor of Twitter-esque 'Follow' on all profile pages". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Constine, Josh (February 15, 2012). "Facebook Launches Verified Accounts and Pseudonyms". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "Edward Snowden: Leaks that exposed US spy programme". BBC News. January 17, 2014.
- "Search Privacy". Facebook. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
- "Choose Your Privacy Settings". Facebook. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- Wilberding, Kurt; Wells, Georgia (February 4, 2019). "Facebook's Timeline: 15 Years In". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "Facebook". Facebook. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- "Facebook Offers $500 Bounty for Reporting Bugs: Why So Cheap". PC Magazine. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- Bug Bounty, Facebook. "Facebook Bug Bounty". Facebook Security. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
- Schroeder, Stan (August 26, 2008). "Facebook's 100 Million Users: How Much are They Worth?". Mashable. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Kiss, Jemima (October 4, 2012). "Facebook hits 1 billion users a month". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Welch, Chris (June 27, 2017). "Facebook crosses 2 billion monthly users". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- Constine, Josh (June 27, 2017). "Facebook now has 2 billion monthly users ... and responsibility". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
- Cohen, David (November 6, 2015). "Facebook Changes Definition of Monthly Active Users". Adweek. Beringer Capital. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Abrar Al-Heeti, Facebook lost 15 million US users in the past two years, report says, CNET (March 6, 2019).
- Nick Statt, Facebook's US user base declined by 15 million since 2017, according to survey, The Verge (March 6, 2019).
- Heaven, Will (June 14, 2011). "Is this the beginning of the end for Facebook?". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012.
- Silverman, Matt (June 13, 2012). "The End of Facebook: What Will It Take to Kill the King of Social?". Mashable.
- Bilton, Nick (October 27, 2017). "This Could Be the End of Facebook". Vanity Fair.
- "December Data on Facebook's US Growth by Age and Gender: Beyond 100 Million – Inside Facebook". Inside Facebook. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Facebook users by country | Statistic". Statista. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
- Khan, Aarzu (August 19, 2018). "Number of Facebook Monthly Active Users Worldwide, By Region - DGraph". Dazeinfo. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
- "Social Networking". PC Magazine. August 13, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- "12th Annual Webby Awards Nominees". International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on September 26, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Ha, Anthony (January 11, 2010). "Congratulations to Facebook, Bing, and the other Crunchies winners". VentureBeat. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- Kincaid, Jason (January 8, 2010). "Congratulations Crunchies Winners! Facebook Takes Best Overall For The Hat Trick". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Wauters, Robin (July 7, 2009). "China Blocks Access To Twitter, Facebook After Riots". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Iranian government blocks Facebook access". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. May 24, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (November 23, 2007). "Syria blocks Facebook in Internet crackdown". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Facebook to be banned in Papua New Guinea for a month". BBC News. BBC. May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- Business, Kaya Yurieff, CNN. "Instagram influencers can no longer promote vaping and guns". CNN. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- Aspen, Maria (February 11, 2008). "How Sticky Is Membership on Facebook? Just Try Breaking Free". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Anthony, Sebastian (March 19, 2014). "Facebook's facial recognition software is now as accurate as the human brain, but what now?". ExtremeTech. Ziff Davis. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Gannes, Liz (June 8, 2011). "Facebook facial recognition prompts EU privacy probe". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Robinson, Bill (February 10, 2014). "Facebook: The World's Biggest Waste of Time?". www.huffingtonpost.com. Huffington Post. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
- Friedman, Matt (March 21, 2013). "Bill to ban companies from asking about job candidates' Facebook accounts is headed to governor". NJ.com. Advance Digital. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "How Facebook Breeds Jealousy". Seeker. Group Nine Media. February 10, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Matyszczyk, Chris (August 11, 2009). "Study: Facebook makes lovers jealous". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Ngak, Chenda (November 27, 2012). "Facebook may cause stress, study says". CBS News. CBS. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Smith, Dave (November 13, 2015). "Quitting Facebook will make you happier and less stressed, study says". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Bugeja, Michael J. (January 23, 2006). "Facing the Facebook". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original on February 20, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Hough, Andrew (April 8, 2011). "Student 'addiction' to technology 'similar to drug cravings', study finds". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Facebook and Twitter 'more addictive than tobacco and alcohol'". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. February 1, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Evan Osnos. "Can Mark Zuckerberg Fix Facebook Before It Breaks Democracy?". The New Yorker, September 17, 2018 Issue. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- Wauters, Robin (September 16, 2010). "Greenpeace Slams Zuckerberg For Making Facebook A "So Coal Network" (Video)". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Neate, Rupert (December 23, 2012). "Facebook paid £2.9m tax on £840m profits made outside US, figures show". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Grinberg, Emanuella (September 18, 2014). "Facebook 'real name' policy stirs questions around identity". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Doshi, Vidhi (July 19, 2016). "Facebook under fire for 'censoring' Kashmir-related posts and accounts". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Arrington, Michael (November 22, 2007). "Is Facebook Really Censoring Search When It Suits Them?". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 7, 2013). "NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Setalvad, Ariha (August 7, 2015). "Why Facebook's video theft problem can't last". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Facebook, Twitter and Google grilled by MPs over hate speech". BBC News. BBC. March 14, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Toor, Amar (September 15, 2015). "Facebook will work with Germany to combat anti-refugee hate speech". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Sherwell, Philip (October 16, 2011). "Cyber anarchists blamed for unleashing a series of Facebook 'rape pages'". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "20,000 Israelis sue Facebook for ignoring Palestinian incitement". The Times of Israel. October 27, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Israel: Facebook's Zuckerberg has blood of slain Israeli teen on his hands". The Times of Israel. July 2, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Burke, Samuel (November 19, 2016). "Zuckerberg: Facebook will develop tools to fight fake news". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Staff, Our Foreign (June 1, 2017). "Hillary Clinton says Facebook 'must prevent fake news from creating a new reality'". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Fiegerman, Seth (May 9, 2017). "Facebook's global fight against fake news". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Grinberg, Emanuella; Said, Samira (March 22, 2017). "Police: At least 40 people watched teen's sexual assault on Facebook Live". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Grinberg, Emanuella (January 5, 2017). "Chicago torture: Facebook Live video leads to 4 arrests". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Sulleyman, Aatif (April 27, 2017). "Facebook Live killings: Why the criticism has been harsh". The Independent. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Paradise Papers reveal hidden wealth of global elite". The Express Tribune. November 6, 2017.
- May 13, Reuters | Updated; 2019; Ist, 21:29. "Sri Lanka Riots: Sri Lanka imposes nationwide curfew after anti-Muslim riots - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved May 14, 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "Sri Lanka blocks social media after worst anti-Muslim violence since Easter Sunday attacks". The National. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Sullivan, Mark. "Facebook catches 3 billion fake accounts, but the ones it misses are the real problem". Fast Company.
- Cox, Kate. "The FTC is investigating Facebook. Again". ars Technica. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
- Ingram, David; Fioretti, Julia (March 29, 2018). "Facebook cuts ties to data brokers in blow to targeted ads". Reuters. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- Simpson, David; Brown, Pamela (September 30, 2013). "NSA mines Facebook, including Americans' profiles". cnn.com. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- "Facebook Settles FTC Charges That It Deceived Consumers By Failing To Keep Privacy Promises". FTC. November 29, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
- "Social networks: can robots violate user privacy?". August 27, 2013. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- Van Grove, Jennifer (January 2, 2014). "Facebook sued for allegedly intercepting private messages". CNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- "Facebook bug set 14 million users' sharing settings to public". June 7, 2018. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- "Millions of Facebook Records Found On Amazon Servers". Hack Hex. April 4, 2019. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
- "Facebook confirms 419m phone numbers exposed in latest privacy lapse". The Guardian. September 5, 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
- Reaz, Shaer (August 28, 2020). "Cutting ties with a giant: Viber CEO on Facebook relations and #StopHateForProfit". The Daily Star. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
- "We're proud to join #StopHateForProfit". Mozilla Corporation. Mozilla Foundation. June 24, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
- Brandom, Russell (April 11, 2018). "Shadow profiles are the biggest flaw in Facebook's privacy defense". The Verge. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- "How Facebook can have your data even if you're not on Facebook". USA TODAY. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- Hill, Kashmir (November 7, 2017). "How Facebook Figures Out Everyone You've Ever Met". Gizmodo. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- Lewis, Paul; Wong, Julia Carrie (March 18, 2018). "Facebook employs psychologist whose firm sold data to Cambridge Analytica". the Guardian. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
- Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo (March 19, 2018). "Why We're Not Calling the Cambridge Analytica Story a 'Data Breach'". Motherboard. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
- Rosenberg, Matthew; Confessore, Nicholas; Cadwalladr, Carole (March 17, 2018). "How Trump Consultants Exploited the Facebook Data of Millions" – via NYTimes.com.
- Timberg, Craig; Romm, Tony (March 18, 2018). "Facebook may have violated FTC privacy deal, say former federal officials, triggering risk of massive fines". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
- CNBC (March 23, 2018). "UK High Court grants Cambridge Analytica search warrant to ICO". CNBC. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
- "Facebook boss apologises in newspaper ads". BBC News. March 25, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
- Ivanova, Irina (March 26, 2018). "Facebook stock rebounds after FTC investigation news". CBS News. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
- Feiner, Lauren (April 24, 2019). "Facebook estimates up to $5 billion loss in FTC privacy inquiry". www.cnbc.com. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- Solon, Olivia (April 12, 2018). "Fact-checking Mark Zuckerberg's testimony about Facebook privacy". The Guardian. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- "Zuckerberg says Facebook will offer GDPR privacy controls everywhere". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- Brodkin, Jon (April 12, 2018). "Facebook exits anti-privacy alliance it formed with Comcast and Google". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- "Funny, When Obama Harvested Facebook Data On Millions Of Users To Win In 2012, Everyone Cheered". Investor's Business Daily. March 19, 2018.
- "Why Are We Only Now Talking About Facebook And Elections?". Forbes. March 19, 2018.
- "Former Facebook staffer, Obama campaign boss reveal concerns about Facebook data". News.com.au. March 21, 2018.
- "Comparing Facebook data use by Obama, Cambridge Analytica". PolitiFact. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- "Everything you need to know about Facebook's data breach affecting 50M users". TechCrunch. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- Isaac, Mike; Frenkel, Sheera (September 28, 2018). "Facebook Security Breach Exposes Accounts of 50 Million Users". The New York Times. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- Wong, Julia Carrie (September 28, 2018). "Facebook says nearly 50m users compromised in huge security breach". The Guardian. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- "Not Tens of Thousands, But Millions of Instagram Passwords Exposed, Admits Facebook". News18. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- Ghoshal, Abhimanyu (December 20, 2019). "267 million Facebook users' data has reportedly been leaked". The Next Web. Retrieved December 21, 2019.
- "Facebook's Twitter account hacked". NBC News. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- Morris, Betsy; Seetharaman, Deepa (August 9, 2017). "The New Copycats: How Facebook Squashes Competition From Startups". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- "The New Copycats: How Facebook Squashes -2-". Fox Business. August 9, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- "Facebook knew about Snap's struggles months before the public". Engadget. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- "Apple makes Facebook pull its spyware(ish) VPN from the App Store". Fast Company. August 23, 2018. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
- McKay, Tom (August 22, 2018). "Facebook Pulls Its Data-Harvesting Onavo VPN From App Store After Apple Says It Violates Rules". Gizmodo. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
- Morse, Jack (August 22, 2018). "Facebook to pull its creepy VPN Onavo from App Store after Apple pushback". Mashable. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
- "Apple removed Facebook's Onavo from the App Store for gathering app data". TechCrunch. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- "Facebook will pull its data-collecting VPN app from the App Store over privacy concerns". The Verge. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- Constine, John (January 29, 2019). "Facebook pays teens to install VPN that spies on them". TechCrunch. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Wagner, Kurt (January 30, 2019). "Apple says it's banning Facebook's research app that collects users' personal information". Recode. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Warren, Tom (January 30, 2019). "Apple blocks Facebook from running its internal iOS apps". The Verge. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Isaac, Mike (January 31, 2019). "Apple Shows Facebook Who Has the Power in an App Dispute". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 2, 2019 – via NYTimes.com.
- Gallagher, Sean (March 24, 2018). "Facebook scraped call, text message data for years from Android phones [Updated]". Ars Technica. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
- Rosenberg, Adam. "Facebook's app has been collecting Android phone data for years on some devices". Mashable. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Facebook has been collecting call history and SMS data from Android devices The Verge
- "Android users file lawsuit against Facebook for invasion of privacy". jurist.org.
- Buckner, Gabriella (May 14, 2018). "Facebook faces class action lawsuit for Android call and message data scraping". itpro.co.uk. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- "Off-Facebook Activity". Facebook for Business.
- Fowler, Geoffrey A. "Perspective | Facebook will now show you exactly how it stalks you — even when you're not using Facebook". Washington Post.
- Bowie, Norman E.; Schnieder, Meg (February 9, 2011). Business Ethics For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118020623.
- Hempel, Jessi (March 30, 2018). "A Short History of Facebook's Privacy Gaffes". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Statt, Nick (March 25, 2018). "Mark Zuckerberg apologizes for Facebook's data privacy scandal in full-page newspaper ads". The Verge. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "Social Media/polls Show Low Trust In Facebook". www.digitaltrends.com. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Christofides, E.; Muise, A.; Desmarais, S. (March 31, 2010). "Privacy and Disclosure on Facebook: Youth & Adults' Information Disclosure and Perceptions of Privacy Risks - Contributions Program 2009-2010". www.priv.gc.ca. Office of the Privacy Commissioner of. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Wong, Julia Carrie (December 12, 2017). "Former Facebook executive: social media is ripping society apart". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Roose, Kevin. "Facebook and YouTube Give Alex Jones a Wrist Slap". Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Siva Vaidhyanathan (June 12, 2018), Antisocial Media: How Facebook Disconnects Us and Undermines Democracy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-084118-8, Wikidata Q56027099
- p. 195-196 of 276 and chapter 6. "The Politics Machine" and its section on "The Damage" more generally
- Section on "How Facebook helped make Trump president" in chapter 6, esp. p. 215.
- "Borne by Facebook, Conspiracy Theory That U.S. Created ISIS Spreads Across Middle East". Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Gowen, Annie; Bearak, Max. "Fake news on Facebook fans the flames of hate against the Rohingya in Burma". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- "Myanmar's Military Said to Be Behind Facebook Campaign That Fueled Genocide". Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- News, Scott Waldman,E&E. "Climate Denial Spreads on Facebook as Scientists Face Restrictions". Scientific American. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
- Pozner, Leonard; Rosa, Veronique De La; Pozner, parents of Noah (July 25, 2018). "An open letter to Mark Zuckerberg from the parents of a Sandy Hook victim". the Guardian. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- "Facebook Fueled Anti-Refugee Attacks in Germany, New Research Suggests". Retrieved August 21, 2018.
- MMller, Karsten; Schwarz, Carlo (2017). "Fanning the Flames of Hate: Social Media and Hate Crime". SSRN Working Paper Series. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3082972. ISSN 1556-5068. SSRN 3082972.
- Beauchamp, Zack (January 22, 2019). "Social media is rotting democracy from within". Vox. Archived from the original on January 25, 2019.
- Etter, Lauren (December 7, 2017). "What Happens When the Government Uses Facebook as a Weapon?". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on January 24, 2019.
- Hunt, Elle (March 22, 2017). "'Disputed by multiple fact-checkers': Facebook rolls out new alert to combat fake news". The Guardian. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
- Sherman, Amy. "In phony Facebook ad, Warren said most TV networks will refuse ads with a 'lie' but that's wrong". Politifact. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
- Scola, Nancy. "Facebook on fake Pelosi video: Being 'false' isn't enough for removal". Politico.
- "Mail Bomber Cesar Sayoc Threatened Me on Facebook - Volokh Conspiracy". October 27, 2018.
- Frenkel, Sheera (July 18, 2018). "Facebook to Remove Misinformation That Leads to Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- Darcy, Oliver. "Facebook's rhetoric on misinformation doesn't match its actions". CNNMoney. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Kelly, Heather. "Mark Zuckerberg clarifies his Holocaust comments". CNNMoney. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Oliver Darcy (May 2, 2019). "Facebook bans Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, InfoWars and others from its platforms as 'dangerous'". CNN.
- Michael Cappetta and Ben Collins (May 2, 2019). "Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan, others banned from Facebook and Instagram". NBC News.
- Newton, Casey (May 12, 2020). "Facebook will pay $52 million in settlement with moderators who developed PTSD on the job". The Verge. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- Newton, Casey (February 25, 2019). "The secret lives of Facebook moderators in America". The Verge. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- "Facebook Content Moderators Win $52m Compensation Settlement". ModeratorRights.com. May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- "Thailand takes first legal action against Facebook, Twitter over content". Reuters. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
- "Media — both on the left and right — are pressing Facebook to define what journalism is". Recode. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Kosoff, Maya. "Why Facebook Won't Actually Ban Fake News". The Hive. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- "Facebook Said Alex Jones' Threatening Rant Against Robert Mueller Doesn't Violate Its Rules". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Darcy, Oliver. "Facebook suspends personal profile of InfoWars founder Alex Jones". CNNMoney. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Ross, Jamie (August 6, 2018). "Facebook and Apple iTunes Ban Alex Jones as Internet Giants Silence Infowars". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- Gleicher, Nathaniel; Rodriguez, Oscar (October 11, 2018). "Removing Additional Inauthentic Activity from Facebook". Facebook Newsroom. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- "Snowden Docs: British Spies Used Sex and 'Dirty Tricks'". NBC News. February 7, 2014.
- "Snowden leaks: GCHQ 'attacked Anonymous' hackers". BBC. February 5, 2014.
- "China's 'troll factory' targeting Taiwan with disinformation prior to election". Taiwan News. May 11, 2018.
- "Trolls, bots and shutdowns: This is how Turkey manipulates public opinion". Ahval. November 17, 2017.
- "Jewish Internet Defense Force 'seizes control' of anti-Israel Facebook group". The Jerusalem Post. July 29, 2008.
- Morrison, Sarah (March 4, 2008). "Jewish Activist Battles For Israel on Facebook". Israel National News.
- "Social media manipulation rising globally, new report warns". University of Oxford. July 20, 2018.
- "Facebook: Most political trolls are American, not Russian". The Daily Telegraph. October 12, 2018.
- "Facebook suspends five accounts, including that of a social media researcher, for misleading tactics in Alabama election". The Washington Post. December 22, 2018.
- "Democratic operatives created fake Russian bots designed to link Kremlin to Roy Moore in Alabama race". Fox News. December 20, 2018.
- "Facebook Says It Removed 783 Accounts Tied to an Iranian Manipulation Campaign". Fortune. January 31, 2019.
- Madowo, Larry (May 24, 2019). "Is Facebook undermining democracy in Africa?". Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- Satter, Isabel Debre and Raphael (May 16, 2019). "'Change reality': Facebook busts Israel-based campaign to disrupt elections". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- "Removing Coordinated Inauthentic Behavior From Israel | Facebook Newsroom". Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- Business, Donie O'Sullivan and Hadas Gold, CNN. "Facebook says Israeli company used fake accounts to target African elections". CNN. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- Needleman, Sarah E. (May 16, 2019). "Facebook Bans Israeli Firm Over Fake Political Activity". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- "Facebook Removed Nearly 3.4 Billion Fake Accounts In 6 Months". National Public Radio. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
- "Facebook removes fake accounts from Thailand, Russia, Ukraine, Honduras". Reuters. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
- "Facebook deletes accounts of workers at NSO Israeli firm". Quds News Network. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
- Romm, Tony (May 12, 2020). "Facebook Helps Launch American Edge, a Dark-Money Advocacy Group for Big Tech". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- "Facebook prepares legal action against Thai government's order to block group". CNN International. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
- "Internet Research Agency indicted: Who is the Russian company behind the fake Facebook ads?". Fox News. February 16, 2018.
- "13 Russians Indicted as Mueller Reveals Effort to Aid Trump Campaign". The New York Times. February 16, 2018.
- "Exposing Russia's Effort to Sow Discord Online: The Internet Research Agency and Advertisements". intelligence.house.gov. Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- Seetharaman, Deepa; Tau, Byron; Harris, Shane (September 15, 2017). "Facebook Gave Special Counsel Robert Mueller More Details on Russian Ad Buys Than Congress". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
- "Facebook sold $100,000 of political ads to fake Russian accounts during 2016 US election". The Independent. September 6, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- "Facebook Says Russian Accounts Bought $100,000 in Ads During the 2016 Election". Time. September 6, 2017.
- "New Studies Show Pundits Are Wrong About Russian Social-Media Involvement in US Politics". The Nation. December 28, 2018.
- Castillo, Michelle (September 6, 2017). "Facebook gave special counsel Robert Mueller data on Russian ads, report says". Retrieved September 7, 2017.
- Leonnig, Carol D.; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Timberg, Craig (September 18, 2017). "Facebook's openness on Russia questioned by congressional investigators". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
- "Russians trolls organized a protest in the US". CNN. June 25, 2018.
- "Did Russian hackers organize Philando Castile protest? Activists say no". Star Tribune. November 1, 2017.
- Ackerman, Ben Collins|Kevin Poulsen|Spencer (September 12, 2017). "Exclusive: Russia Used Facebook Events to Organize Anti-Immigrant Rallies on U.S. Soil". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
- "Shuttered Facebook group that organized anti-Clinton, anti-immigrant rallies across Texas was linked to Russia". Business Insider. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
- "Russians Staged Rallies For and Against Trump to Promote Discord, Indictment Says". Fortune. February 17, 2018.
- Ackerman, Ben Collins|Gideon Resnick|Kevin Poulsen|Spencer (September 20, 2017). "Exclusive: Russians Appear to Use Facebook to Push Trump Rallies in 17 U.S. Cities". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
- Dwoskin, Adam Entous, Craig Timberg and Elizabeth (September 25, 2017). "Russian operatives used Facebook ads to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- "Exclusive: Russian-bought Black Lives Matter ad on Facebook targeted Baltimore and Ferguson". CNN. September 28, 2017.
- Ackerman, Ben Collins|Kevin Poulsen|Spencer (September 27, 2017). "Exclusive: Russians Impersonated Real American Muslims to Stir Chaos on Facebook and Instagram". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
- Shinal, John (September 27, 2017). "Mark Zuckerberg responds to Trump, regrets he dismissed election concerns". CNBC. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Kremlin-owned Firms Linked to Major Investments in Twitter and Facebook". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists – ICIJ. November 5, 2017.
- Drucker, Jesse (November 5, 2017). "Kremlin Cash Behind Billionaire's Twitter and Facebook Investments". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- "Disinformation and 'fake news': Final Report". publications.parliament.uk. Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee – House of Commons. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- Gleicher, Nathaniel (January 17, 2019). "Removing Coordinated Inauthentic Behavior from Russia". Facebook Newsroom. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- Cuthbertson, Antony (March 26, 2019). "Facebook removes thousands more Russian accounts". The Independent. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- "Disinformation and 'fake news': Interim Report". publications.parliament.uk. Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee – House of Commons.
- Cadwalladr, Carole (July 28, 2018). "A withering verdict: MPs report on Zuckerberg, Russia and Cambridge Analytica". The Observer. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- "Facebook labelled 'digital gangsters' by report on fake news". the Guardian. February 18, 2019. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
- "NBC News, to Claim Russia Supports Tulsi Gabbard, Relies on Firm Just Caught Fabricating Russia Data for the Democratic Party". The Intercept. February 3, 2019.
- "Secret Experiment in Alabama Senate Race Imitated Russian Tactics". The New York Times. December 19, 2018.
- "Removing Myanmar Military Officials From Facebook". Facebook Newsroom. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- Mozur, Paul (October 15, 2018). "A Genocide Incited on Facebook, With Posts From Myanmar's Military". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- "The Past and Future of Facebook and BJP's Mutually Beneficial Relationship". The Wire.
- "A Facebook Executive Who Shared An Anti-Muslim Post Has Apologized To Employees". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- Ellis-Petersen, Hannah; Rahman, Shaikh Azizur (September 1, 2020). "Facebook faces grilling by MPs in India over anti-Muslim hate speech". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- "Watch | Why Did Facebook Not Remove BJP-Linked Anti-Muslim Hate Posts?". The Wire. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- Purnell, Jeff Horwitz and Newley (August 30, 2020). "Facebook Executive Supported India's Modi, Disparaged Opposition in Internal Messages". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- "New Report Says Facebook's Ankhi Das Supported Modi, Hoped for BJP's Victory". The Wire. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- Purnell, Newley; Horwitz, Jeff (August 14, 2020). "Facebook's Hate-Speech Rules Collide With Indian Politics". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
- Reporter, Staff (August 31, 2020). "Assembly panel alleges role of Facebook in Delhi riots". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- Deol, Taran (August 31, 2020). "Delhi assembly panel wants Facebook named co-accused in communal riots, hints at 'conspiracy'". ThePrint. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- Bissell, Tom (January 29, 2019). "An Anti-Facebook Manifesto, by an Early Facebook Investor" – via NYTimes.com.
- Schneider, Nathan; Cheadle, Harry (March 27, 2018). "It's Time for Mark Zuckerberg to Give Up Control of Facebook".
- Brown, Shelby. "Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes calls for company's breakup". CNET.
- Hughes, Chris (May 9, 2019). "Opinion | It's Time to Break Up Facebook" – via NYTimes.com.
- Brown, Shelby. "More politicians side with Facebook co-founder on breaking up company". CNET.
- Collins, Katie. "EU competition commissioner: Facebook breakup would be 'last resort'". CNET.
- Farivar, Cyrus (January 7, 2016). "Appeals court upholds deal allowing kids' images in Facebook ads". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Levine, Dan; Oreskovic, Alexei (March 12, 2012). "Yahoo sues Facebook for infringing 10 patents". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Wagner, Kurt (February 1, 2017). "Facebook lost its Oculus lawsuit and has to pay $500 million". Recode. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Brandom, Rusell (May 19, 2016). "Lawsuit claims Facebook illegally scanned private messages". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Tryhorn, Chris (July 25, 2007). "Facebook in court over ownership". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Michels, Scott (July 20, 2007). "Facebook Founder Accused of Stealing Idea for Site". ABC News. ABC. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Carlson, Nicholas (March 5, 2010). "How Mark Zuckerberg Hacked Into Rival ConnectU In 2004". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "BlackBerry to Facebook: You stole our messaging technology". Fox News. March 7, 2018. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- Jolly, Bradley (January 21, 2019). "Refugee 'waterboarded' by bullies to sue Facebook over Tommy Robinson claims". Mirror.
- Halliday, Josh (January 21, 2019). "Bullied Syrian schoolboy to sue Facebook over Tommy Robinson claims". The Guardian.
- Whitcomb, Dan. "Woman sues Facebook, claims site enabled sex trafficking". U.S. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
- Whitcomb, Dan. "Facebook, responding to lawsuit, says sex trafficking banned on site". U.S. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
- "Delay, Deny and Deflect: How Facebook's Leaders Fought Through Crisis". Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- Wong, Julia Carrie (November 15, 2018). "Facebook reportedly discredited critics by linking them to George Soros". the Guardian. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- "Facebook Cuts Ties With Definers Public Affairs Following Outcry". Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- "Facebook paid hundreds of contractors to transcribe users' audio". Los Angeles Times. August 13, 2019.
- "Facebook Paid Contractors to Transcribe Users' Audio Chats". Bloomberg.com. August 13, 2019. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
- Haselton, Todd (August 13, 2019). "Facebook hired people to transcribe voice calls made on Messenger". CNBC.
- Gebelhoff, Robert (May 8, 2019). "Facebook is becoming a vast digital graveyard — and a gift to the future". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 8, 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
- Levin, Jonathan (2013). "The Economics of Internet Markets". In Acemoglu, Daron; Arellano, Manuel; Dekel, Eddie (eds.). Advances in Economics and Econometrics (PDF). pp. 48–75. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139060011.003. ISBN 978-1-139-06001-1. S2CID 37187854.
- "Greenpeace Declares Victory Over Facebook Data Centers". Wired. December 15, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- "The Facebook App Economy" (PDF). University of Maryland. September 19, 2011.
- "Facebook extends lead as news gateway: Study – The Economic Times". The Economic Times. May 26, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- Allcott, Hunt; Braghieri, Luca; Eichmeyer, Sarah; Gentzkow, Matthew (2020). "The Welfare Effects of Social Media". American Economic Review. 110 (3): 629–676. doi:10.1257/aer.20190658. ISSN 0002-8282.
- Ellison, Nicole B.; Steinfield, Charles; Lampe, Cliff (2007). "The Benefits of Facebook "Friends:" Social Capital and College Students' Use of Online Social Network Sites". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 12 (4): 1143–1168. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x.
- Marche, Stephen (April 2, 2012). "Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?". The Atlantic. Emerson Collective. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Konnikova, Maria (September 10, 2013). "How Facebook Makes Us Unhappy". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Dent, Grace (March 6, 2017). "Social media is full of sad, lonely people pretending they're OK and perfectly fine attention-seekers pretending to be sad". The Independent. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Sifferlin, Alexandra (January 24, 2013). "Why Facebook Makes You Feel Bad About Yourself". Time. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Hobson, Katherine (March 6, 2017). "Feeling Lonely? Too Much Time On Social Media May Be Why". NPR. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Goldsmith, Belinda (January 22, 2013). "RPT-Is Facebook envy making you miserable?". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- Kelly, Heather (August 15, 2013). "Study: Using Facebook can make you sad". CNN. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- Flacy, Mike (January 22, 2012). "Study: Why Facebook is making people sad". Digital Trends. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- Sachs, Wendy (February 8, 2012). "Facebook Envy: How Cruising Can Kill Self Esteem". HuffPost. AOL. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- Usigan, Ysolt (August 29, 2011). "Facebook makes teens narcissistic, anxious and depressed – but also nice, social and engaged". CBS News. CBS. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Newton, Casey (December 15, 2017). "Facebook says 'passively consuming' the News Feed will make you feel worse about yourself". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Brodzinsky, Sibylla (February 4, 2008). "Facebook used to target Colombia's FARC with global rally". The Christian Science Monitor. Boston. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Roberts, Laura (August 21, 2010). "North Korea joins Facebook". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
- Sutter, John D. (February 21, 2011). "The faces of Egypt's 'Revolution 2.0'". CNN. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Hauslohner, Abigail (January 24, 2011). "Is Egypt About to Have a Facebook Revolution?". Time. New York. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Kessler, Sarah (January 26, 2011). "Facebook & Twitter Both Blocked in Egypt". Mashable. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Agencies, Suzi Dixon and (August 4, 2011). "Facebook 'used to hunt down Bahrain dissidents'". Retrieved September 24, 2015.
- Johnson, Luke (September 26, 2011). "Facebook forms its own Political Action Committee". Huffington Post. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- Nagesh, Gautham (September 26, 2011). "Facebook to form its own PAC to back political candidates". The Hill. Washington DC. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- "Kobani Kurds Use Facebook To Recruit Foreign Fighters In Struggle Against IS". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. November 13, 2014.
- "Frontline Isis: The Real Story of Narin Afrini and the Kurdish Female 'Lions' Terrorising Islamic State". International Business Times UK. October 15, 2014.
- Quattrociocchi, Walter; Uzzi, Brian; Caldarelli, Guido; Scala, Antonio; Puliga, Michelangelo; Vicario, Michela Del; Zollo, Fabiana; Bessi, Alessandro (August 23, 2016). "Users Polarization on Facebook and Youtube". PLOS ONE. 11 (8): e0159641. arXiv:1604.02705. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1159641B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159641. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4994967. PMID 27551783.
- Solon, Olivia (November 10, 2016). "Facebook's failure: did fake news and polarized politics get Trump elected?". The Guardian. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- "The country where Facebook posts whipped up hate". BBC News. September 12, 2018. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- Mozur, Paul (October 15, 2018). "A Genocide Incited on Facebook, With Posts From Myanmar's Military". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- "ABC News Joins Forces With Facebook". ABC News. December 18, 2007. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Minor, Doug (November 29, 2007). "Saint Anselm to Host ABC Debates Jan. 5". Saint Anselm College blog. Archived from the original on October 9, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- Bradley, Tahman (December 12, 2007). "Republicans Lead off ABC News, WMUR-TV and Facebook Back-To-Back Debates in New Hampshire". Political Radar blog. ABC News. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Callahan, Ezra (January 5, 2008). "Tune in to the ABC News/Facebook Debates, Tonight 7 pm/6c on ABC". Facebook Blog. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Goldman, Russell (January 5, 2007). "Facebook Gives Snapshot of Voter Sentiment". ABC News. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Sullivan, Michelle (November 3, 2008). "Facebook Effect Mobilizes Youth Vote". CBS News. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Carlisle, Juliet E.; Patton, Robert C. (January 1, 2013). "Is Social Media Changing How We Understand Political Engagement? An Analysis of Facebook and the 2008 Presidential Election". Political Research Quarterly. 66 (4): 883–895. doi:10.1177/1065912913482758. JSTOR 23612065. S2CID 154739808.
- Skogerbø, Eli; Krumsvik, Arne H. (May 4, 2015). "Newspapers, Facebook and Twitter" (PDF). Journalism Practice. 9 (3): 350–366. doi:10.1080/17512786.2014.950471. hdl:10852/41249. S2CID 145344499.
- Bossetta, Michael (March 2018). "The Digital Architectures of Social Media: Comparing Political Campaigning on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat in the 2016 U.S. Election". Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly. 95 (2): 471–496. doi:10.1177/1077699018763307.
- Julia Angwin; Madeleine Varner; Ariana Tobin (September 14, 2017). "Facebook Enabled Advertisers to Reach 'Jew Haters' — ProPublica". ProPublica. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
- Brady, Henry E. (May 11, 2019). "The Challenge of Big Data and Data Science". Annual Review of Political Science. 22 (1): 297–323. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-090216-023229. ISSN 1094-2939.
- Gleit, Naomi (September 21, 2020). "Celebrating National Voter Registration Day With a Week of Action". Facebook. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
- Rosenberg, Matthew; Confessore, Nicholas; Cadwalladr, Carole (March 17, 2018). "How Trump Consultants Exploited the Facebook Data of Millions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
- "Facebook bans Trump-affiliated data firm Cambridge Analytica". newsobserver. Archived from the original on March 17, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
- Cadwalladr, Carole (March 18, 2018). "'I made Steve Bannon's psychological warfare tool': meet the data war whistleblower". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
- "Why Facebook's political-ad ban is taking on the wrong problem". Technology Review. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
- Ananth, Venkat (April 1, 2019). "Facebook takes down Pakistan military backed pages targeting India ahead of LS polls". The Economic Times. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- "Facebook Removes Nearly 700 Pages Linked to Congress Ahead of Polls". News18. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- Nicole, Kristen (December 21, 2007). "I Can So "Facebook" You Now (and be gramatically [sic] correct)". Mashable. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Unfriend is New Oxford dictionary's Word of the Year". USA Today. Washington DC. November 17, 2009. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "Internet.org". English. August 25, 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
- "Facebook's Internet.org has connected almost 100M to the 'internet'". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- Solon, Olivia (July 27, 2017). "'It's digital colonialism': how Facebook's free internet service has failed its users". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- Arrington, Michael (April 25, 2010). "The Age of Facebook". TechCrunch. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Kirkpatrick, David (October 6, 2006). "Why Facebook matters: It's not just for arranging dates. And it's not just another social network. Facebook offers sophisticated tools for maintaining social relationships". Fortune. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- Lee, Newton (September 15, 2012). Facebook Nation: Total Information Awareness. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781461453086.
- McNamee, Roger (2019). Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-0083-1899-4.
- Miller, Daniel (2011). Tales from Facebook. Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-5209-2.
- Muffett, Alec (October 31, 2014). "Making Connections to Facebook More Secure". Facebook. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Schroeder, Stan (February 7, 2011). "Facebook Privacy: 10 Settings Every User Needs to Know". Mashable. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
|Scholia has a topic profile for Facebook.|