Facial width to height ratio

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Facial width to height ratio (fWHR) is a measure derived from archaeological skull measurements.[1] fWHR may be linked with adolescent testosterone,[2] and has been proposed as: a predictor of aggression,[3] cause of death by violence,[4] and also with CEO success probability.[5] While most studies have found some significance some have found little correlation.[6]

fWHR has also been used in primate studies[7] with similar findings.

Width is measured as upper bizygomatic width (the widest central bit of the face), height measurement used is upper facial height, from the top of the eyelids (approximately the nasion) to the top lip.[8] This can cause experimental error when working from photographs in historical studies due to facial expressions.[6]


  1. ^ Kramer, RS; Jones, AL; Ward, R (2015-09-28). "A Lack of Sexual Dimorphism in Width-to-Height Ratio in White European Faces Using 2D Photographs, 3D Scans, and Anthropometry". PLOS ONE. 7 (8): e42705. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042705. PMC 3413652. PMID 22880088.
  2. ^ Welker KM, Bird BM, Arnocky S (2016) Commentary: Facial Width-To-Height Ratio (fWHR) Is Not Associated with Adolescent Testosterone Levels. Frontiers of Psychology 7, 1745. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01745
  3. ^ "In your face: facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences". Rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org. 2008-11-22. Retrieved 2016-05-22.
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ "A Face Only an Investor Could Love". Pss.sagepub.com. 2011-10-31. Retrieved 2016-05-22.
  6. ^ a b Robert O. Deaner; Stefan M.M. Goetz; Kraig Shattuck; Tony Schnotala. "Journal of Research in Personality : Body weight, not facial width-to-height ratio, predicts aggression in professional hockey players" (PDF). Faculty.gvsu.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-22.
  7. ^ Lefevre, Carmen Emilia; Wilson, Vanessa A. D.; Morton, F. Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Paukner, Annika; Bates, Timothy C. (2014-04-04). "PLOS ONE: Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Relates to Alpha Status and Assertive Personality in Capuchin Monkeys". PLoS ONE. 9 (4): e93369. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093369. PMC 3976278. PMID 24705247. Retrieved 2016-05-22.
  8. ^ "Finish Soldier Image" (PDF). Dlkr7699fk9jt.cloudfront.net. Retrieved 2016-05-22.