Fact-checking is a process that seeks to verify sometimes factual information, in order to promote the veracity and correctness of reporting.[failed verification] Fact-checking can be conducted before (ante hoc) or after (post hoc) the text is published or otherwise disseminated. Internal fact-checking is such checking done in-house by the publisher; when the text is analyzed by a third party, the process is called external fact-checking.
Ante hoc fact-checking aims to identify errors so that the text can be corrected before dissemination, or perhaps rejected.
Post hoc fact-checking is most often followed by a written report of inaccuracies, sometimes with a visual metric provided by the checking organization (e.g., Pinocchios from The Washington Post Fact Checker, or TRUTH-O-METER ratings from PolitiFact). Several organizations are devoted to post hoc fact-checking: examples include FactCheck.org and PolitiFact in the US, and Full Fact in the UK.
External post hoc fact-checking organizations first arose in the US in the early 2000s, and the concept grew in relevance and spread to various other countries during the 2010s. The US remains the largest market for fact-checking. Research on the impact of fact-checking is relatively recent, but the existing research suggests that fact-checking does indeed correct perceptions among citizens, as well as discourage politicians from spreading false or misleading claims.
Post hoc fact-checking
External post hoc fact-checking by independent organizations began in the United States in the early 2000s. In the 2010s, particularly following the 2016 election of Donald Trump as US President, fact-checking gained a rise in popularity and spread to multiple countries mostly in Europe and Latin America. However, the US remains the largest market for fact-checking.
Consistency across fact-checkers
One study finds that fact-checkers PolitiFact, FactCheck.org, and Washington Post's Fact Checker overwhelmingly agree on their evaluations of claims. However, a study by Morgan Marietta, David C. Barker and Todd Bowser found "substantial differences in the questions asked and the answers offered." They concluded that this limited the "usefulness of fact-checking for citizens trying to decide which version of disputed realities to believe." A paper by Chloe Lim, PhD student at Stanford University, found little overlap in the statements that fact-checkers check. Out of 1,178 fact-checks by PolitiFact and 325 fact-checks by The Washington Post's Fact Checker, there were only 77 statements that both fact-checkers checked. The study found that the fact-checkers gave the same ratings for 49 and close ratings for 22 out of 77 statements, about 92% agreement. Lim concluded, "At least in some cases, the strategic ambiguity of politicians may impede the fact-checking movement’s goals." The process of fact-checking is sometimes questionable, partly because the fact-checkers are just human subjects, and also because the purpose of some instances of fact-checking was unclear.
Studies of post hoc fact-checking have made clear that such efforts often result in changes in the behavior, in general, of both the speaker (making them more careful in their pronouncements) and of the listener or reader (making them more discerning with regard to the factual accuracy of content); observations include the propensities of audiences to be completely unswayed by corrections to errors regarding the most divisive subjects, or the tendency to be more greatly persuaded by corrections of negative reporting (e.g., "attack ads"), and to see minds changed only when the individual in error was someone reasonably like-minded to begin with.
A 2014 study found evidence of a "backfire effect" (correcting false information may make partisan individuals cling more strongly to their views): "Corrective information adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website significantly reduced belief in the myth that the flu vaccine can give patients the flu as well as concerns about its safety. However, the correction also significantly reduced intent to vaccinate among respondents with high levels of concern about vaccine side effects—a response that was not observed among those with low levels of concern." A 2017 study attempted to replicate the findings of the 2015 study but failed to do so.
A 2016 study found little evidence for the "backfire effect": "By and large, citizens heed factual information, even when such information challenges their partisan and ideological commitments." A study of Donald Trump supporters during the 2016 race similarly found little evidence for the backfire effect: "When respondents read a news article about Mr. Trump's speech that included F.B.I. statistics indicating that crime had "fallen dramatically and consistently over time," their misperceptions about crime declined compared with those who saw a version of the article that omitted corrective information (though misperceptions persisted among a sizable minority)." A 2018 study found no evidence of a backfire effect.
Studies have shown that fact-checking can affect citizens' belief in the accuracy of claims made in political advertisement. A 2020 study by Paris School of Economics and Sciences Po economists found that falsehoods by Marine Le Pen during the 2017 French presidential election campaign (i) successfully persuaded voters, (ii) lost their persuasiveness when fact-checked, and (iii) did not reduce voters' political support for Le Pen when her claims were fact-checked. A 2017 study in the Journal of Politics found that "individuals consistently update political beliefs in the appropriate direction, even on facts that have clear implications for political party reputations, though they do so cautiously and with some bias... Interestingly, those who identify with one of the political parties are no more biased or cautious than pure independents in their learning, conditional on initial beliefs."
A study by Yale University cognitive scientists Gordon Pennycook and David G. Rand found that Facebook tags of fake articles "did significantly reduce their perceived accuracy relative to a control without tags, but only modestly". A Dartmouth study led by Brendan Nyhan found that Facebook tags had a greater impact than the Yale study found. A "disputed" tag on a false headline reduced the number of respondents who considered the headline accurate from 29% to 19%, whereas a "rated false" tag pushed the number down to 16%. A 2019 study found that the "disputed" tag reduced Facebook users' intentions to share a fake news story. The Yale study found evidence of a backfire effect among Trump supporters younger than 26 years whereby the presence of both untagged and tagged fake articles made the untagged fake articles appear more accurate. In response to research which questioned the effectiveness of the Facebook "disputed" tags, Facebook decided to drop the tags in December 2017 and would instead put articles which fact-checked a fake news story next to the fake news story link whenever it is shared on Facebook.
Based on the findings of a 2017 study in the journal Psychological Science, the most effective ways to reduce misinformation through corrections is by:
- limiting detailed descriptions of / or arguments in favor of the misinformation;
- walking through the reasons why a piece of misinformation is false rather than just labelling it false;
- presenting new and credible information which allows readers to update their knowledge of events and understand why they developed an inaccurate understanding in the first place;
- using video, as videos appear to be more effective than text at increasing attention and reducing confusion, making videos more effective at correcting misperception than text.
A 2019 meta-analysis of research into the effects of fact-checking on misinformation found that fact-checking has substantial positive impacts on political beliefs, but that this impact weakened when fact-checkers used "truth scales", refuted only parts of a claim and when they fact-checked campaign-related statements. Individuals' preexisting beliefs, ideology, and knowledge affected to what extent the fact-checking had an impact. A 2019 study in the Journal of Experimental Political Science found "strong evidence that citizens are willing to accept corrections to fake news, regardless of their ideology and the content of the fake stories."
A 2018 study found that Republicans were more likely to correct their false information on voter fraud if the correction came from Breitbart News rather than a non-partisan neutral source such as PolitiFact.
A 2020 study found that exposure to fact-checks had durable effects on reducing misperceptions.
A 2015 experimental study found that fact-checking can encourage politicians to not spread misinformation. The study found that it might help improve political discourse by increasing the reputational costs or risks of spreading misinformation for political elites. The researchers sent, "a series of letters about the risks to their reputation and electoral security if they were caught making questionable statements. The legislators who were sent these letters were substantially less likely to receive a negative fact-checking rating or to have their accuracy questioned publicly, suggesting that fact-checking can reduce inaccuracy when it poses a salient threat."
One experimental study found that fact-checking during debates affected viewers' assessment of the candidates' debate performance and "greater willingness to vote for a candidate when the fact-check indicates that the candidate is being honest."
A study of Trump supporters during the 2016 presidential campaign found that while fact-checks of false claims made by Trump reduced his supporters' belief in the false claims in question, the corrections did not alter their attitudes towards Trump.
A 2019 study found that "summary fact-checking", where the fact-checker summarizes how many false statements a politician has made, has a greater impact on reducing support for a politician than fact-checking of individual statements made by the politician.
Individual readers perform some types of fact-checking, such as comparing claims in one news story against claims in another.
Rabbi Moshe Benovitz, has observed that: "modern students use their wireless worlds to augment skepticism and to reject dogma." He says this has positive implications for values development:
"Fact-checking can become a learned skill, and technology can be harnessed in a way that makes it second nature… By finding opportunities to integrate technology into learning, students will automatically sense the beautiful blending of… their cyber… [and non-virtual worlds]. Instead of two spheres coexisting uneasily and warily orbiting one another, there is a valuable experience of synthesis…".
According to Queen's University Belfast researcher Jennifer Rose, because fake news is created with the intention of misleading readers, online news consumers who attempt to fact-check the articles they read may incorrectly conclude that a fake news article is legitimate. Rose states, "A diligent online news consumer is likely at a pervasive risk of inferring truth from false premises", and suggests that fact-checking alone is not enough to reduce fake news consumption. Despite this, Rose asserts that fact-checking "ought to remain on educational agendas to help combat fake news".
Detecting fake news
Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with the 2016 election revealing that online media platforms were especially susceptible to disseminating disinformation and misinformation. Fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose. Since these articles typically hope to intentionally promote biased or incorrect information, these articles are difficult to detect. When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements. The language, specifically, is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks. Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news course. On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate, and provides us more clarity on the news. There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as “Snopes” try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.
Some individuals and organizations publish their fact-checking efforts on the internet. These may have a special subject-matter focus, such as Snopes.com's focus on urban legends or the Reporters' Lab at Duke University's focus on providing resources to journalists.
The adaptation of social media as a legitimate and commonly used platform has created extensive concerns for fake news in this domain. The spread of fake news via social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram presents the opportunity for extremely negative effects on society therefore new fields of research regarding fake news detection on social media is gaining momentum. However, fake news detection on social media presents challenges that renders previous data mining and detection techniques inadequate. As such, researchers are calling for more work to be done regarding fake news as characterized against psychology and social theories and adapting existing data mining algorithms to apply to social media networks.  Further, multiple scientific articles have been published urging the field further to find automatic ways in which fake news can be filtered out of social media timelines.
Ongoing research in fact-checking and detecting fake news
Since the 2016 United States presidential election, fake news has been a popular topic of discussion by President Trump and news outlets. The reality of fake news had become omnipresent, and a lot of research has gone into understanding, identifying, and combating fake news. Also, a number of researchers began with the usage of fake news to influence the 2016 presidential campaign. One research found evidence of pro-Trump fake news being selectively targeted on conservatives and pro-Trump supporters in 2016. The researchers found that social media sites, Facebook in particular, to be powerful platforms to spread certain fake news to targeted groups to appeal to their sentiments during the 2016 presidential race. Additionally, researchers from Stanford, NYU, and NBER found evidence to show how engagement with fake news on Facebook and Twitter was high throughout 2016.
Recently, a lot of work has gone into detecting and identifying fake news through machine learning and artificial intelligence. In 2018, researchers at MIT's CSAIL (Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab) created and tested a machine learning algorithm to identify false information by looking for common patterns, words, and symbols that typically appear in fake news. More so, they released an open-source data set with a large catalog of historical news sources with their veracity scores to encourage other researchers to explore and develop new methods and technologies for detecting fake news.
International Fact-Checking Day
The concept for International Fact-Checking Day was introduced at a conference for journalists and fact-checkers at the London School of Economics in June 2014.  The holiday was officially created in 2016 and first celebrated on April 2, 2017.  The idea for International Fact-Checking day rose out of the many misinformation campaigns found on the internet, particularly social media sites. It rose in importance after the 2016 elections, which brought fake news, as well as accusations of it, to the forefront of media issues. The holiday is held on April 2 because "April 1 is a day for fools. April 2 is a day for facts."  Activities for International Fact-Checking Day consist of various media organizations contributing to fact-checking resources, articles, and lessons for students and the general public to learn more about how to identify fake news and stop the spread of misinformation. 2020's International Fact-Checking Day focused specifically on how to accurately identify information about COVID-19.
Political fact-checking is sometimes criticized as being opinion journalism. Criticism has included that fact-checking organizations in themselves are biased or that it is impossible to apply absolute terms such as "true" or "false" to inherently debatable claims. In September 2016, a Rasmussen Reports national telephone and online survey found that "just 29% of all Likely U.S. Voters trust media fact-checking of candidates' comments. Sixty-two percent (62%) believe instead that news organizations skew the facts to help candidates they support."
A paper by Andrew Guess (of Princeton University), Brendan Nyhan (Dartmouth College) and Jason Reifler (University of Exeter) found that consumers of fake news tended to have less favorable views of fact-checking, in particular Trump supporters. The paper found that fake news consumers rarely encountered fact-checks: "only about half of the Americans who visited a fake news website during the study period also saw any fact-check from one of the dedicated fact-checking website (14.0%)."
Ante hoc fact-checking
Among the benefits of printing only checked copy is that it averts serious, sometimes costly, problems. These problems can include lawsuits for mistakes that damage people or businesses, but even small mistakes can cause a loss of reputation for the publication. The loss of reputation is often the more significant motivating factor for journalists.
Fact checkers verify that the names, dates, and facts in an article or book are correct. For example, they may contact a person who is quoted in a proposed news article and ask the person whether this quotation is correct, or how to spell the person's name. Fact-checkers are primarily useful in catching accidental mistakes; they are not guaranteed safeguards against those who wish to commit journalistic frauds.
As a career
Professional fact checkers have generally been hired by newspapers, magazines, and book publishers, probably starting in the early 1920s with the creation of Time magazine in the United States, though they were not originally called "fact-checkers". Fact checkers may be aspiring writers, future editors, or freelancers engaged other projects; others are career professionals.
Historically, the field was considered women's work, and from the time of the first professional American fact checker through at least the 1970s, the fact checkers at a media company might be entirely female or primarily so.
The number of people employed in fact-checking varies by publication. Some organizations have substantial fact-checking departments. For example, The New Yorker magazine had 16 fact checkers in 2003. Others may hire freelancers per piece, or may combine fact-checking with other duties. Magazines are more likely to use fact checkers than newspapers. Television and radio programs rarely employ dedicated fact checkers, and instead expect others, including senior staff, to engage in fact-checking in addition to their other duties.
Checking original reportage
Stephen Glass began his journalism career as a fact-checker. He went on to invent fictitious stories, which he submitted as reportage, and which fact-checkers at The New Republic (and other weeklies for which he worked) never flagged. Michael Kelly, who edited some of Glass's concocted stories, blamed himself, rather than the fact-checkers, saying: "Any fact-checking system is built on trust ... If a reporter is willing to fake notes, it defeats the system. Anyway, the real vetting system is not fact-checking but the editor."
Education on fact-checking
With the circulation of fake news on the internet, many organizations have dedicated time to create guidelines to help read to verify the information they are consuming. Many universities across America provide university students resources and tools to help them verify their sources. Universities provide access to research guides that help students conduct thorough research with reputable sources within academia. Organizations like FactCheck.org, OntheMedia.org, and PolitiFact.com provide procedural guidelines that help individuals navigate the process to fact-check a source.
MIT and Stanford began an online MOOC course in the fall of 2020 called Sorting Truth From Fiction: Civic Online Reasoning. This course is for educators that want to teach students how to do basic fact-checking.
Books on professional fact-checking
- Sarah Harrison Smith spent some time and also headed the fact-checking department for The New York Times. She is the author of the book, The Fact Checker's Bible.
- Jim Fingal worked for several years as a fact-checker at The Believer and McSweeney's and is co-author with John D'Agata of The Lifespan of a Fact which is an inside look at the struggle between fact-checker (Fingal) and author (D'Agata) over an essay that pushed the limits of the acceptable "artistic license" for a non-fiction work.
Alumni of the role
The following is a list of individuals for whom it has been reported, reliably, that they have played such a fact-checking role at some point in their careers, often as a stepping point to other journalistic endeavors, or to an independent writing career:
- Susan Choi – American novelist
- Anderson Cooper – Television anchorman
- William Gaddis – American novelist
- Virginia Heffernan – The New York Times television critic
- Roger Hodge – Former editor, Harper's Magazine
- David D. Kirkpatrick – The New York Times reporter
- Sean Wilsey – McSweeney's Editor and memoirist
- Cherry picking
- Confirmation bias
- Copy editing – Work that an editor does to improve the formatting, style, and accuracy of text
- Fact-checking on social media
- Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act
- Investigative journalism – Form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic
- Journalism – Investigation and reporting to a broad audience
- Masthead – Newspaper front page header
- Post-truth politics – Political culture where facts are considered of low relevance
- Typographical error – Mistake made in the typing process (such as a spelling mistake) of printed material
- Watchdog journalism – Journalism that plays an oversight role towards government, industry and society
- Miller, Ielleen. "Research Guides: Journalism: Fact-Checking Sites". Eastern Washington University. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
- Fellmeth, Aaron X.; Horwitz, Maurice (2009). "Ante hoc". Guide to Latin in International Law. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195369380.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-536938-0.
- Graves, Lucas; Amazeen, Michelle A. (25 February 2019), "Fact-Checking as Idea and Practice in Journalism", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.808, ISBN 9780190228613
- Alexios Mantzarlis (2018). "Fact-Checking 101 - Unesco" (PDF). en.unesco.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- Drutman, Lee (3 June 2020). "Fact-Checking Misinformation Can Work. But It Might Not Be Enough". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
- Nyhan, Brendan; Reifler, Jason (1 July 2015). "The Effect of Fact-Checking on Elites: A Field Experiment on U.S. State Legislators". American Journal of Political Science. 59 (3): 628–40. doi:10.1111/ajps.12162. hdl:10871/21568. ISSN 1540-5907.
- Amazeen, Michelle A. (1 October 2016). "Checking the Fact-Checkers in 2008: Predicting Political Ad Scrutiny and Assessing Consistency". Journal of Political Marketing. 15 (4): 433–464. doi:10.1080/15377857.2014.959691. hdl:2144/27297. ISSN 1537-7857. S2CID 145133839.
- Amazeen, Michelle A. (2 January 2015). "Revisiting the Epistemology of Fact-Checking". Critical Review. 27 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1080/08913811.2014.993890. hdl:2144/27304. ISSN 0891-3811. S2CID 143522323.
- Marietta, Morgan; Barker, David C.; Bowser, Todd (2015). "Fact-Checking Polarized Politics: Does The Fact-Check Industry Provide Consistent Guidance on Disputed Realities?" (PDF). The Forum. 13 (4): 577. doi:10.1515/for-2015-0040. S2CID 151790386. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- "Checking how fact-checkers check". Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- Lim, Chloe (1 July 2018). "Checking how fact-checkers check". Research & Politics. 5 (3): 2053168018786848. doi:10.1177/2053168018786848. ISSN 2053-1680.
- Cox, Chelsey. "Fact check: Satirical claim that the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals overturned Ginsburg's death". USA Today. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
- Amazeen, Michelle (2015) "Monkey Cage: Sometimes political fact-checking works. Sometimes it doesn't. Here's what can make the difference.," The Washington Post (online), 3 June 2015, see  Archived 3 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 27 July 2015.
- Nyhan, Brendan; Reifler, Jason (9 January 2015). "Does correcting myths about the flu vaccine work? An experimental evaluation of the effects of corrective information" (PDF). Vaccine. 33 (3): 459–464. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.11.017. hdl:10871/21566. ISSN 1873-2518. PMID 25499651.
- Haglin, Kathryn (1 July 2017). "The limitations of the backfire effect". Research & Politics. 4 (3): 2053168017716547. doi:10.1177/2053168017716547. ISSN 2053-1680.
- Wood, Thomas; Porter, Ethan (5 August 2016). "The Elusive Backfire Effect: Mass Attitudes' Steadfast Factual Adherence". SSRN 2819073. Cite journal requires
- Nyhan, Brendan (5 November 2016). "Fact-Checking Can Change Views? We Rate That as Mostly True". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 6 November 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
- Nyhan, Brendan; Porter, Ethan; Reifler, Jason; Wood, Thomas J. (21 January 2019). "Taking Fact-Checks Literally But Not Seriously? The Effects of Journalistic Fact-Checking on Factual Beliefs and Candidate Favorability". Political Behavior. 42 (3): 939–960. doi:10.1007/s11109-019-09528-x. hdl:10871/38020. ISSN 1573-6687. S2CID 189913123.
- Guess, Andrew; Coppock, Alexander (2018). "Does Counter-Attitudinal Information Cause Backlash? Results from Three Large Survey Experiments". British Journal of Political Science. 50 (4): 1497–1515. doi:10.1017/S0007123418000327. ISSN 0007-1234. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- Fridkin, Kim; Kenney, Patrick J.; Wintersieck, Amanda (2 January 2015). "Liar, Liar, Pants on Fire: How Fact-Checking Influences Citizens' Reactions to Negative Advertising". Political Communication. 32 (1): 127–151. doi:10.1080/10584609.2014.914613. ISSN 1058-4609. S2CID 143495044.
- Barrera, Oscar; Guriev, Sergei; Henry, Emeric; Zhuravskaya, Ekaterina (1 February 2020). "Facts, alternative facts, and fact checking in times of post-truth politics". Journal of Public Economics. 182: 104123. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2019.104123. ISSN 0047-2727.
- Hill, Seth J. (16 August 2017). "Learning Together Slowly: Bayesian Learning about Political Facts". The Journal of Politics. 79 (4): 1403–1418. doi:10.1086/692739. ISSN 0022-3816. S2CID 56004909.
- Pennycook, Gordon; Rand, David G. (12 September 2017). "Assessing the Effect of "Disputed" Warnings and Source Salience on Perceptions of Fake News Accuracy". SSRN 3035384. Cite journal requires
- Nyhan, Brendan (23 October 2017). "Why the Fact-Checking at Facebook Needs to Be Checked". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- Clayton, Katherine; Blair, Spencer; Busam, Jonathan A.; Forstner, Samuel; Glance, John; Green, Guy; Kawata, Anna; Kovvuri, Akhila; Martin, Jonathan (11 February 2019). "Real Solutions for Fake News? Measuring the Effectiveness of General Warnings and Fact-Check Tags in Reducing Belief in False Stories on Social Media". Political Behavior. 42 (4): 1073–1095. doi:10.1007/s11109-019-09533-0. ISSN 1573-6687. S2CID 151227829.
- Mena, Paul (2019). "Cleaning Up Social Media: The Effect of Warning Labels on Likelihood of Sharing False News on Facebook". Policy & Internet. 0 (2): 165–183. doi:10.1002/poi3.214. ISSN 1944-2866.
- "Facebook stops putting "Disputed Flags" on fake news because it doesn't work". Axios. 27 December 2017. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- Chokshi, Niraj (18 September 2017). "How to Fight 'Fake News' (Warning: It Isn't Easy)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- Walter, Nathan; Cohen, Jonathan; Holbert, R. Lance; Morag, Yasmin (24 October 2019). "Fact-Checking: A Meta-Analysis of What Works and for Whom". Political Communication. 37 (3): 350–375. doi:10.1080/10584609.2019.1668894. ISSN 1058-4609. S2CID 210444838.
- Porter, Ethan; Wood, Thomas J.; Kirby, David (2018). "Sex Trafficking, Russian Infiltration, Birth Certificates, and Pedophilia: A Survey Experiment Correcting Fake News". Journal of Experimental Political Science. 5 (2): 159–164. doi:10.1017/XPS.2017.32. ISSN 2052-2630.
- Holman, Mirya R.; Lay, J. Celeste (2018). "They See Dead People (Voting): Correcting Misperceptions about Voter Fraud in the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election". Journal of Political Marketing. 18 (1–2): 31–68. doi:10.1080/15377857.2018.1478656. S2CID 150282138.
- Carnahan, Dustin; Bergan, Daniel E.; Lee, Sangwon (9 January 2020). "Do Corrective Effects Last? Results from a Longitudinal Experiment on Beliefs Toward Immigration in the U.S.". Political Behavior. doi:10.1007/s11109-020-09591-9. ISSN 1573-6687. S2CID 214096205.
- Wintersieck, Amanda L. (5 January 2017). "Debating the Truth". American Politics Research. 45 (2): 304–331. doi:10.1177/1532673x16686555. S2CID 157870755.
- Nyhan, Brendan; Porter, Ethan; Reifler, Jason; Wood, Thomas J. (n.d.). "Taking Fact-checks Literally But Not Seriously? The Effects of Journalistic Fact-checking on Factual Beliefs and Candidate Favorability" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
- Agadjanian, Alexander; Bakhru, Nikita; Chi, Victoria; Greenberg, Devyn; Hollander, Byrne; Hurt, Alexander; Kind, Joseph; Lu, Ray; Ma, Annie; Nyhan, Brendan; Pham, Daniel (1 July 2019). "Counting the Pinocchios: The effect of summary fact-checking data on perceived accuracy and favorability of politicians". Research & Politics. 6 (3): 2053168019870351. doi:10.1177/2053168019870351. ISSN 2053-1680.
- Moshe Benovitz et al., 2012, "Education: The Social Media Revolution: What Does It Mean for Our Children?" Jewish Action (online), 24 August 2012, New York, NY, USA:Orthodox Union, see  Archived 5 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 28 July 2015.
- Rose, Jennifer (January 2020). "To Believe or Not to Believe: an Epistemic Exploration of Fake News, Truth, and the Limits of Knowing". Postdigital Science and Education. Springer. 2 (1): 202–216. doi:10.1007/s42438-019-00068-5. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
- Allcott, Hunt (2017). "Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election." The Journal of Economic Perspectives" (PDF). The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 31: 211–235. doi:10.1257/jep.31.2.211. S2CID 32730475. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 October 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019 – via JSTOR.
- Liu, Huan; Tang, Jiliang; Wang, Suhang; Sliva, Amy; Shu, Kai (7 August 2017). "Fake News Detection on Social Media: A Data Mining Perspective". arXiv:1708.01967v3. Bibcode:2017arXiv170801967S. Cite journal requires
- ShuKai; SlivaAmy; WangSuhang; TangJiliang; LiuHuan (1 September 2017). "Fake News Detection on Social Media". ACM SIGKDD Explorations Newsletter. 19: 22–36. doi:10.1145/3137597.3137600. S2CID 207718082.
- Guess, Andrew (9 January 2018). "Selective Exposure to Misinformation: Evidence from the consumption of fake news during the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign" (PDF). Dartmouth. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 February 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- Allcott, Hunt (October 2018). "Trends in the Diffusion of Misinformation on Social Media" (PDF). Stanford. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- Hao, Karen. "AI is still terrible at spotting fake news". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- Elizabeth, Jane. "No cake on International Fact-Checking Day. Celebrate by correcting fake news". USA TODAY.
- "How the world celebrated the third International Fact-Checking Day". Poynter. 9 April 2019.
- "Don't be fooled: Third annual International Fact-Checking Day empowers citizens around the world to sort fact from fiction". Poynter. 2 April 2019.
- Riddell, Kelly (26 September 2016). "Eight examples where 'fact-checking' became opinion journalism". Washington Times. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- Graves, Lucas (2016). Deciding What's True: The Rise of Political Fact-Checking in American Journalism. Columbia University Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780231542227. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
- "Political Fact-Checking Under Fire". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- Reports, Rasmussen. "Voters Don't Trust Media Fact-Checking – Rasmussen Reports™". Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- Lejeune, Tristan (30 September 2016). "Poll: Voters don't trust media fact-checkers". Archived from the original on 4 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- "Selective Exposure to Misinformation: Evidence from the consumption of fake news during the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2018.
- Moshirnia, Andrew (2020). "Who Will Check the Checkers? False Factcheckers and Memetic Misinformation". Utah Law Review. 2020 (4): 1029–1073. ISSN 0042-1448.
- Harrison Smith, Sarah (2004). The Fact Checker's Bible: A Guide to Getting it Right. New York: Anchor Books. pp. 8–12. ISBN 0385721064. OCLC 53919260.
- "The Story Behind the First-Ever Fact-Checkers". Time. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- John Watson (2 April 2017). "What is Fact Checking? – FactCheck Sri Lanka". Factchecksrilanka.com. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- "Sorting Truth From Fiction: Civic Online Reasoning". edX.org. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
- "An Interview With Susan Choi". Archived from the original on 18 February 2001. Retrieved 18 November 2006.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "CNN.com – Transcripts". CNN. 1 June 2006. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "William Gaddis (American author)". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Skurnick, Lizzie. "Content". Mediabistro.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Hodge, Roger D." Archived from the original on 8 March 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2006.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Kirkpatrick, David D. "David Kirkpatrick". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- "Sean Wilsey – About Sean Wilsey – Penguin Group". Us.penguingroup.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.[verification needed]
- The Poynter Institute's summary of research on fact-checking.
- Silverman, Craig (23 October 2007). Regret The Error: How Media Mistakes Pollute The Press And Imperil Free Speech. Penguin Canada. ISBN 9780143186991.
- Amazeen, Michelle (3 June 2015). "Sometimes political fact-checking works. Sometimes it doesn't. Here's what can make the difference". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Davis, Katy (22 October 2012). "Study: Fact-Checkers Disagree on Who Lies Most" (Press release). The Center for Media and Public Affairs (CMPA), George Mason University. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Lewis-Kraus, Gideon (2012) "RIFF: The fact-checker versus the fabulist," The New York Times Magazine (online), 21 February 2012 (print edition, 26 February 2012, p. MM45, title, "I Have Taken Some Liberties"), see,
- Heffernan, Virginia (2010) "The Medium: What 'fact-checking' means online," The New York Times Magazine (online), 20 August 2010 (print edition, 22 August 2010, p. MM14). Accessed 27 July 2015.
- Silverman, Craig (2010) "Top fact checkers and news accuracy experts gather in Germany," Regret the Error (online), 4 September 2010, see, accessed 28 July 2015. Cited by Tobias Reitz & Kersten Alexander Riechers (2011) Quo vadis Qualitätssicherung? Corrigo, Konzeption eines Crowdsourced Media Accountability Services," p. 151, Fachbereich Media, 31 May 2011 (Hochschule Darmstadt, University of Applied Sciences), see, accessed 28 July 2015.
- Bergstrom, Carl T. and Jevin West "Calling Bullshit: Data Reasoning in a Digital World." Online Lecture INFO 198 / BIOL 106B, 2017, University of Washington.
- Sagan, Carl; Druyan, Ann (1995). "The Fine Art of Baloney Detection". The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. Random House. pp. 201–218.
- Adler, Mortimer J.; Doren, Charles Van (1972) . "Agreeing or Disagreeing with an Author". How to Read a Book: The Classic Guide to Intelligent Reading (Revised ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 154–167.
After he has said 'I understand but I disagree,' he can make the following remarks to the author: (1) 'You are uninformed'; (2) 'You are misinformed'; (3) You are illogical-your reasoning is not cogent'; (4) 'Your analysis is incomplete.'
- "Rapidly expanding fact-checking movement faces growing pains", Washington Post, 25 June 2018
- Nyhan, Brendan. 2020. "Facts and Myths about Misperceptions." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 34 (3): 220–36.
Media related to Fact-checking at Wikimedia Commons
- Lewis-Kraus, Gideon (21 February 2012). "The Fact-Checker Versus the Fabulist". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Reitz, Tobias; A. Riechers, Kersten (31 May 2011). "Quo vadis Qualitätssicherung?" [Quo vadis quality assurance?] (PDF). Crowdsourced Media Accountability. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- Bergstrom, Carl; West, Jevin (2017). "Calling Bullshit: Data Reasoning in a Digital World". University of Washington. Archived from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
- "Calling Bullshit in the Age of Big Data". YouTube. UW iSchool. 10 July 2017. Archived from the original on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- Jones, Josh (11 April 2016). "Carl Sagan Presents His "Baloney Detection Kit": 8 Tools for Skeptical Thinking". Open Culture: the best free cultural & educational media on the web. Archived from the original on 18 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- Sagan, Carl. "The Fine Art of Baloney Detection" (PDF). Free University of Berlin. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.