Factions in the Democratic Party (United States)

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The Democratic Party of the United States is composed of various factions with some overlap and enough agreement between them to coexist in one party.

Ideological wings[edit]

Centrist wing[edit]

See also: New Democrats
President Bill Clinton

During the 1968 United States presidential election, moderate pro-war Hubert Humphrey took the Democratic presidential nomination over the winner of the popular vote the anti-war progressive Eugene McCarthy.

In December 1972, the Coalition for a Democratic Majority, a centrist faction within the Democratic Party, was created after the landslide victory of Republican Richard Nixon over anti-war progressive Democrat George McGovern in the 1972 presidential election.

The presidency of Jimmy Carter lead to a right wing shift in the Democratic Party. From FDR to Richard Nixon, there was a bipartisan support for maintaining New Deal social liberal programs. The Carter administration was the first to began regulating and neo-liberalizing the United States economic system.

In 1985, the Democratic Leadership Council, a centrist faction within the Democratic Party, was created after the landslide victory of Republican Ronald Reagan over moderate Democrat Walter Mondale in the 1984 presidential election.

During the 1992 United States presidential election, Bill Clinton and Al Gore, both members of the Democratic Leadership Council, both ran as New Democrats, running as centrist Democrats against big government. The Clinton victory lead to a massive shift of the Democratic Party to the right. On social issues, Bill Clinton massively expanded the prison industrial complex by signing the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. On LGBT rights, Clinton, although coming out strongly in 1993 for open military service for LGB Americans, settled on the comprise Don't ask, don't tell policy, signed the Defense of Marriage Act into law, and signed Executive Order 12968 and 13087.

During the 2000 United States presidential election, Al Gore was pushed slightly to the left by significant support in the polls Green Party presidential candidate Ralph Nader was getting.

The 2004 Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses was largely a three-way fight between John Kerry, member of the New Democrat Coalition, John Edwards, also a member of the New Democrat Coalition, and Howard Dean, founder of the progressive Democracy for America.

The 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses between Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton was largely a fight concerning identity politics rather than being an ideological fight between the two because both of them had largely similar centrist ideological views. Hillary Clinton was a Senate member of the New Democrat Coalition, while Barack Obama was listed as affiliated with the New Democrats Directory, a list of several hundred Democratic Leadership Council-affiliated elected officials.

The presidency of Barack Obama was largely a moderate Democratic presidency and political party dealing with an obstruction from an increasingly right wing Republican Party in United States Congress. In 2009, Obama, in a meeting with the New Democrat Coalition, told them that he was a "New Democrat", "pro-growth Democrat", that he "supports free and fair trade", and was "very concerned about a return to protectionism." That same year, the Moderate Dems Working Group was created in the United States Senate to promote bipartisanship. In 2011, the Democratic Leadership Council dissolved.

The 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses between Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders was largely a fight along ideological lines between the two. Hillary Clinton, a self-described "moderate" and "progressive who gets things done", received substantial support from African Americans, older Americans, women, LGBT Americans, Muslim Americans, Latino Americans, and Jewish Americans. During the general election, Clinton campaigned to appeal to moderate Republicans, due to their rejection of the Republican candidate Donald Trump, backed by the ultra-conservative Alt-Right movement. During the primaries, Sanders ran further to the left of Clinton, causing her to move slightly left during the presidential primaries and caucuses, coming out against the Keystone Pipeline and Trans-Pacific Partnership along with coming out in favor of a $15 federal minimum wage. One key area that Clinton ran to the left of Sanders on was gun control, with Clinton having a staunchly pro-gun control voting record in Congress while Sanders has been in favor of gun control but hasn't always voted for pro-gun control positions. During the drafting of the 2016 Democratic Party platform, Clinton's and DNC Chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz's committee appointees to the platform drafting committee all voted against language opposing the Trans-Pacific Partnership while Sanders' committee appointees voted in favor of it, casting doubt on Clinton's opposition to the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Still, Sanders stated repeatedly that the campaigns worked together to put forward the most progressive platform in party history.

Conservative wing[edit]

Governor of Louisiana John Bel Edwards

From the 1860s to the 1940s, conservative Democrats came to mean opposition to the Radical Republicans who wanted to grant full citizenship rights to freed slaves and take political power away from the ex-Confederates. In the 1940s, the Democratic Party began to advocate against segregation.

The conservative coalition is an unofficial coalition in the United States Congress bringing together a conservative majority of the Republican Party and the conservative, mostly Southern, wing of the Democratic Party. It was dominant in Congress from 1937 to 1963 and remained a political force until the mid-1980s, eventually dying out in the 1990s. In terms of Congressional roll call votes, it primarily appeared on votes affecting labor unions. The conservative coalition did not operate on civil rights bills, for the two wings had opposing viewpoints.[1] However, the coalition did have the power to prevent unwanted bills from even coming to a vote. The coalition included many committee chairmen from the South who blocked bills by not reporting them from their committees. Furthermore, Howard W. Smith, chairman of the House Rules Committee, often could kill a bill simply by not reporting it out with a favorable rule; he lost some of that power in 1961.[2] The conservative coalition was not concerned with foreign policy, as most of the southern Democrats were internationalists, a position opposed by most Republicans.

In the 1970s, the presidency of Jimmy Carter began moving the Democratic Party to the right. In the 1990s, the presidency of Bill Clinton began moving the Democratic Party further to the right. In 1995, the Blue Dog Coalition was created in the United States Congress. In the 2000s, the presidency of Barack Obama began moving the Democratic Party further to the right.

Today conservative Democrats are generally regarded as members of the Democratic Party who are more conservative than the national political party as a whole. Conservative Democrats vary greatly in ideology. Some are fiscally conservative and socially liberal Democrats. Some are fiscally conservative and socially moderate Democrats. On foreign policy, conservative Democrats are generally liberal internationalists.

Liberal wing[edit]

Modern liberalism in the Democratic Party began during the Progressive era. From 1900 to 1920, liberals called themselves progressives and rallied behind Democrats such as William Jennings Bryan and Woodrow Wilson to fight corruption, waste and big trusts. The presidency of Woodrow Wilson saw the enactment of the New Freedom, progressive social programs enacted from 1913 to 1916, when Democrats controlled Congress. The rise of the women's suffrage movement saw the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and a push for civil rights legislation on the basis of gender. The first modern self described liberal Democratic president was President Franklin D. Roosevelt, enacted the New Deal, a series social liberal programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938, and a few that came later. From the 1940s on wards, liberal Democrats began pushing for desegregation and civil rights legislation for racial minorities. From the 1960s on wards, liberal Democrats began pushing for immigration reform and gun control. During the Cold War, liberal Democratic movement became anti-communist.

In the 1970s, liberal Democrats began pushing for the end to capital punishment, civil rights for disabled people, consumer protection, environmentalism, LGBT rights, and reproductive rights. The election of President Jimmy Carter marked the end of the bipartisan support from United States presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt to Richard Nixon to the New Deal programs and marked the beginning of support among United States presidents for neoliberal policies. In 1990s, the election of President Bill Clinton saw the shift to the right of the greater political spectrum within the Democratic Party among liberals. The presidency of Barack Obama largely continued the shift to the right of the greater political spectrum within the Democratic Party among liberals. The key legislative achievement of the Obama administration, the passage and enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, was generally supported among liberal Democrats, but criticized by some for not going far enough. On social liberalism, liberal Democrats achieved expansion of LGBT rights, federal hate crime laws, rescinding the Mexico City Policy, rescinding the ban on federal taxpayer dollars to fund research on embryonic stem cells, Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, and the United States–Cuban Thaw. In the 2010s, Democratic liberals began pushing for the legalization of cannabis, succeeding in several states. President Obama, who opposes cannabis legalization, did not crack down on states that did legalize cannabis during his presidency.

Today liberal Democrats generally regarded as socially liberal. On economic issues, liberal Democrats vary with some supporting neo-liberal economics, while others support Keynesian or mixed economic system. On foreign policy, there is also a divide among liberal Democrats, with some being liberal internationalists, while other are less in favor of interventionism.

A 2015 Public Religion Research Institute found 82% of liberal Democrats opposed legally allowing small business owners from being allowed to discriminate by refusing products and services to gay and lesbian people, including on the basis of their religious belief, while 15% supported, and 3% don't know/refused to answer.[3] A March 2015 Pew Research Center poll found 75% of liberal Democrats believes marijuana should be legal, 22% opposed, and 3% don't know.[4] A 2015 Gallup annual average based on January though December 2015 as part of Gallup's monthly Gallup Poll Social Series surveys found a record 45% of Democrats identify as liberals, a rise from 29% in 2000.[5] A March 2016 Pew Research Center poll found 84% of liberal Democrats support same-sex marriage, while 12% oppose same-sex marriage and 87% believe homosexuality should be accepted by society, while 8% believe it should be discouraged.[6] A May 2016 Gallup poll found that more Democrats identified as liberal on social issues, with 57% identifying as liberal on social issues, than liberal on economic issues, with 41% identifying as liberal on economic issues. The 57% of Democrats who currently say they are liberal on issues issues is up from 35% in 2001 when Gallup polled.[7]

Libertarian wing[edit]

Main article: Libertarian Democrat
Former Senator Mike Gravel

Civil liberties advocates, and people against national debt, also often support the Democratic Party because its positions on such issues as civil rights and separation of church and state are more closely aligned to their own than the positions of the Republican Party, and because the Democrats' economic agenda may be more appealing to them than that of the Libertarian Party.[8]

They oppose gun control, the "War on Drugs," protectionism, corporate welfare, governmental borrowing, and an interventionist foreign policy. Some civil libertarians also support the party because of their support of habeas corpus for unlawful combatants, opposition to torture of suspected terrorists, extraordinary rendtition, warrantless wiretapping, indefinite detention without trial or charge, the Patriot Act, the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base and what they see as the erosion of the protections of the Bill of Rights.[9][10]

In the 2010s, following the revelations by Edward Snowden about NSA surveillance in 2013, the increasing advent of online decentralization and cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, the perceived failure of the War on Drugs, and the police violence in places like Ferguson, Democratic lawmakers such as Senators Ron Wyden, Kirsten Gilibrand, and Cory Booker and Representative Jared Polis have worked alongside libertarian Republicans like Senator Rand Paul and Representative Justin Amash to curb what is seen as government overreach in each of these areas, earning plaudits from such traditional libertarian sources as Reason Magazine.[11][12][13][14] The growing political power of Silicon Valley, a longtime Democratic stronghold that is friendly to economic deregulation and strong civil liberties protections while maintaining traditionally liberal views on social issues, has also had a serious impact on the increasingly libertarian leanings of young Democrats.[15][16][17]

Many anti-war and civil libertarian Democrats were energized by the 2008 and 2012 presidential campaigns of Ron Paul,[18][19] a constituency that has arguably embraced the 2016 presidential campaign of independent Democrat Bernie Sanders for the same reasons.[20][21] Additionally, Alaska Senator and presidential aspirant Mike Gravel left the Democratic Party midway through the 2008 presidential election cycle to seek the Libertarian Party presidential nomination.[22]

The Democratic Freedom Caucus (DFC) is an organized group of this faction, although it prefers to use terms such as "freedom Democrats" or "freedom-oriented Democrats". The DFC does not use the term "libertarian" on its website, because while it advocates individual liberty and limited government power, it considers its economic policies to be more progressive than, for example, the Libertarian Party. This is especially so because the DFC is in the tradition which holds that land and natural resources are subject to fundamentally different economic laws than human-made products (such as machinery, buildings, etc.), so its view of economic freedom advocates somewhat different economic policies. Specifically, the DFC advocates in its platform a tax shift away from things like labor, (and the products thereof), and sales and towards spatial-locations and natural resources.[23]

Another group, The Libertarian Democratic Caucus (LDC) seeks to build libertarian coalitions on issues regardless of political party. The Democratic Freedom Caucus tends to focus on taxation while the LDC targets civil liberty issues such as legalizing victimless crimes. The LDC is a Democratic organization, but it advocates working with the Libertarian Party and libertarian Republicans, such as the Libertarian Republican Caucus, on issues they have in common.[24]

Progressive wing[edit]

Today progressive Democrats are generally regarded as social progressives on social issues. On economic issues, progressive Democrats are generally promote Keynesian or mixed economic system. On foreign policy, there is also a divide among progressive Democrats, with some being liberal internationalists, while other are less in favor of interventionism. Some modern self described progressives, such as Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton, would be described as neo-liberal.

The Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC) is a caucus of progressive Democrats, along with one independent, in the U.S. Congress. It is the single largest Democratic caucus in the House of Representatives. Its members have included Congressmen Dennis Kucinich (OH), Alan Grayson (FL), John Conyers (MI), Barbara Lee (CA), Jim McDermott (WA), and John Lewis (GA).[25]

Many progressive Democrats are ideological descendants of the New Left of Democratic Presidential candidate/Senator George McGovern of South Dakota; others were involved in the presidential candidacies of Vermont Governor Howard Dean and U.S. Rep. Dennis Kucinich of Ohio; and still others are disaffected former members of the Green Party. This groups consists disproportionately of college-educated professionals.[26] A recent study by the Pew Research Center found that a plurality, 41%, resided in mass affluent households and 49% were college graduates.[27]

Progressive Democratic candidates for public office have had popular support as candidates in metropolitan areas outside the South, and among African-Americans nationwide. Senators Paul Wellstone (MN),[28] Elizabeth Warren (MA),[29] and Sherrod Brown (OH) have been described as progressive. Other famous progressives include Eugene McCarthy and Ted Kennedy.[30]

Voter base[edit]

A large portion of the Democratic voting base are ethnic minorities. The Democrats' positions on affirmative action and civil rights, the economy, and immigration have attracted many minorities to the party.

African Americans[edit]

President Barack Obama

Originally, the Republican Party was favored by African Americans after the end of the civil war and emancipation of black slaves. This trend started to gradually change in the 1930s with Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal programs that gave economic relief to all minorities including African Americans and Hispanics. Support for the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s by Democratic presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson helped give the Democrats even larger support among the African American community, although their position also alienated the Southern white population. Today African Americans have as strong support for the Democratic Party as any group has for either party, voting 90% Democratic in the 2000 presidential election,[31] 88% Democratic in the 2004 presidential election[32] and 95% Democratic in the 2008 presidential election.[33]

National exit polling among Black/African Americans
Year Branch  % of Black/African American Democratic vote
1976[34] United States Presidency 83 83
 
1980[35] United States Presidency 83 83
 
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 92 92
 
1984[38] United States Presidency 91 91
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 86 86
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 85 85
 
1988[41] United States Presidency 83 83
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 79 79
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
1992[44] United States Presidency 83 83
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 92 92
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 82 82
 
1996[47] United States Presidency 84 84
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
2000[50] United States Presidency 90 90
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 91 91
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 90 90
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 88 88
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 94 94
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 95 95
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 91 91
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 92 92
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 93 93
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 90 90
 

18-29 year old African Americans[edit]

National exit polling among 18-29 year old Black/African Americans
Year Branch  % of 18-29 year old Black/African American Democratic vote
2008[61] United States House of Representatives 94 94
 
2008[33] United States Presidency 95 95
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 91 91
 
2014[62] United States House of Representatives 88 88
 

39-44 year old African Americans[edit]

National exit polling among 39-44 year old Black/African Americans
Year Branch  % of 39-44 year old Black/African American Democratic vote
2008[61] United States House of Representatives 94 94
 
2008[33] United States Presidency 96 96
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 94 94
 
2014[62] United States House of Representatives 86 86
 

45-64 year old African Americans[edit]

National exit polling among 45-64 year old Black/African Americans
Year Branch  % of 45-64 year old Black/African American Democratic vote
2008[61] United States House of Representatives 93 93
 
2008[33] United States Presidency 96 96
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 93 93
 
2014[62] United States House of Representatives 90 90
 

Over 65 years old African Americans[edit]

National exit polling among over 65 years old Black/African Americans
Year Branch  % of over 65 years old Black/African American Democratic vote
2008[61] United States House of Representatives 91 91
 
2008[33] United States Presidency 94 94
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 92 92
 
2014[62] United States House of Representatives 93 93
 

Age[edit]

18-29 year old Americans[edit]

National exit polling among 18-29 year old Americans
Year Branch  % of 18-29 year old American Democratic vote
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 59 59
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1988[41] United States Presidency 47 47
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 49 49
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 50 50
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 61 61
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 65 65
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 66 66
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 61 61
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 60 60
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 

30-44 year old Americans[edit]

Senator Chris Murphy
National exit polling among 30-44 year old Americans
Year Branch  % of 30-44 year old Americans Democratic vote
1976[34] United States Presidency 52 52
 
1980[35] United States Presidency 38 38
 
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1984[38] United States Presidency 42 42
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1988[41] United States Presidency 46 46
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 46 46
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 50 50
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 50 50
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 49 49
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 45 45
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 48 48
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 52 52
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 48 48
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 52 52
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 

Asian Americans[edit]

Represantive Tulsi Gabbard

The Democratic Party also has considerable support in the small but growing Asian American population. The Asian American population had been a stronghold of the Republican Party until the United States presidential election of 1992 in which George H. W. Bush won 55% of the Asian American vote, compared to Bill Clinton winning 31%, and Ross Perot winning 15% of the Asian vote. Originally, the vast majority of Asian Americans consisted of strongly anti-communist, pro-democracy Vietnamese refugees, Chinese Americans, Taiwanese Americans, Korean Americans, and socially conservative Filipinos who fled Ferdinand Marcos in the 1960s through the 1980s, and the general Republican Party's socially conservative, fervently anti-communist position strongly resonated with this original demographic. The Democratic party made gains among the Asian American population starting with 1996 and in 2006, won 62% of the Asian American vote. Exit polls after the 2008 presidential election indicated that Democratic candidate, Barack Obama won 62% of the Asian American vote nationwide.[63] In the 2012 Presidential election, 73% of the Asian American electorate voted for Obama's re-election.[64]

Barack Obama has the support of 85% of Indian Americans, 68% of Chinese Americans, and 57% of Filipino Americans.[65] The Asian American community's increasing number of young voters has also helped to erode traditionally reliably Republican voting blocs such as Vietnamese and Filipino Americans, leading to an increase in support for Democrats. Prominent Asian-American Democrats include Senators Daniel Inouye, Daniel Akaka and Mazie Hirono, former Governor and Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke, and Representatives Mike Honda, Judy Chu, Doris Matsui, and Norman Mineta.

National exit polling among Asian Americans
Year Branch  % of Asian American Democratic vote
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 63 63
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 49 49
 
1992[44] United States Presidency 31 31
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 43 43
 
1996[47] United States Presidency 44 44
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 59 59
 
2000[50] United States Presidency 55 55
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 66 66
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 56 56
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 63 63
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 67 67
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 62 62
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 59 59
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 74 74
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 73 73
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 49 49
 

Christian left[edit]

Main article: Christian left
President Jimmy Carter

The Christian left shares many policy goals with Democratic Party, although the movement is arguably smaller and less influential on the party when compared to the Christian right, which is generally more affiliated with the Republican Party.

Christian left includes Peace churches, elements of Protestant mainline churches, elements of Roman Catholicism and some parts of the evangelical community. Their concerns regarding social justice, welfare, universal health care, education and foreign aid are more in line with the Democratic economic agenda than the laissez-faire economic approach of the Republicans. Their social views of capital punishment, defense and militarism, civil rights and equality are also left-wing. On moral issues such as abortion, euthanasia and homosexuality, the Christian left are often, although not always, more in line with Democrats. They may either disagree with Biblical literalism on these issues or may hold opposition but choose to prioritize social justice and other issues over social issues.[citation needed]

Prominent Christian left Democrats include Jesse Jackson (a Democratic presidential candidate in 1984 and 1988) and Al Sharpton (a Democratic presidential candidate in 2004).

National exit polling among Roman Catholic Americans
Year Branch  % of Roman Catholic Democratic vote
1952[66] United States Presidency 56 56
 
1956[66] United States Presidency 51 51
 
1960[66] United States Presidency 78 78
 
1964[66] United States Presidency 76 76
 
1968[66] United States Presidency 59 59
 
1972[66] United States Presidency 48 48
 
1976[66] United States Presidency 57 57
 
1980[66] United States Presidency 46 46
 
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 63 63
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
1984[66] United States Presidency 39 39
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
1988[66] United States Presidency 49 49
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
1992[66] United States Presidency 47 47
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 47 47
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1996[66] United States Presidency 55 55
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 
2000[66] United States Presidency 52 52
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 49 49
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 47 47
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
2008[67] United States Presidency 54 54
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 45 45
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 45 45
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 50 50
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 45 45
 

Education[edit]

Non-high school graduates[edit]

National exit polling among non-high school graduates
Year Branch  % of Democratic vote non-high school graduates
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 60 60
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 63 63
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 60 60
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 67 67
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 65 65
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
2000[68] United States Presidency 59 59
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 63 63
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 50 50
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 50 50
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 64 64
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 69 69
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 63 63
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 61 61
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 64 64
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 64 64
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 

Postgraduate education[edit]

National exit polling among people with postgraduate education
Year Branch  % of Democratic vote among people with postgraduate education
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
2000[68] United States Presidency 52 52
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 47 47
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 55 55
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 59 59
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 58 58
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 55 55
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 

Hispanic Americans[edit]

The Hispanic population, particularly the large Mexican American population in the Southwest and large Puerto Rican, Dominican, and South American populations in the Northeast have been strongholds for the Democratic Party. Hispanic Democrats commonly favor liberal views on immigration, which supersedes in priority over the socially conservative views that many Hispanics hold. In 1996 presidential election, Democratic President Bill Clinton received 72% of the Hispanic vote.

After a period of incremental gains under George W. Bush, the Republican Party's support among Hispanics seriously eroded after a heated and acrimonious debate within the party during the 109th Congress over immigration reform. Nationwide protests helped galvanize Hispanic political participation, and in the 2006 mid-term elections, Democrats increased their share the Hispanic vote from 2004 by 14 points to 69%.[69] The trend continued in 2008, as Barack Obama carried the Latino vote with 67%.[33] Obama expanded his share of the Latino vote to 71% in the 2012 Presidential election

National exit polling among Latino/Hispanic Americans
Year Branch  % of Latino/Hispanic American Democratic vote
1976[34] United States Presidency 82 82
 
1980[35] United States Presidency 56 56
 
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 75 75
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 69 69
 
1984[38] United States Presidency 66 66
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 75 75
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 76 76
 
1988[41] United States Presidency 70 70
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 72 72
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 72 72
 
1992[44] United States Presidency 61 61
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 61 61
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 73 73
 
1996[47] United States Presidency 73 73
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 63 63
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 65 65
 
2000[50] United States Presidency 62 62
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 62 62
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 53 53
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 74 74
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 70 70
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 67 67
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 66 66
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 69 69
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 71 71
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 63 63
 

Income[edit]

Families with income that is less than $30,000[edit]

National exit polling among families with income that is less than $30,000
Year Branch  % of Democratic vote among families with income that is less than $30,000
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 61 61
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 60 60
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 62 62
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 65 65
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 68 68
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 64 64
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 60 60
 

Families with income that is between $30,000-49,999[edit]

National exit polling among families with income that is between $30,000-49,999
Year Branch  % of Democratic vote among families with income that is between $30,000-49,999
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 49 49
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 
1992[44] United States Presidency 41 41
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 45 45
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 50 50
 
1996[47] United States Presidency 49 49
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 49 49
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 
2000[68] United States Presidency 49 49
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 50 50
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 50 50
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 59 59
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 55 55
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 

Irreligious Americans[edit]

The Democratic Party receives support from secular organizations such as the Secular Coalition for America,[70] and many agnostic and atheist Americans. Exit polls from the 2008 election showed that although a religious affiliation of "none" accounted for 12% of the electorate, they overwhelmingly voted for Obama by a 75–25% margin.[71] In his inaugural address, Obama acknowledged atheists by saying that the United States is not just "Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus but non-believers as well."[72] In the 2012 election cycle, Obama has moderate to high rankings with the Secular Coalition for America, whereas the majority of the Republican candidates have ratings in the low-to-failing range.[73]

An October 2012 American Values Survey found that among unaffiliated American likely voters, 23% of unaffiliated American likely voters made up Barack Obama's religious coalition of supporters, the largest share of the coalition.[74]

A Pew Research Center survey conducted between January to June, 2016, found 28% of Democratic and Democratic-leaning registered voters were religiously unaffiliated. A Pew Research Center survey conducted in June, 2016 found 67% of religious nones supported Hillary Clinton for president, 23% supported Donald Trump, and 10% answered other/don't know/or refused to answer.[75]

National exit polling among Americans who self identify their religion as "None"
Year Branch  % of Democratic vote who self identify their religion as "None"
1996[76] United States Presidency 59 59
 
2000[77] United States Presidency 61 61
 
2004[78] United States House of Representatives 65 65
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 67 67
 
2006[79] United States House of Representatives 74 74
 
2008[80] United States House of Representatives 72 72
 
2008[67] United States Presidency 75 75
 
2012[81] United States House of Representatives 71 71
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 70 70
 
2014[62] United States House of Representatives 69 69
 

Atheist and agnostic Americans[edit]

Bangor, Maine city council member Sean Faircloth

An October 2012 American Values Survey found that among atheist and agnostic American voters, 51% identified politically independent, 39% Democratic, 9% Republican, and 1% other. It also found that atheist and agnostic American voters identify 57% liberal and 81% supported Barack Obama in the 2012 US presidential election.[74]

Jewish Americans[edit]

Jewish communities tend to be a stronghold for the Democratic Party, with more than 70% of Jewish voters having cast their ballots for the Democrats in the 2004 through 2012 presidential elections. Of the 29 Jewish Senators and Congressmen currently serving in Congress, 27 are Democrats.[82]

National exit polling among followers of Judaism
Year Branch  % of Democratic vote among followers of Judaism
1972[83] United States Presidency 66 66
 
1976[83] United States Presidency 64 64
 
1980[83] United States Presidency 44 44
 
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 82 82
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 70 70
 
1984[83] United States Presidency 68 68
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 70 70
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 68 68
 
1988[83] United States Presidency 67 67
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 73 73
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 79 79
 
1992[83] United States Presidency 77 77
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 77 77
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 74 74
 
1996[76] United States Presidency 78 78
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 79 79
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 76 76
 
2000[84] United States Presidency 79 79
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 64 64
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 78 78
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 74 74
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 88 88
 
2008[67] United States Presidency 78 78
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 71 71
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 69 69
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 66 66
 

Labor[edit]

Since the 1930s, a critical component of the Democratic Party coalition has been organized labor. Labor unions supply a great deal of the money, grass roots political organization, and voting base of support for the party. Union membership in the United States has declined from an all time high in 1954 of 35% to a low of 11% in 2015. After the 1968 Democratic National Convention, the McGovern–Fraser Commission set up the modern system of primaries. It also removed organized labor from its structural position of power in the Democratic Party and opened it up democratically to the voters. This saw a massive decline in the power of organized labor within the Democratic Party. Although unions still donate a lot of money to the Democratic Party, it is nothing compared to donations from other lobbyists in the Democratic Party. The presidencies of Bill Clinton and Barrack Obama have both been viewed as hostile towards labor unions, such as their support for trade deals, although the leadership of the unions still supported them.

National exit polling among union members
Year Branch  % of Democratic vote among union members
2000[68] United States Presidency 62 62
 
2004[78] United States House of Representatives 65 65
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 61 61
 
2006[79] United States House of Representatives 68 68
 
2008[85] United States House of Representatives 65 65
 
2008[86] United States Presidency 60 60
 

LGBT Americans[edit]

Senator Tammy Baldwin

Since the 1970s, LGBT Americans become a key core consistency within the Democratic Party. In 1971, the Alice B. Toklas Memorial Democratic Club of San Francisco was formed as the first registered political action committee for LGBT Democrats in the nation. The 1972 Democratic National Convention saw the first speaking slots for LGBT people at a Democratic National Convention, along with votes and rejecting LGBT rights plank to the Democratic Party platform. The presidency of Jimmy Carter was the first United States presidency that addressed LGBT rights, but did very little to address LGBT rights as president. In the 1980 Democratic Party presidential primaries, in response to Jimmy Carter not doing enough for LGBT rights and not supporting an LGBT plank in the Democratic Party, Ted Kennedy heavily pandered to LGBT voters, supporting adding an LGBT plank to the Democratic Party. LGBT voters voted for Kennedy during the primary, helping him win the California primary and lead to the first LGBT plank to the Democratic Party. However, LGBT voters were not euthanized about Jimmy Carter and Carter did not win reelection. During the 1988 United States presidential election, Michael Dukakis was overtly homophobic, leading to many LGBT voters to boo him during a meeting Dukakis had with LGBT groups. Polling showed that George H. W. Bush won 35-40% of the LGBT vote during the 1988 presidential election.

Both presidents Bill Clinton and Barack Obama heavily targeted LGBT voters. Exit polling going back to 1990 to the present show that LGB voters overwhelming prefer the Democratic Party over the Republican Party. On average, about 72.5% of LGB voters voted Democratic in exit polling for the US presidential elections dating from 1992 to the present. On average, about 74.42% of LGB voters voted Democratic in exit polling for House of Representatives elections dating from 1990 to the present. In the 2012 election exit polls, Obama won 76% of LGB voters. A Whitman Insight Strategies poll, conducted from March 29 - April 2, 2016, among 338 LGBT likely voters, with a margin of error of 5.3%, found 84% would vote for Hillary Clinton over Donald Trump.[87]

National polling of the 2008 Democratic presidential primaries and caucuses among LGB Democratic likely voters
Poll source Date
administered
Sample
size
Hillary
Clinton
Barack
Obama
John
Edwards
Dennis
Kucinich
Bill
Richardson
Chris
Dodd
Joe
Biden
Refused
Hunter College November 15–26, 2007 501 62.8% 22.3% 6.5% 4.5% 1.2% 1.1% 1.0% 0.6%
National polling of the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries and caucuses among GB Americans
Poll source Date
administered
Sample
size
Hillary
Clinton
Bernie
Sanders
Undecided Other
SCRUFF February 2016 10,510 62.5% 31.0% 5.9% 0.6%
National exit polling among LGB Americans
Year Branch  % of LGB Democratic vote
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 78 78
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 77 77
 
1992[44] United States Presidency 72 72
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 74 74
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 73 73
 
1996[47] United States Presidency 69 69
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 67 67
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 68 68
 
2000[50] United States Presidency 71 71
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 76 76
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 77 77
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 75 75
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 81 81
 
2008[86] United States Presidency 70 70
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 69 69
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 79 79
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 76 76
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 76 76
 

Liberals[edit]

National exit polling among liberal Americans
Year Branch  % of liberal American Democratic vote
1976[34] United States Presidency 74 74
 
1980[35] United States Presidency 60 60
 
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 80 80
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 76 76
 
1984[38] United States Presidency 71 71
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 71 71
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 80 80
 
1988[41] United States Presidency 82 82
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 73 73
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 81 81
 
1992[44] United States Presidency 68 68
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 81 81
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 82 82
 
1996[47] United States Presidency 81 81
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 84 84
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 84 84
 
2000[50] United States Presidency 81 81
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 81 81
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 80 80
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 85 85
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 89 89
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 92 92
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 88 88
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 86 86
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 88 88
 

Marital Status[edit]

Unmarried[edit]

National exit polling among unmarried people
Year Branch  % of Democratic unmarried vote
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 63 63
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 59 59
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 61 61
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 60 60
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 60 60
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 59 59
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 59 59
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 60 60
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 63 63
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 67 67
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 63 63
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 

Moderates[edit]

National exit polling among moderate Americans
Year Branch  % of moderate American Democratic vote
1976[34] United States Presidency 53 53
 
1980[35] United States Presidency 43 43
 
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 60 60
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
1984[38] United States Presidency 46 46
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
1988[41] United States Presidency 51 51
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
1992[44] United States Presidency 48 48
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
1996[47] United States Presidency 57 57
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
2000[50] United States Presidency 53 53
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 54 54
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 61 61
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 62 62
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 60 60
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 56 56
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 

Muslim Americans[edit]

Represantive Keith Ellison

Muslims make up about 0.6% of Americans and in the 2008 election, 89% of Muslim Americans voted for Barack Obama.[88] Muslim Americans tend to be financially well off, as many in the community are small businessmen and educated professionals. They also tend to be socially conservative.[89] However, after 9/11 many experienced hostility and discrimination,[90] and many right-wing religious and political leaders attacked Islam as both a violent religion and a threat to American values.[91][92] Furthermore, most Muslim Americans opposed the Iraq War, solidifying their shift to the Democratic Party.[93]

Islamic convert Keith Ellison was elected as the first Muslim Congressman in 2006. He was elected as Democrats' Representative for Minnesota's 5th congressional district.

National exit polling among Muslim Americans
Year Branch  % of Muslim American Democratic voters
2004[94] United States Presidency 93 93
 
2008[95] United States Presidency 85 85
 
2012[96] United States Presidency 85 85
 

Native Americans[edit]

The Democratic Party also has strong support among the Native American population, particularly in Arizona, New Mexico, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Alaska, Idaho, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Oklahoma[97] and North Carolina. Though now a small percentage of the population (virtually non-existent in some regions), most Native American precincts vote Democratic in margins exceeded only by African-Americans.[98]

Modern-day Democratic Native American politicians include former Congressman Brad Carson of Oklahoma and Lieutenant Governor Byron Mallott of Alaska, as well as Principal Chief Bill John Baker of the Cherokee Nation and Governor Bill Anoatubby of the Chickasaw Nation.

Region[edit]

Northeast[edit]

National exit polling among Northeastern voters
Year Branch  % of Democratic Northeastern vote
1976[34] United States Presidency 54 54
 
1980[35] United States Presidency 44 44
 
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 65 65
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1984[38] United States Presidency 47 47
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1988[41] United States Presidency 49 49
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
1992[44] United States Presidency 47 47
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 50 50
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
1996[47] United States Presidency 56 56
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 59 59
 
2000[68] United States Presidency 56 56
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 59 59
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 56 56
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 64 64
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 62 62
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 59 59
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 59 59
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 

West[edit]

National exit polling among Western voters
Year Branch  % of Democratic Western vote
1976[34] United States Presidency 50 50
 
1980[35] United States Presidency 36 36
 
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 48 48
 
1984[38] United States Presidency 38 38
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
1988[41] United States Presidency 47 47
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
1992[44] United States Presidency 43 43
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 47 47
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 
1996[47] United States Presidency 50 50
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 50 50
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 50 50
 
2000[68] United States Presidency 49 49
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 50 50
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 49 49
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 50 50
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 60 60
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 57 57
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 54 54
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 51 51
 

Registered Democrats[edit]

National exit polling among registered Democratic
Year Branch  % of Democratic vote among registered Democrats
1976[34] United States Presidency 80 80
 
1980[35] United States Presidency 67 67
 
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 90 90
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 85 85
 
1984[38] United States Presidency 74 74
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 81 81
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 83 83
 
1988[41] United States Presidency 83 83
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 79 79
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
1992[44] United States Presidency 77 77
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 86 86
 
1996[47] United States Presidency 85 85
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 89 89
 
2000[68] United States Presidency 87 87
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 90 90
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 91 91
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 89 89
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 93 93
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 93 93
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 89 89
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 93 93
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 94 94
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 92 92
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 93 93
 

Women[edit]

National exit polling among women
Year Branch  % of Democratic women vote
1976[34] United States Presidency 52 52
 
1980[35] United States Presidency 46 46
 
1982[36] United States House of Representatives 58 58
 
1984[37] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1984[38] United States Presidency 42 42
 
1986[39] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1988[40] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
1988[41] United States Presidency 49 49
 
1990[42] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
1992[43] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
1992[44] United States Presidency 45 45
 
1994[45] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
1996[46] United States House of Representatives 55 55
 
1996[47] United States Presidency 55 55
 
1998[48] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
2000[49] United States House of Representatives 54 54
 
2000[68] United States Presidency 54 54
 
2002[51] United States House of Representatives 50 50
 
2004[52] United States House of Representatives 53 53
 
2004[53] United States Presidency 51 51
 
2006[54] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
2008[55] United States House of Representatives 57 57
 
2008[56] United States Presidency 56 56
 
2010[57] United States House of Representatives 49 49
 
2012[58] United States House of Representatives 56 56
 
2012[59] United States Presidency 55 55
 
2014[60] United States House of Representatives 52 52
 

Working class[edit]

Senator Sherrod Brown

While the American working class has lost much of its political strength with the decline of labor unions,[99] it remains a stronghold of the Democratic Party and continues as an essential part of the Democratic base. Today, roughly a third of the American public is estimated to be working class with around 52% being either members of the working or lower classes.[100][101] Yet, as those with lower socioeconomic status are less likely to vote, the working and lower classes are underrepresented in the electorate. The working class is largely distinguished by highly routinized and closely supervised work. It consists mainly of clerical and blue-collar workers.[100] Even though most in the working class are able to afford an adequate standard of living, high economic insecurity and possible personal benefit from an extended social safety net, make the majority of working class person left-of-center on economic issues. Most working class Democrats differ from most liberals, however, in their more socially conservative views. Working class Democrats tend to be more religious and likely to belong to an ethnic minority. Socially conservative and disadvantaged Democrats are among the least educated and lowest earning ideological demographics. In 2005, only 15% had a college degree, compared to 27% at the national average and 49% of liberals, respectively. Together socially conservative and the financially disadvantaged comprised roughly 54% of the Democratic base.[102]> The continued importance of the working class votes manifests itself in recent CNN exit polls, which shows that the majority of those with low incomes and little education vote for the Democratic Party.[103][104][104][105][105] However, there has been a noticeable decline in support for the Democratic Party among white working class voters.[106][107][108] In the 2012 presidential election, Barack Obama only carried 36% of white working class voters to Mitt Romney carrying 61%, and in the 2014 midterms, Democratic candidates for the U.S. House of Representatives only carried 34% of the white working class vote compared to 64% for the Republican candidates.[109][110][111]

See also[edit]

Republican Party:

Libertarian Party:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Katznelson, 1993
  2. ^ Bruce J. Dierenfield, Keeper of the Rules: Congressman Howard W. Smith of Virginia (1987)
  3. ^ "Beyond Same-sex Marriage: Attitudes on LGBT Nondiscrimination Laws and Religious Exemptions from the 2015 American Values Atlas - PRRI". 
  4. ^ "In Debate Over Legalizing Marijuana, Disagreement Over Drug's Dangers - 1615 L. - Street - NW - Suite 800 - Washington DC 20036 202 419 4300 - Main 202 419 4349 - Fax 202 419 4372 - Media Inquiries". people-press.org. 14 April 2015. 
  5. ^ Inc, Gallup. "Conservatives Hang On to Ideology Lead by a Thread". 
  6. ^ "Support steady for same-sex marriage and acceptance of homosexuality". 12 May 2016. 
  7. ^ Inc., Gallup,. "Democrats More Liberal on Social Issues Than Economic Ones". 
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  9. ^ Moulitsas, Markos (2006-07-07). "The Libertarian Dem". The Daily Kos. Retrieved 2015-06-06. 
  10. ^ Blake, Aaron (2013-08-01). "Libertarian Democrats: A movement in search of a leader". Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-06-06. 
  11. ^ Lake, Eli (2013-02-26). "Rand Paul and Ron Wyden, Drone Odd-Couple". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2015-06-06. 
  12. ^ Shackford, Scott (2014-03-04). "Ban the Dollar!". Reason Magazine. Retrieved 2015-06-06. 
  13. ^ Voorhees, Josh (2015-03-13). "Pot's Path Forward". Slate. Retrieved 2015-06-06. 
  14. ^ Kim, Seung Min (2014-07-08). "Cory Booker and Rand Paul team up for justice". Politico. Retrieved 2015-06-06. 
  15. ^ Roose, Kevin (2013-01-24). "Political Leanings of Silicon Valley". New York Magazine. 
  16. ^ Kotkin, Joel (2014-01-09). "How Silicon Valley Could Destabilize the Democratic Party". Forbes. Retrieved 2015-06-06. 
  17. ^ Hamby, Peter (2014-04-07). "Can Silicon Valley disrupt the Democratic Party?". CNN. Retrieved 2015-06-06. 
  18. ^ Steinmetz, Katy (2011-12-30). "Six Reasons Ron Paul Has Appeal Beyond the GOP". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2015-06-06. 
  19. ^ Koerner, Robin (2012-05-29). "Blue Republican or Red Democrat? The reEVOLution Crosses Party Lines". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015-06-06. 
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  30. ^ Perrin, Dennis (September 26, 2009). "Ted Kennedy: The Last Progressive". Huffingtonpost. Retrieved July 21, 2016. 
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  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i "How Groups Voted in 1980 - Roper Center". 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n 1982
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o 1984
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i "How Groups Voted in 1984 - Roper Center". 
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p 1986
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  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "How Groups Voted in 1988 - Roper Center". 
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r 1990
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s 1992
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  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s 1994
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