Faecalibacterium

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Faecalibacterium
Scientific classification
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Phylum:
Class:
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Genus:
Faecalibacterium

Duncan et al., 2002
Species:
F. prausnitzii
Binomial name
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
(Hauduroy et al., 1937) Duncan et al., 2002

Faecalibacterium is a genus of bacteria. Its sole known species, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is gram-positive,[1] mesophilic, rod-shaped,[2] anaerobic[3] and is one of the most abundant and important commensal bacteria of the human gut microbiota. It is non-spore forming and non-motile.[4] These bacteria produce butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids through the fermentation of dietary fiber.

History[edit]

Formerly considered to be a member of Fusobacterium, the bacterium is named in honor of German bacteriologist Otto Prausnitz. In 2002, it was proposed to be reclassified as its own genus, Faecalibacterium, containing the species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, as phylogenetic analysis from isolates showed it to be only distantly related to Fusobacterium, and a closer member of Clostridium cluster IV.[5]

Genetics[edit]

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii has a genome 2,868,932 bp long and has a GC content of 56.9%. The bacterium has been found to have 2,707 coding sequences, including 77 RNAs encoding genes.[6] 128 metabolic pathways have been reconstructed, as well as 27 protein complexes and 64 tRNAs.[7] Phylogenetically, the strains of F. prausnitzii compose phylogroups I and II. Most of the new isolates of this species isolated by M. Tanweer Khan belong to phylogroup II.[8] A protein produced by this bacterium has been linked to anti-inflammatory effects.[9]

Clinical relevance[edit]

In healthy adults, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii represent more than 5% of the bacteria in the intestine, making it one of the most common gut bacteria. It boosts the immune system, among other things.[10] Lower than usual levels of F. prausnitzii in the intestines have been associated with Crohn's disease, obesity, asthma and major depressive disorder,[11][12][13][14] and higher than usual levels have been associated with psoriasis.[15]

Inflammatory bowel disease[edit]

In Crohn's disease, as of 2015 most studies (with one exception) found reduced levels of F. prausnitzii;[16] this has been found in both fecal and mucosal samples.[17] However, it is a fastidious organism sensitive to oxygen and difficult to deliver to the intestine.[17]

Exclusive enteral nutrition, which is known to induce remission in Crohn's, has been found to reduce F. prausnitzii in responders.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martín R, Miquel S, Benevides L, Bridonneau C, Robert V, Hudault S, Chain F, Berteau O, Azevedo V, Chatel JM, Sokol H, Bermúdez-Humarán LG, Thomas M, Langella P (2017). "F. prausnitzii as a Next-Generation Probiotic". Frontiers in Microbiology. 8: 1226. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01226. PMC 5492426. PMID 28713353.
  2. ^ Martín R, Miquel S, Benevides L, Bridonneau C, Robert V, Hudault S, Chain F, Berteau O, Azevedo V, Chatel JM, Sokol H, Bermúdez-Humarán LG, Thomas M, Langella P (2017). "F. prausnitzii as a Next-Generation Probiotic". Frontiers in Microbiology. 8: 1226. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01226. PMC 5492426. PMID 28713353.
  3. ^ Khan MT, Duncan SH, Stams AJ, van Dijl JM, Flint HJ, Harmsen HJ (August 2012). "The gut anaerobe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii uses an extracellular electron shuttle to grow at oxic-anoxic interphases". The ISME Journal. 6 (8): 1578–85. doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.5. PMC 3400418. PMID 22357539.
  4. ^ Bag S, Ghosh TS, Das B (November 2017). "Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Isolated from the Gut of a Healthy Indian Adult". Genome Announcements. 5 (46). doi:10.1128/genomeA.01286-17. PMC 5690339. PMID 29146862.
  5. ^ Duncan SH, Hold GL, Harmsen HJ, Stewart CS, Flint HJ (November 2002). "Growth requirements and fermentation products of Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and a proposal to reclassify it as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gen. nov., comb. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52 (Pt 6): 2141–6. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-6-2141. PMID 12508881.
  6. ^ Bag S, Ghosh TS, Das B (November 2017). "Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Isolated from the Gut of a Healthy Indian Adult". Genome Announcements. 5 (46). doi:10.1128/genomeA.01286-17. PMC 5690339. PMID 29146862.
  7. ^ "Summary of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Strain A2-165, version 21.5". BioCyc.
  8. ^ Lopez-Siles M, Khan TM, Duncan SH, Harmsen HJ, Garcia-Gil LJ, Flint HJ (January 2012). "Cultured representatives of two major phylogroups of human colonic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii can utilize pectin, uronic acids, and host-derived substrates for growth". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 78 (2): 420–8. doi:10.1128/AEM.06858-11. PMC 3255724. PMID 22101049.
  9. ^ Quévrain E, Maubert MA, Michon C, Chain F, Marquant R, Tailhades J, Miquel S, Carlier L, Bermúdez-Humarán LG, Pigneur B, Lequin O, Kharrat P, Thomas G, Rainteau D, Aubry C, Breyner N, Afonso C, Lavielle S, Grill JP, Chassaing G, Chatel JM, Trugnan G, Xavier R, Langella P, Sokol H, Seksik P (March 2016). "Identification of an anti-inflammatory protein from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a commensal bacterium deficient in Crohn's disease". Gut. 65 (3): 415–425. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307649. PMC 5136800. PMID 26045134.
  10. ^ Miquel S, Martín R, Rossi O, Bermúdez-Humarán LG, Chatel JM, Sokol H, Thomas M, Wells JM, Langella P (June 2013). "Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 16 (3): 255–61. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2013.06.003. PMID 23831042.
  11. ^ Sokol H, Pigneur B, Watterlot L, Lakhdari O, Bermúdez-Humarán LG, Gratadoux JJ, Blugeon S, Bridonneau C, Furet JP, Corthier G, Grangette C, Vasquez N, Pochart P, Trugnan G, Thomas G, Blottière HM, Doré J, Marteau P, Seksik P, Langella P (October 2008). "Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patients". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (43): 16731–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0804812105. PMC 2575488. PMID 18936492.
  12. ^ "Bacterium 'to blame for Crohn's'". BBC News. 2008-10-21. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  13. ^ Newton RJ, McLellan SL, Dila DK, Vineis JH, Morrison HG, Eren AM, Sogin ML (February 2015). "Sewage reflects the microbiomes of human populations". mBio. 6 (2): e02574. doi:10.1128/mBio.02574-14. PMC 4358014. PMID 25714718.
  14. ^ Jiang H, Ling Z, Zhang Y, Mao H, Ma Z, Yin Y, Wang W, Tang W, Tan Z, Shi J, Li L, Ruan B (August 2015). "Altered fecal microbiota composition in patients with major depressive disorder". Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 48: 186–94. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.03.016. PMID 25882912.
  15. ^ Codoñer FM, Ramírez-Bosca A, Climent E, Carrión-Gutierrez M, Guerrero M, Pérez-Orquín JM, Horga de la Parte J, Genovés S, Ramón D, Navarro-López V, Chenoll E (February 2018). "Gut microbial composition in patients with psoriasis". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 3812. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.3812C. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22125-y. PMC 5830498. PMID 29491401.
  16. ^ Wright EK, Kamm MA, Teo SM, Inouye M, Wagner J, Kirkwood CD (June 2015). "Recent advances in characterizing the gastrointestinal microbiome in Crohn's disease: a systematic review". Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 21 (6): 1219–28. doi:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000382. PMC 4450900. PMID 25844959.
  17. ^ a b El Hage R, Hernandez-Sanabria E, Van de Wiele T (2017-09-29). "Emerging Trends in "Smart Probiotics": Functional Consideration for the Development of Novel Health and Industrial Applications". Frontiers in Microbiology. 8: 1889. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01889. PMC 5626839. PMID 29033923.
  18. ^ Edwards, Christine A.; McGrogan, Paraic; Blaut, Michael; Hanske, Laura; Bertz, Martin; Loman, Nick; Quince, Christopher; Hansen, Richard; Russell, Richard (2014-07-01). "Role of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in Crohn's Disease: Friend, Foe, or Does Not Really Matter?". Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 20 (7): E18–E19. doi:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000079. ISSN 1078-0998. PMID 24859302.