Faecalibacterium

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Faecalibacterium
Scientific classification
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Class:
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Genus:
Faecalibacterium

Duncan et al., 2002
Species:
F. prausnitzii
Binomial name
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
(Hauduroy et al., 1937) Duncan et al., 2002

Faecalibacterium is a genus of bacteria. Its sole known species, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is gram-positive,[1] mesophilic, rod-shaped,[2] anaerobic[3] and is one of the most abundant and important commensal bacteria of the human gut microbiota. It is non-spore forming and non-motile.[4] These bacteria produce butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids through the fermentation of dietary fiber.

History[edit]

Formerly considered to be a member of Fusobacterium, the bacterium is named in honor of German bacteriologist Otto Prausnitz. In 2002, it was proposed to be reclassified as its own genus, Faecalibacterium, containing the species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, as phylogenetic analysis from isolates showed it to be only distantly related to Fusobacterium, and a closer member of Clostridium cluster IV.[5]

Genetics[edit]

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is 2,868,932 bp in length and has a GC content of 56.9%. The bacterium has been found to have 2,707 coding sequences, including 77 RNAs encoding genes.[6] Its protein production has been linked to anti-inflammatory compounds.[7] 128 metabolic pathways have been isolated, as well as 27 protein complexes and 64 tRNAs.[8] Phylogenetically, the strains of F. prausnitzii compose phylogroups I and II. Most of the new isolates of these bacteria isolated by M. Tanweer Khan belong to phylogroup II.[9]

Clinical relevance[edit]

In healthy adults, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii represent more than 5% of the bacteria in the intestine, making it one of the most common gut bacteria. It boosts the immune system, among other things.[10] Lower than usual levels of F. prausnitzii in the intestines have been associated with Crohn's disease, obesity, asthma and major depressive disorder,[11][12][13][14] and higher than usual levels have been associated with psoriasis.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martín, Rebeca; Miquel, Sylvie; Benevides, Leandro; Bridonneau, Chantal; Robert, Véronique; Hudault, Sylvie; Chain, Florian; Berteau, Olivier; Azevedo, Vasco (2017). "Functional Characterization of Novel Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strains Isolated from Healthy Volunteers: A Step Forward in the Use of F. prausnitzii as a Next-Generation Probiotic". Frontiers in Microbiology. 8: 1226. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01226. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 5492426. PMID 28713353.
  2. ^ Martín, Rebeca; Miquel, Sylvie; Benevides, Leandro; Bridonneau, Chantal; Robert, Véronique; Hudault, Sylvie; Chain, Florian; Berteau, Olivier; Azevedo, Vasco (2017). "Functional Characterization of Novel Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strains Isolated from Healthy Volunteers: A Step Forward in the Use of F. prausnitzii as a Next-Generation Probiotic". Frontiers in Microbiology. 8: 1226. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01226. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 5492426. PMID 28713353.
  3. ^ Khan, M. Tanweer; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Flint, Harry J.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M. (August 2012). "The gut anaerobe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii uses an extracellular electron shuttle to grow at oxic-anoxic interphases". The ISME Journal. 6 (8): 1578–1585. doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.5. ISSN 1751-7370. PMC 3400418. PMID 22357539.
  4. ^ Bag, Satyabrata; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Das, Bhabatosh (2017-11-16). "Complete Genome Sequence of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Isolated from the Gut of a Healthy Indian Adult". Genome Announcements. 5 (46). doi:10.1128/genomeA.01286-17. ISSN 2169-8287. PMC 5690339. PMID 29146862.
  5. ^ Duncan, Sylvia H.; Hold, Georgina L.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Stewart, Colin S.; Flint, Harry J. (November 2002). "Growth requirements and fermentation products of Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and a proposal to reclassify it as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gen. nov., comb. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52 (Pt 6): 2141–2146. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-6-2141. ISSN 1466-5026. PMID 12508881.
  6. ^ Bag, Satyabrata; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Das, Bhabatosh (2017-11-16). "Complete Genome Sequence of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Isolated from the Gut of a Healthy Indian Adult". Genome Announcements. 5 (46). doi:10.1128/genomeA.01286-17. ISSN 2169-8287. PMC 5690339. PMID 29146862.
  7. ^ Quévrain, E.; Maubert, M. A.; Michon, C.; Chain, F.; Marquant, R.; Tailhades, J.; Miquel, S.; Carlier, L.; Bermúdez-Humarán, L. G. (March 2016). "Identification of an anti-inflammatory protein from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a commensal bacterium deficient in Crohn's disease". Gut. 65 (3): 415–425. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307649. ISSN 0017-5749. PMC 5136800. PMID 26045134.
  8. ^ "Summary of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Strain A2-165, version 21.5". BioCyc.
  9. ^ Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Khan, Tanweer M.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Garcia-Gil, L. Jesús; Flint, Harry J. (2012-01-15). "Cultured Representatives of Two Major Phylogroups of Human Colonic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Can Utilize Pectin, Uronic Acids, and Host-Derived Substrates for Growth". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 78 (2): 420–428. doi:10.1128/AEM.06858-11. ISSN 0099-2240. PMC 3255724. PMID 22101049.
  10. ^ Miquel, S; Martín, R; Rossi, O; Bermúdez-Humarán, LG; Chatel, JM; Sokol, H; Thomas, M; Wells, JM; Langella, P (2013). "Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 16 (3): 255–61. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2013.06.003. PMID 23831042.
  11. ^ "Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patients". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. September 8, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  12. ^ "Bacterium 'to blame for Crohn's'". BBC News. 2008-10-21. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  13. ^ Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L. (2015). "Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations". mBio. 6 (2): e02574–14. doi:10.1128/mBio.02574-14. PMC 4358014. PMID 25714718.
  14. ^ Jiang H, Ling Z, Zhang Y, Mao H, Ma Z, Yin Y, Wang W, Tang W, Tan Z, Shi J, Li L, Ruan B (April 13, 2015). "Altered fecal microbiota composition in patients with major depressive disorder". Brain Behav. Immun. 48: 186–94. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.03.016. PMID 25882912.
  15. ^ Codoñer, FM; et al. (2018). "Gut microbial composition in patients with psoriasis". Sci Rep. 8 (1): 3812. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22125-y. PMID 29491401.