Fairchild Channel F
The Fairchild Channel F
|Also known as||Fairchild Video Entertainment System|
|Type||Home video game console|
|Introductory price||US$169 (equivalent to $744.09 in 2018)|
|Removable storage||ROM cartridge|
|Controller input||Joystick/Paddle |
|Successor||Channel F System II|
The Fairchild Channel F, F for Fun, is a home video game console released by Fairchild Semiconductor in November 1976 across North America at the retail price of $169.95. It was also released in Japan in October the following year. It has the distinction of being the first programmable ROM cartridge–based video game console, and the first console to use a microprocessor. It was originally named Video Entertainment System, or VES, but when Atari released its VCS the next year, Fairchild changed the name for its machine, although they continued to use the old name alongside it. By 1977, the Fairchild Channel F had sold 250,000 units, trailing behind sales of the VCS.
The Channel F electronics were designed by Jerry Lawson using the Fairchild F8 CPU, the first public outing of this processor. The F8 was very complex compared to the typical integrated circuits of the day and had more inputs and outputs than other contemporary chips. Because chip packaging was not available with enough pins, the F8 was instead fabricated as a pair of chips that had to be used together to form a complete CPU.
Lawson worked with Nick Talesfore and Ron Smith. As manager of Industrial Design, Talesfore was responsible for the design of the hand controllers, console, and video game cartridges. Smith was responsible for the mechanical engineering of the video cartridges and controllers. All worked for Wilf Corigan, head of Fairchild Semiconductor, a division of Fairchild Camera & Instrument.
The graphics are quite basic by modern standards. The Channel F is only able to use one plane of graphics and one of four background colors per line, only three plot colors to choose from (red, green, and blue) that turned into white if the background is set to black, at a resolution of 128 × 64, with approximately 102 × 58 pixels visible and help from only 64 bytes of system RAM, half the amount of the Atari 2600. The F8 processor at the heart of the console is able to produce enough AI to allow for player versus computer matches, a first in console history. All previous machines required a human opponent. Tic-Tac-Toe on Videocart 1 had this feature, it was only for one player against the machine.
One feature unique to this console is the 'hold' button, which allow the player to freeze the game, change the time or change the speed of the game. The functions printed on the console is how they work in the built-in games and also some of the original games, all buttons (except reset) are controlled by the programming and can be used for anything the programmer decides. The hold function is not universal (like the hardwired reset). In the original unit, sound is played through an internal speaker, rather than the TV set. However, the System II passed sound to the television through the RF modulator.
The controllers are a joystick without a base; the main body is a large hand grip with a triangular "cap" on top, the top being the portion that actually moved for eight-way directional control. It could be used as both a joystick and paddle (twist), and not only could it be pushed down to operate as a fire button it could be pulled up as well. The model 1 unit contained a small compartment for storing the controllers when moving it. The System II featured detachable controllers and had two holders at the back to wind the cable around and to store the controller in. Zircon later offered a special control which featured an action button on the front of the joystick. It was marketed by Zircon as "Channel F Jet-Stick" in a letter sent out to registered owners before Christmas 1982.
Despite the failure of the Channel F, the joystick's design was so popular—Creative Computing called it "outstanding"— that Zircon also released an Atari joystick port-compatible version, the Video Command Joystick, first released without the extra fire button. Before that, only the downwards plunge motion was connected and acted as the fire button; the pull-up and twist actions weren't connected to anything.
Twenty-seven cartridges, termed 'Videocarts', were officially released to consumers in the United States during the ownership of Fairchild and Zircon, the first twenty-one of which were released by Fairchild. Several of these cartridges were capable of playing more than one game and were typically priced at $19.95. The Videocarts were yellow and approximately the size and overall texture of an 8 track cartridge. They usually featured colorful label artwork. The earlier artwork was created by nationally known artist Tom Kamifuji and art directed by Nick Talesfore. The console contained two built-in games, Tennis and Hockey, which were both advanced Pong clones. In Hockey, the reflecting bar could be changed to diagonals by twisting the controller and could move all over the playing field. Tennis was much like the original Pong.
A sales brochure from 1978 listed 'Keyboard Videocarts' for sale. The three shown were K-1 Casino Poker, K-2 Space Odyssey, and K-3 Pro-Football. These were intended to use the Keyboard accessory. All further brochures, released after Zircon took over Fairchild, never listed this accessory nor anything called a Keyboard Videocart.
There was one additional cartridge released numbered Videocart-51 and simply titled 'Demo 1'. This Videocart was shown in a single sales brochure released shortly after Zircon acquired the company. It was never listed for sale after this single brochure which was used in the winter of 1979.
List of games
Names according to the cartridge, not the packaging.
|Democart||Fairchild||Fairchild||Sep 1977||System Demonstration|
|Videocart-01: Tic-Tac-Toe, Shooting Gallery, Doodle, Quadra-Doodle||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1976||Trivia, Shooter|
|Videocart-02: Desert Fox, Shooting Gallery||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1976||Action, Shooter|
|Videocart-03: Video Blackjack||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1976||Gambling|
|Videocart-04: Spitfire||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1977||Action, Shooter|
|Videocart-05: Space War||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1977||Action, Shooter|
|Videocart-06: Math Quiz I (Addition & Subtraction)||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1977||Educational|
|Videocart-07: Math Quiz II (Multiplication & Division)||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1977||Educational|
|Videocart-08: Magic Numbers (Mind Reader & Nim)||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1977||Trivia|
|Videocart-09: Drag Race||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1976||Racing|
|Videocart-10: Maze, Jailbreak, Blind man's bluff, Trailblazer||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1977||Maze|
|Videocart-11: Backgammon, Acey-Deucey||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1977||Trivia|
|Videocart-13: Robot War, Torpedo Alley||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1977||Platform, Action|
|Videocart-14: Sonar Search||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1977||Strategy|
|Videocart-15: Memory Match 1, Memory Match 2||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1978||Puzzle|
|Videocart-16: Dodge' It||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1978||Platform, Action|
|Videocart-17: Pinball Challenge||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1978||Pinball|
|Videocart-20: Video Whizball||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1978||Miscellaneous|
|Videocart-22: Slot Machine||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1980||Gambling|
|Videocart-23: Galactic Space Wars||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1980||Action, Shooter|
|Videocart-24: Pro Football||Fairchild||Fairchild||12-31-1981||Sports|
|Videocart-25: Casino Poker||Fairchild||Zircon||12-31-1980||Gambling|
|Videocart-26: Alien Invasion||Fairchild||Zircon||12-31-1981||Action, Shooter|
Carts listed (as mentioned above) but never released:
- Keyboard Videocart-1: Casino Poker
- Keyboard Videocart-2: Space Odyssey
- Keyboard Videocart-3: Pro-Football
Official carts that also exist:
- Democart 2
German SABA also released a few compatible carts different from the original carts, translation in Videocart 1 Tic-Tac-Toe to German words, Videocart 3 released with different abbreviations (German), Videocart 18 changed graphics and German word list and the SABA 20, a chess game released only by SABA.
Ken Uston reviewed 32 games in his book Ken Uston's Guide to Buying and Beating the Home Video Games in 1982, and rated some of the Channel F's titles highly; of these, Alien Invasion and Video Whizball were considered by Uston to be "the finest adult cartridges currently available for the Fairchild Channel F System." The games on a whole, however, rated last on his survey of over 200 games for the Atari, Intellivision, Astrocade and Odyssey consoles, and contemporary games were rated "Average" with future Channel F games rated "below average". Uston rated almost one-half of the Channel F games as "high in interest" and called that "an impressive proportion" and further noted that "Some of the Channel F cartridges are timeless; no matter what technological developments occur, they will continue to be of interest." His overall conclusion was that the games "serve a limited, but useful, purpose" and that the "strength of the Channel F offering is in its excellent educational line for children."
In 1983, after Zircon announced its discontinuation of the Channel F, Video Games reviewed the console. Calling it "the system nobody knows", the magazine described its graphics and sounds as "somewhat primitive by today's standards". It described Space War as perhaps "the most antiquated game of its type still on the market", and rated the 25 games for the console with an average grade of three ("not too good") on a scale from one to ten. The magazine stated, however, that Fairchild "managed to create some fascinating games, even by today's standards", calling Casino Royale (Video Blackjack) "the best card game, from blackjack to bridge, made for any TV-game system". It also favorably reviewed Dodge-It ("simple but great"), Robot War ("Berzerk without guns"), and Whizball ("thoroughly original ... hockey with guns"), but concluded that only those interested in nostalgia, video game collecting, or card games would purchase the Channel F in 1983.
Original Channel F technical specifications:
- CPU microprocessor: Fairchild F8 (8-bit) operating at 1.7897725 MHz (NTSC) (PAL gen. 1: 2.0000 MHz, PAL gen. 2: 1.7734475 MHz)
- RAM: 2 KB (128×64×2 bits) for the framebuffer plus the 64 bytes of scratchpad memory
- Resolution: 128×64 pixels, approximately 102×58 pixels visible depending on TV. Columns 125 and 126 controls palette (per row).
- Refresh rate: 60 Hz
- Colors: 8 colors (either black/white lines or one of three bkg colors per line combined with red, green or blue pixels)
- Sprites: No hardware sprites, just a single layer of bitmap graphics, any size software sprites possible.
- Sprite pixels: 1.79 MHz clock cycles (60 Hz refresh), 29,833 pixels per frame (525 NTSC scanlines), 56 sprite pixels per scanline
- Audio: 120 Hz, 500 Hz and 1 kHz beeps (can be modulated to produce different tones)
- Input: two custom game controllers, hardwired to the console (original release) or removable (Channel F System II)
- Output: RF modulated composite video signal, cord hardwired to console in gen. 1, detachable in gen. 2
The Channel F System II
Some time in 1979, Zircon International bought the rights to the Channel F and released the re-designed console as the Channel F System II to compete with Atari's VCS. This re-designed System II was completed by Nick Talesfore at Fairchild. He was the same industrial designer who designed the original game console. Only six new games were released after the debut of the second system before its demise, several of which were developed at Fairchild before they sold it off.
The major changes were in design, with the controllers removable from the base unit instead of being wired directly into it, the controller storage was moved to the rear of the unit, and the sound was now mixed into the RF TV signal so the unit no longer needed a speaker. Electronics was also simplified with custom logic chips instead of standard logic resulting in a much smaller circuit board. This version also featured a simpler and more modern-looking case design. However, by this time the market was in the midst of the first video game crash, and Fairchild eventually threw in the towel and left the market. A number of licensed versions were released in Europe, including the Luxor Video Entertainment System in Scandinavia (Sweden), Adman Grandstand in the UK, and the Saba Videoplay, Nordmende Teleplay and ITT Tele-Match Processor, from Germany and also Dumont Videoplay and Barco Challenger from the Barco/Dumont company in Italy and Belgium.
- TV POWWW (interactive TV game show that used Channel F)
- Gareth R. Jones; Charles W.L. Hill (2007). Strategic management: an integrated approach (7th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. C-123. ISBN 0-618-73166-0. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
By this point, second-place Fairchild sold around 250,000 units of its system.
- Edwards, Benj (22 January 2015). "The Untold Story Of The Invention Of The Game Cartridge". Fast Company. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- "Fairchild Channel F Patent, FCC Approval, & Launch Brochure". Fndcollectables.com.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". Old-computers.com. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Vinciguerra, Robert. "Fairchild Channel F Video Entertainment System: The first modern game console". The Rev. Rob Times. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- "Channel F Jet-Stick Advert" (JPG). Fndcollectables.com. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Ahl, David H.; Rost, Randi J. (1983), "Blisters And Frustration: Joysticks, Paddles, Buttons and Game Port Extenders for Apple, Atari and VIC", Creative Computing Video & Arcade Games, 1 (1): 106ff.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- "Channel F - Videocart 27: Pac-Man (USC)". ConsoleCity. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Uston, Ken. Ken Uston's Guide to Buying and Beating the Home Video Games (Signet, 1982) p.605
- Uston, Ken. Ken Uston's Guide to Buying and Beating the Home Video Games (Signet, 1982) p.20.
- Uston, Ken. Ken Uston's Guide to Buying and Beating the Home Video Games (Signet, 1982) p.603 and p.23.
- Dionne, Roger (March 1983). "Channel F: The System Nobody Knows". Video Games. pp. 73–75. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Home Page". Video Game Console Library. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Wolf, Mark J. P. (15 June 2012). "Before the Crash: Early Video Game History". Wayne State University Press. Retrieved 7 January 2019 – via Google Books.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- The Dot Eaters article with a history of the Channel F and games
- Interview with designer Jerry Lawson
- MobyGames list of Channel F games
- Channel F wiki and gallery of labels, instructions, boxes
- Patent: Cartridge programmable video game apparatus US 4095791 A
- The Untold Story of the Invention of the Video Game Cartridge - how the Channel F's video game cartridge was created (January 22, 2015).
- Channel F was 1977’s top game system—before Atari wiped it out at The A.V. Club's AUX (4/09/2017)
- Channel F games playable for free in the browser at the Internet Archive Console Living Room.