|L7075, the second prototype of the Fairey Albacore in flight. The markings place it around 1940.|
|National origin||United Kingdom|
|First flight||12 December 1938|
|Primary users||Royal Navy
Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
The Fairey Albacore was a British single-engine carrier-borne biplane torpedo bomber built by Fairey Aviation between 1939 and 1943 for the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm and used during the Second World War. It had a three-man crew and was designed for spotting and reconnaissance as well as level bombing, dive bombing and as a torpedo bomber. The Albacore, popularly known as the "Applecore", was conceived as a replacement for the ageing Fairey Swordfish, which had entered service in 1936. The Albacore served with the Swordfish and was retired before it, being replaced by the Fairey Barracuda and Grumman Avenger monoplane torpedo bombers.
Design and development
The Albacore prototypes were built to meet Specification S.41/36 for a three-seat TSR (torpedo/spotter/reconnaissance) for the FAA to replace the Swordfish. The Albacore was designated TBR (torpedo/bomber/reconnaissance) and like the Swordfish, was capable of dive bombing:
The Albacore was designed for diving at speeds up to 215 knots (400 km/h) IAS with flaps either up or down, and it was certainly steady in a dive, recovery being easy and smooth...— Brown
and the maximum under wing bomb load was 4 × 500 lb (230 kg) bombs. The Albacore had a constant speed propeller, a more powerful engine than the Swordfish and was more aerodynamically refined. It offered the crew an enclosed and heated cockpit and had an automatic liferaft ejection system that triggered in the event of the aircraft ditching.
The first of two prototypes flew on 12 December 1938 and production of the first batch of 98 aircraft began in 1939. Early Albacores were fitted with the Bristol Taurus II engine and those built later received the more powerful Taurus XII. Boscombe Down testing of the Albacore and Taurus II engine, in February 1940, showed a maximum speed of 160 mph (258 km/h), at an altitude of 4,800 ft (1,463 m), at 11,570 lb (5,259 kg), which was achieved with four under-wing depth charges, while maximum speed without the depth charges was 172 mph (277 km/h). An Albacore fitted with the Taurus II engine and carrying a torpedo weighed 11,100 lb (5,045 kg).
No. 826 Naval Air Squadron was specially formed to operate the first Albacores in March 1940, being used for attacks against harbours and shipping in the English Channel, operating from shore bases and for convoy escort for the rest of 1940. HMS Formidable's 826 and 829 Squadrons were the first to operate the Albacore from a carrier, with operations starting in November 1940. Initially, the Albacore suffered from reliability problems with the Taurus engine, although these were later solved, so that the failure rate was no worse than the Pegasus equipped Swordfish. The Albacore remained less popular than the Swordfish, as it was less manoeuvrable, with the controls being too heavy for a pilot to take much evasive action after dropping a torpedo.
Eventually, there were 15 first-line FAA squadrons equipped with the Albacore which operated widely in the Mediterranean. Albacores played a prominent role in the ill-fated raid on Kirkenes and Petsamo in July 1941. Albacores participated with more success in the Battle of Cape Matapan and the fighting at El Alamein as well as supporting the landings at Sicily and Salerno. During the period September 1941 to end of June 1943, No. 828 Squadron, based at RAF Hal Far, Malta, operated a squadron of Albacores under severe blitz conditions during the siege of Malta, mainly against Italian shipping and shore targets in Sicily.
On 9 March 1942, 12 Albacores from HMS Victorious were launched to attack the German Bismarck-class battleship Tirpitz at sea near Narvik. Based on information from one of six radar equipped aircraft already airborne, Albacores from 817 and 832 Squadrons launched torpedoes and some also attacked with their machine guns. One attack came within 30 feet (9.1 m) of success at the bow but the FAA's only torpedo attack on Tirpitz at sea failed, with the loss of two aircraft and damage to many others.
In 1943, the Albacore was progressively replaced in Fleet Air Arm service by the Barracuda. The last FAA Albacore squadron, No. 841 Squadron, which had been used for shore based attacks against shipping in the Channel for the whole of its career with the Albacore, disbanded in late 1943.
The Royal Air Force deployed some Albacores; No. 36 Squadron based at Singapore acquired five to supplement its Vickers Vildebeests at RAF Seletar in December 1941. The remnants of the squadron was captured by the Japanese in March 1942. In 1943, No. 415 Squadron RCAF was equipped with Albacores (presumably ex-FAA) before the Flight operating them was transferred and reformed as 119 Squadron at RAF Manston in July 1944. The squadron deployed later to Belgium and their Albacores were disposed of in early 1945, due to spares shortages, in favour of the inferior but ASV radar-equipped Swordfish Mk.IIIs that the squadron kept until the end of the war on 8 May. This was to combat German mini-submarines attacking Allied shipping entering the River Scheldt on its way to Antwerp Port. The Aden Communication Flight used 17 Albacores between the middle of 1944 and August 1946. Some of these were delivered by sea on the SS Empire Arun in December 1945 (all from Royal Navy stock).
The Royal Canadian Air Force took over the Albacores and used them during the Normandy invasion, for a similar role until July 1944. The Albacore was the last biplane to be used in combat by the RCAF.
- 700 Naval Air Squadron
- 733 Naval Air Squadron
- 747 Naval Air Squadron
- 750 Naval Air Squadron
- 753 Naval Air Squadron
- 754 Naval Air Squadron
- 756 Naval Air Squadron
- 763 Naval Air Squadron
- 766 Naval Air Squadron
- 767 Naval Air Squadron
- 768 Naval Air Squadron
- 769 Naval Air Squadron
- 771 Naval Air Squadron
- 774 Naval Air Squadron
- 775 Naval Air Squadron
- 778 Naval Air Squadron
- 781 Naval Air Squadron
- 782 Naval Air Squadron
- 783 Naval Air Squadron
- 785 Naval Air Squadron
- 786 Naval Air Squadron
- 787 Naval Air Squadron
- 788 Naval Air Squadron
- 789 Naval Air Squadron
- 791 Naval Air Squadron
- 793 Naval Air Squadron
- 796 Naval Air Squadron
- 797 Naval Air Squadron
- 799 Naval Air Squadron
- 810 Naval Air Squadron
- 815 Naval Air Squadron
- 817 Naval Air Squadron
- 818 Naval Air Squadron
- 820 Naval Air Squadron
- 821 Naval Air Squadron
- 822 Naval Air Squadron
- 823 Naval Air Squadron
- 826 Naval Air Squadron
- 827 Naval Air Squadron
- 828 Naval Air Squadron
- 829 Naval Air Squadron
- 830 Naval Air Squadron
- 831 Naval Air Squadron
- 832 Naval Air Squadron
- 841 Naval Air Squadron
Only one Albacore is known to survive, on display at the Fleet Air Arm Museum, which was built using parts of Albacores N4389 and N4172 recovered from crash sites.
Data from The British Bomber since 1914
- Crew: Three
- Length: 39 ft 10 in (12.14 m)
- Wingspan: 50 ft 0 in (15.24 m)
- Height: 14 ft 2 in (4.62 m)
- Wing area: 623 ft² (57.9 m²)
- Empty weight: 7,250 lb (3,295 kg)
- Loaded weight: 10,460 lb (4,755 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 12,600 lb (5,727 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Bristol Taurus II (Taurus XII) 14-cylinder radial engine, 1,065 hp (1,130 hp) (794 kW (840 kw))
- Maximum speed: 140 kn (161 mph, 259 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 122 kn (140 mph, 225 km/h) (maximum cruise)
- Stall speed: 47 kn (54 mph, 87 km/h) (flaps down)
- Range: 817 nmi (930 mi, 1,497 km) (with torpedo)
- Service ceiling: 20,700 ft (6,310 m)
- Climb to 6000 ft 8 min
- Bombs: 1 × 1,670 lb (760 kg) torpedo or 2,000 lb (907 kg) bombs
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- Brown, p. 66.
- Brown 1980, p. 66.
- Harrison 2002, p. 87.
- Goebel, Greg. "The Fairey Swordfish, Albacore, & Barracuda." vectorsite.net, 2009. Retrieved: 25 October 2009.
- Mason 1994, p. 321.
- Mason 1998, pp. 292, 306.
- Mason 1998, p. 292.
- Mason 1994, p. 323.
- Harrison 2004, p. 11.
- Mondey 2006, p. 101.
- Harrison 2004, p. 17.
- Mason 1994, p. 322.
- Shores et al. 1992, p. 146.
- Jefford 2001, p. 60.
- Rucker, D. "Fairey Albacore." Archived 31 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. fleetairarmarchive.net, 3 April 2000. Retrieved: 11 June 2013.
- Harrison 2004, p. 13.
- Air Transport Auxiliary Ferry Pilots Notes (reproduction). Elvington, York, UK: Yorkshire Air Museum, 1996. ISBN 0-9512379-8-5.
- Brown 1980, p. 68.
- Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to British Aircraft in World War II. Hamlyn. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-753714-62-1.
- Brown, Eric, CBE, DCS, AFC, RN., William Green and Gordon Swanborough. "Fairey Albacore." Wings of the Navy, Flying Allied Carrier Aircraft of World War Two. London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd, 1980, pp. 60–69. ISBN 0-7106-0002-X.
- Harrison, W.A. Fairey Albacore (Warpaint Series No. 52). Luton, Bedfordshire, UK: Warpaint Books Ltd., 2004.
- Harrison, W.A. Fairey Swordfish and Albacore. Wiltshire, UK: The Crowood Press, 2002. ISBN 1-86126-512-3.
- Jefford, Wing Commander C.G., MBE, BA, RAF(retd). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
- Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber Since 1914. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
- Mason, Tim. The Secret Years: Flight Testing at Boscombe Down 1939-1945. Manchester, UK: Hikoki, 1998. ISBN 0-9519899-9-5.
- Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to British Aircraft in World War II. London: Hamlyn, 2006. ISBN 978-0-753714-62-1.
- Shores, Christopher, Brian Cull and Yasuho Izawa. Bloody Shambles: Volume One: The Drift to War to the Fall of Singapore. London: Grub Street, 1992. ISBN 0-948817-50-X.
- Smith, Peter C. Dive Bomber!. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1982. ISBN 978-0-87021-930-6.
- Taylor, H.A. Fairey Aircraft since 1915. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1974. ISBN 0-370-00065-X.
- Thetford, Owen. British Naval Aircraft Since 1912 (Fourth Edition). London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
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