|Near burrow at night, Bruny Island, Tasmania, Australia|
The little penguin (Eudyptula minor) is the smallest species of penguin. It grows to an average of 33 cm (13 in) in height and 43 cm (17 in) in length, though specific measurements vary by subspecies. It is found on the coastlines of southern Australia and New Zealand, with possible records from Chile. In Australia, they are often called fairy penguins because of their small size. In New Zealand, they are more commonly known as little blue penguins or blue penguins owing to their slate-blue plumage. They are also known by their Māori name: kororā.
- 1 Taxonomy
- 2 Description
- 3 Distribution and habitat
- 4 Threats
- 5 Behaviour
- 6 Relationship with humans
- 7 Mascots and logos
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
The little penguin was first described by German naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster in 1781. Several subspecies are known, but a precise classification of these is still a matter of dispute. The holotypes of the subspecies E. m. variabilis and Eudyptula minor chathamensis are in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. The white-flippered penguin is sometimes considered a subspecies, sometimes a distinct species, and sometimes a morph. As the Australian and Otago (southeastern coast of South Island) little penguins may be a distinct species to which the specific name minor would apply, the white-flippered birds indeed belong to a distinct species, although not exactly as originally assumed.
Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence suggests the split between Eudyptula and Spheniscus occurred around 25 million years ago, with the ancestors of the white-flippered and little penguins diverging about 2.7 million years ago.
Like those of all penguins, the little penguin's wings have developed into flippers used for swimming. The little penguin typically grows to between 30 and 33 cm (12 and 13 in) tall and usually weighs about 1.5 kg on average (3.3 lb). The head and upper parts are blue in colour, with slate-grey ear coverts fading to white underneath, from the chin to the belly. Their flippers are blue in colour. The dark grey-black beak is 3–4 cm long, the irises pale silvery- or bluish-grey or hazel, and the feet pink above with black soles and webbing. An immature individual will have a shorter bill and lighter upperparts.
Distribution and habitat
The little penguin breeds along the entire coastline of New Zealand, the Chatham Islands, and southern Australia (including roughly 20,000 pairs on Babel Island). Australian colonies exist in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia. Little penguins have also been reported from Chile (where they are known as pingüino pequeño or pingüino azul) (Isla Chañaral 1996, Playa de Santo Domingo, San Antonio, 16 March 1997) and South Africa, but it is unclear whether these birds were vagrants. As new colonies continue to be discovered, rough estimates of the world population are around 350,000-600,000 animals.
Overall, little penguin populations in New Zealand have been decreasing. Some colonies have gone extinct and others continue to be at risk. Some new colonies have been established in urban areas. The species is not considered endangered in New Zealand, with the exception of the white-flippered subspecies found only on Banks Peninsula and nearby Motunau Island. Since the 1960s, the mainland population has declined by 60-70%; though a small increase has occurred on Motunau Island.
Australian little penguin colonies primarily exist on offshore islands, where they are protected from feral terrestrial predators and human disturbance. Colonies are found from Port Stephens in northern New South Wales around the southern coast to Fremantle, Western Australia.
New South Wales
An endangered population of little penguins exists at Manly, in Sydney's North Harbour. The population is protected under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 and has been managed in accordance with a Recovery Plan since the year 2000. The population once numbered in the hundreds, but has decreased to around 60 pairs of birds. The decline is believed to be mainly due to loss of suitable habitat, attacks by foxes and dogs and disturbance at nesting sites.
The largest colony in New South Wales is on Montague Island. Up to 8000 breeding pairs are known to nest there each year.
Jervis Bay Territory
A population of about 5,000 breeding pairs exists on Bowen Island. The colony has increased from 500 pairs in 1979 and 1500 pairs in 1985. During this time, the island was privately leased. The island was vacated in 1986 and is currently controlled by the federal government.
In South Australia, many little penguin colony declines have been identified across the state. In some cases, colonies have declined to extinction (including the Neptune Islands, West Island, Wright Island, Pullen Island and several colonies on western Kangaroo Island), while others have declined from thousands of animals to few (Granite Island and Kingscote). A report released in 2011 presented evidence supporting the listing of the statewide population or the more closely monitored sub-population from St. Vincent's Gulf as Vulnerable under South Australia's National Parks & Wildlife Act 1972. As of 2014, the little penguin is not listed as a species of conservation concern, despite ongoing declines at many colonies.
Tasmanian little penguin population estimates range from 110,000–190,000 breeding pairs of which less than 5% are found on mainland Tasmania. Ever-increasing human pressure is predicted to result in the extinction of colonies on mainland Tasmania.
The largest colony of little penguins in Victoria is located at Phillip Island, where the nightly 'parade' of penguins across Summerland Beach has been a major tourist destination, and more recently a major conservation effort, since the 1920s. Phillip Island is home to an estimated 32,000 breeding pairs (70,000 birds). Little penguins can also be seen in the vicinity of the St Kilda, Victoria pier and breakwater. The breakwater is home to a colony of little penguins which have been the subject of a conservation study since 1986.
The largest colony of little penguins in Western Australia is believed to be located on Penguin Island. An estimated 1,000 pairs nest there during the winter. Penguins are also known to nest on Garden Island and Carnac Island which lie north of Penguin Island. Many islands along Western Australia's southern coast are likely to support little penguin colonies, though the status of these populations are largely unknown. An account of little penguins on Bellinger Island published in 1928 numbered them in their thousands. Visiting naturalists in November 1986 estimated the colony at 20 breeding pairs. The account named another substantial colony 12 miles from Bellinger Island and the same distance from Cape Pasley. Little penguins are known to breed on some islands of the Recherche Archipelago, including Woody Island where day-tripping tourists can view the animals. A penguin colony exists on Mistaken Island in King George Sound near Albany. Historical accounts of little penguins on Newdegate Island at the mouth of Deep River and on Breaksea Island near Torbay also exist.
In 1930 in Tasmania, it was believed that little penguins were competing with mutton-birds, which were being commercially exploited. An "open season" in which penguins would be permitted to be killed was planned in response to requests from members of the mutton-birding industry.
Penguins are vulnerable to interference by humans, especially while they are ashore during molt or nesting periods. In 1949, penguins on Phillip Island in Victoria became victims of human cruelty, with some kicked and others thrown off a cliff and shot at. These acts of cruelty prompted the state government to fence off the rookeries. More recent examples of destructive interference can be found at Granite island, where in 1994 a penguin chick was taken from a burrow and abandoned on the mainland, a burrow containing penguin chicks was trampled and litter was discarded down active burrows. In 1998, two incidents in six months resulted in penguin deaths. The latter, which occurred in May, saw 13 penguins apparently kicked to death. In March 2016, two little penguins were kicked and attacked by humans during separate incidents at the St Kilda colony, Victoria.
Interactions with fishing
Some little penguins are drowned when amateur fishermen set gill nets near penguin colonies. Discarded fishing line can also present an entanglement risk and contact can result in physical injury, reduced mobility or drowning. In 2014, a group of 25 dead little penguins were found on Altona Beach in Victoria. Necropsies concluded that the animals had died after becoming entangled in net fishing equipment, prompting community calls for a ban on net fishing in Port Phillip Bay.
In the 20th century, little penguins were intentionally shot or caught by fishermen to use as bait in pots for catching crayfish (Southern rock lobster) or by line fishermen. Colonies were targeted for this purpose in various parts of Tasmania including Bruny Island and West Island, South Australia.
A study in Perth from 2003 to 2012 found that the main cause of mortality was trauma, most likely from watercraft, leading to a recommendation for management strategies to avoid watercraft strikes.
Oil spills can be lethal for penguins and other sea birds. Oil is toxic when ingested and penguins' buoyancy and the insulative quality of their plumage is damaged by contact with oil. Little penguin populations have been significantly affected during two major oil spills at sea: the Iron Baron oil spill off Tasmania's north coast in 1995 and the grounding of the Rena off New Zealand in 2011.
Plastics are swallowed by little penguins, who mistake them for prey items. They present a choking hazard and also occupy space in the animal's stomach. Indigestible material in a penguin's stomach can contribute to malnutrition or starvation. Other larger plastic items, such as bottle packaging rings, can become entangled around penguins' necks, affecting their mobility.
Threats to little penguin populations include predation (both adult and nest predation) by a variety of terrestrial animals including cats, dogs, rats, foxes, large reptiles, ferrets and stoats. Due to their diminutive size and the introduction of new predators, some colonies have been reduced in size by as much as 98% in just a few years, such as the small colony on Middle Island, near Warrnambool, Victoria, which was reduced from approximately 600 penguins in 2001 to less than 10 in 2005. Because of this threat of colony collapse, conservationists successfully pioneered an experimental technique using Maremma Sheepdogs to protect the colony and fend off would-be predators, with numbers reaching 100 by 2017.
Uncontrolled dogs or feral cats can have sudden and severe impacts on penguin colonies (more than the penguin's natural predators) and may kill many individuals. Examples of colonies affected by dog attacks include Manly, New South Wales, Penneshaw, South Australia, Red Chapel Beach, Tasmania, Penguin Island, Western Australia and Little Kaiteriteri Beach, New Zealand.
A fox was believed responsible for the deaths of 53 little penguins over several nights on Granite Island in 1994. In June 2015, 26 penguins from the Manly colony were killed in 11 days. A fox believed responsible was eventually shot in the area and an autopsy is expected to prove or disprove its involvement. In November 2015 a fox entered the little penguin enclosure at the Melbourne Zoo and killed 14 penguins, prompting measures to further "fox proof" the enclosure.
Variation in prey abundance and distribution from year to year causes young birds to be washed up dead from starvation or in weak condition.
Little penguins in the wild are sometimes preyed upon by long-nosed fur seals. A study conducted by researchers from the South Australian Research and Development Institute found that roughly 40 percent of seal droppings in South Australia's Granite Island area contained little penguin remains.
They are also preyed upon by white-bellied sea eagles. These large birds-of-prey are endangered in South Australia and not considered a threat to colony viability.
On land, little penguins are vulnerable to attack from domestic and feral dogs and cats. Attacks on Kangaroo Island, at Manly in Tasmania and in New Zealand have resulted in significant impacts to several populations. Management strategies to mitigate the risk of attack include establishing dog-free zones near penguin colonies and introducing regulations to ensure dogs to remain on leashes at all times in adjacent areas.
Little penguins on Middle Island off Warrnambool, Victoria were subject to heavy predation by foxes, which were able to reach the island at low tide by a tidal sand bridge. The deployment of Maremma sheepdogs to protect the penguin colony has deterred the foxes and enabled the penguin population to rebound.
This is in addition to the support from groups of volunteers who work to protect the penguins from attack at night. The first Maremma sheepdog to prove the concept was Oddball, whose story inspired a feature film of the same name, released in 2015. In December 2015, the BBC reported, "The current dogs patrolling Middle Island are Eudy and Tula, named after the scientific term for the fairy penguin: Eudyptula. They are the sixth and seventh dogs to be used and a new puppy is being trained up [...] to start work in 2016.
In Sydney, snipers have been deployed to protect a colony of little penguins. This effort is in addition to support from local volunteers who work to protect the penguins from attack at night.
Little penguins are diurnal and like many penguin species, spend the largest part of their day swimming and foraging at sea. During the breeding and chick rearing seasons, little penguins will leave their nest at sunrise, forage for food throughout the day and return to their nests just after dusk. Thus, sunlight, moonlight and artificial lights can affect the behaviour of attendance to the colony. Also, increased wind speeds negatively affect the little penguins' efficiency in foraging for chicks, but for reasons not yet understood. Little penguins preen their feathers to keep them waterproof. They do this by rubbing a tiny drop of oil onto every feather from a special gland above the tail.
These birds feed by hunting small clupeoid fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, for which they travel and dive quite extensively. In New Zealand, important prey items include arrow squid, slender sprat, Graham's gudgeon, red cod and ahuru. Since the year 2000, the little penguins of Port Phillip Bay's diet has consisted mainly of barracouta, anchovy, and arrow squid. Sardines previously featured more prominently in southern Australian little penguin diets prior to mass sardine mortality events of the 1990s. These mass mortality events affected sardine stocks over 5,000 kilometres of coastline. Jellyfish including species in the genera Chrysaora and Cyanea were found to be actively sought-out food items, while they previously had been thought to be only accidentally ingested. Similar preferences were found in the Adélie penguin, yellow-eyed penguin and Magellanic penguin.
They are generally inshore feeders. The use of data loggers has provided information of the diving behaviour of little penguins. 50% of their dives go no deeper than 2 m and the mean diving time is 21 seconds. Yet, they are able to dive as deep as 20 m and remained submerged as long as 60 seconds. Little penguins play an important role in the ecosystem as not only a predator to parasites but also a host. Recent studies have shown a new species of feather mite that feeds on the preening oil on the feathers of the penguin.
Little penguins mature at different ages. The female matures at 2 years old. The male, however, matures at 3 years old. Little penguins only remain faithful to their partner in breeding seasons and whilst hatching eggs. At other times of the year they do tend to swap burrows. They exhibit site fidelity to their nesting colonies and nesting sites over successive years.
Little penguins can breed as isolated pairs, in colonies, or semi-colonially. Nests are situated close to the sea in burrows excavated by the birds or other species, or in caves, rock crevices, under logs or in or under a variety of man-made structures including nest boxes, pipes, stacks of wood or timber, and buildings. They are monogamous within a breeding season, and share incubation and chick rearing duties. They are the only species of penguin capable of producing more than one clutch of eggs per breeding season, but few populations do so.
The timing of breeding seasons varies across the species' range. Eastern Australian populations (including at Phillip Island, Victoria) lay their eggs from July through December. In South Australia's Gulf St. Vincent, eggs are laid between April and October.
The one or two white or lightly mottled brown eggs are laid with rarer second (or even third) clutches following. Incubation takes up to 36 days. Chicks are brooded for 18–38 days, and fledge after 7–8 weeks. On Australia's east coast, chicks are raised from August through March. In Gulf St. Vincent, chicks are raised from June through November.
Little penguins typically return to their colonies to feed their chicks at dusk. The birds will tend to come ashore in small groups to provide some defence against predators which might pick off individuals one by one. In Australia, the strongest colonies are usually on cat-free and fox-free islands. However, the population on Granite Island (which is a fox, cat and dog-free island) has been severely depleted, from around 2000 penguins in 2001 down to 146 in 2009.
Relationship with humans
Little penguins have long been a curiosity to humans, and to children in particular. Captive animals are often exhibited in zoos. Historically, the animals have also been used as bait to catch Southern rock lobster, captured for amusement and eaten by ship-wrecked sailors and castaways to avoid starvation. They have also been the victims of malicious attacks by humans and incidental bycatch by fishermen using nets. The sites of many breeding colonies have developed into tourist destinations which provide an economic boost for coastal and island communities in Australia and New Zealand. These locations also often provide facilities and volunteer staff to support population surveys, habitat improvement works and little penguin research programs.
South of Perth, Western Australia, visitors to Penguin Island are able to view penguins in a natural environment. Less than one hour from the centre of the city, it is possible to see little penguins in all months, including visiting sensitive areas where they remain on land for extended periods for the purposes of moulting.
At Phillip Island, Victoria, a viewing area has been established at the Phillip Island Nature Park to allow visitors to view the nightly "penguin parade". Lights and concrete stands have been erected to allow visitors to see but not photograph or film the birds (this is because it can blind or scare them) interacting in their colony.
In the Otago, New Zealand town of Oamaru, visitors may view the birds returning to their colony at dusk. In Oamaru it is not uncommon for penguins to nest within the cellars and foundations of local shorefront properties, especially in the old historic precinct of the town. More recently, little penguin viewing facilities have been established at Pilots Beach, Otago Peninsula and Dunedin in New Zealand. Here visitors are guided by volunteer wardens to watch penguins returning to their burrows at dusk.
Visitors to Kangaroo Island, South Australia, have nightly opportunities to observe penguins at the Kangaroo Island Marine Centre in Kingscote and at the Penneshaw Penguin Centre. Granite Island at Victor Harbor, South Australia continues to offer guided tours at dusk, despite its colony dropping from thousands in the 1990s to dozens in 2014. There is also a Penguin Centre located on the island where the penguins can be viewed in captivity.
Several efforts have been made to improve breeding sites on Kangaroo Island, including augmenting habitat with artificial burrows and revegetation work. The Knox School's habitat restoration efforts were filmed and broadcast in 2008 by Totally Wild.
Exhibits currently exist at the Adelaide Zoo, Melbourne Zoo, the National Zoo & Aquarium in Canberra, Perth Zoo, Caversham Wildlife Park (Perth), Sea Life Sydney Aquarium and the Taronga Zoo in Sydney.
A colony of little penguins is also exhibited at Sea World, on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. In early March, 2007, 25 of the 37 penguins died from an unknown toxin following a change of gravel in their enclosure. It is still not known what caused the deaths of the little penguins, and it was decided not to return the 12 surviving penguins to the same enclosure in which the penguins became ill. A new enclosure for the little penguin colony was opened at Sea World in 2008.
A colony of little blue penguins exists at the New England Aquarium in Boston, Massachusetts. The penguins are one of three species on exhibit and are part of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums' Species Survival Plan for little blue penguins.
Problems playing this file? See media help.
Problems playing this file? See media help.
Mascots and logos
Linus Torvalds, the original creator of Linux (a popular operating system kernel), was once pecked by a little penguin while on holiday in Australia. Reportedly, this encounter encouraged Torvalds to select Tux as the official Linux mascot.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Eudyptula minor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Grabski, Valerie (2009). "Little Penguin - Penguin Project". Penguin Sentinels/University of Washington. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- Dann, Peter. "Penguins: Little (Blue) Penguins - Eudyptula minor". International Penguin Conservation Work Group. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- "Eudyptula minor variabilis; holotype". Collections Online. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- "Eudyptula minor chathamensis; holotype". Collections Online. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- Banks, Jonathan C.; Mitchell, Anthony D.; Waas, Joseph R. & Paterson, Adrian M. (2002): An unexpected pattern of molecular divergence within the blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) complex. Notornis 49(1): 29–38. PDF fulltext
- Baker AJ, Pereira SL, Haddrath OP, Edge KA (2006). "Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling". Proc Biol Sci. 273 (1582): 11–17. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3260. PMC . PMID 16519228.
- Williams (The Penguins) p. 230
- Dann, Peter (2005). "Longevity in Little Penguins" (PDF). Marine Ornithology (33): 71–72. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- "Birds of world significance: Babel Island Group, Tasmania". Atlas of Australian Birds. Birds Australia. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- "THREATENED SPECIES CONSERVATION ACT 1995". www.austlii.edu.au. Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- "Little Penguin population in Sydney's North Harbor". NSW Government - Environment & Heritage. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "About Montague". Montague Island NSW. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Susskind, Anne (3 November 1985). "The Struggle for Bowen Island". The Canberra Times. Canberra, Australia. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Wiebkin, A. S. (2011) Conservation management priorities for little penguin populations in Gulf St Vincent. Report to Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resources Management Board. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2011/000188-1. SARDI Research Report Series No.588. 97pp.
- "Eudyptula minor". Atlas of Living Australia. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- "Eudyptula minor - Little Penguin". Parks & Wildlife Service, Tasmania. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "About Little Penguins". penguinfoundation.org.au. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- "Conservation and Research Strategy 2007" (PDF). stkildapenguins.com.au. Earthcare St Kilda. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- "Eudyptula minor — Little Penguin". www.environment.gov.au. Australian government - Department of Environment. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- "Visitor Information: About Penguin Island". www.penguinisland.com.au. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Smith, L. E.; Johnstone, R. E. (1987). "Corella - Seabird Islands No. 179" (PDF). Australian Bird Study Association inc. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Douglas, Alfred (1 April 1928). "The little blue penguin". Sunday Times. Perth, Western Australia. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- "Albany Suspects Incendiarism ALBANY, Saturday". The Daily News. 1 January 1938. p. 7. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- "CHAPTER XII.—1841". The Inquirer and Commercial News. 11 November 1898. p. 4. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- "MUTTONBIRD INDUSTRY. Damage by penguins". Advocate. 27 August 1930. Retrieved 20 December 2015 – via Trove.
- "Traffic, fishermen have killed most of Bruny penguins". The Mercury. 9 June 1953. Retrieved 20 December 2015 – via Trove.
- "Penguins used as footballs". Advocate. 22 March 1949 – via Trove.
- "Tourists target penguins". Victor Harbour Times. 11 January 1994. Retrieved 17 August 2015 – via Trove.
- "Island security under review". Times. 25 June 1998. p. 1. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
- Dobbin, Marika. "Violent attacks on St Kilda's little penguins". The Age. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- O'Doherty, Fiona (10 September 2014). "Death of 25 fairy penguins found at Altona Beach renews calls for commercial fishing net ban in Port Phillip Bay". Hobsons Bay Leader. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Destruction of penguins". Advocate. Burnie, Tasmania. 1 August 1947. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "CRAYFISHING". The Kangaroo Island Courier. 6 January 1912. p. 6. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Thomson, Donald (17 February 1928). "STACK ISLAND The remains of aboriginal feasts, penguins and rabbits, unfrequented Bass Strait". The Mercury. Retrieved 20 December 2015 – via Trove.
- "Destruction of penguins". Advocate. 1 August 1947. Retrieved 20 December 2015 – via Trove.
- "Concern felt for penguins". Advocate. 12 June 1953. Retrieved 20 December 2015 – via Trove.
- "Concern at killing of penguins". The Mercury. Hobart, Tasmania. 12 June 1953. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- Cannell, B.L.; Campbell, K.; Fitzgerald, L.; Lewis, J.A.; Baran, I.J.; Stephens, N.S. (2015). "Anthropogenic trauma is the most prevalent cause of mortality in Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) in Perth, Western Australia". Emu. 116 (1): 52–61. doi:10.1071/MU15039.
- "BBC - Science & Nature -Sea Life - Fact Files: Little/Fairy penguin". bbc. July 2005. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- "Fox thought to have killed nearly 30 penguins shot overnight". ABC News. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- Vieru, Tudor (7 January 2009). "Sheepdogs Guard Endangered Fairy Penguin Colony". Softpedia. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- Wallis, Robert; King, Kristie; Wallis, Anne (2017). "The Little Penguin'Eudyptula minor'on Middle Island, Warrnambool, Victoria: An update on population size and predator management". Victorian Naturalist. 134 (2): 48–51.
- Holland, Malcolm (6 December 2010). "Seven penguins found dead at Manly". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- "Dogs kill penguins". The Canberra Times. 10 July 1984. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- "Penguins killed in dog attack". Sydney Morning Herald. 12 March 2003. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Carson, Jonathan (3 September 2014). "DOC devastated by death of penguins". Nelson Mail. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Mead, Thomas (5 November 2014). "Stoat suspected in Little blue penguin massacre". 3 News. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Penguin slaughter". Times. 11 March 1994. p. 1. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
- "Keeps on lookout for fox which killed 14 penguins at Melbourne Zoo". news. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- Penguins —Environment, South Australian Government Archived 20 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Littlely, Bryan (10 October 2007). "Fur seals threat to Granite Island penguins". The Advertiser. p. 23.
- "Dogs come to fairy penguins' rescue". Special Broadcasting Service. 5 January 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
- Austin Ramzynov, Australia Deploys Sheepdogs to Save a Penguin Colony, New York Times (3 November 2015).
- Donnison, Jon (14 December 2015). "The dogs that protect little penguins". BBC News Online. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
- Jokic, Verica (29 July 2014). "How one oddball dog saved Middle Island's penguins". Bush Telegraph. ABC Radio National. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "Penguin murders prompt sniper aid". BBC. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
- Rodríguez, A., Chiaradia, A., Wasiak, P., Renwick, L., and Dann, P.(2016) "Waddling on the Dark Side: Ambient Light Affects Attendance Behavior of Little Penguins." Journal of Biological Rhythms 31:194-204
- Saraux, Claire; Chiaradia, Andre; Salton, Marcus; Dann, Peter; Viblanc, Vincent A (2016). "Negative effects of wind speed on individual foraging performance and breeding success in little penguins" (PDF). Ecological Monographs. 86 (1): 61–77. doi:10.1890/14-2124.1. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
- Flemming, S.A., Lalas, C., and van Heezik, Y. (2013) "Little penguin (Eudyptula minor) diet at three breeding colonies in New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Ecology 37: 199–205 Accessed 30 January 2014.
- "Little Penguin Factsheet" Auckland Council, New Zealand (2014-02-28). Accessed 2014-07-26.
- Flemming, S.A. (2013) "". In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online
- Chiaradia, A., Forero, M. G., Hobson, K. A., and Cullen, J. M. (2010) Changes in diet and trophic position of a top predator 10 years after a mass mortality of a key prey. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 1710–1720
- Christie Wilcox (15 September 2017). "Penguins Caught Feasting on an Unexpected Prey". National Geographic.
- Numata, M; Davis, L & Renner, M (2000) "[Prolonged foraging trips and egg desertion in little penguins (Eudyptula minor)]". New Zealand Journal of Zoology 27: 291-298
- Bethge, P; Nicol, S; Culik, BM & RP Wilson (1997) "Diving behaviour and energetics in breeding little penguins (Eudyptula minor)". Journal of Zoology 242: 483-502
- Ropert-Coudert Y, Chiaradia A, Kato A (2006) "An exceptionally deep dive by a Little Penguin Eudyptula minor". Marine Ornithology 34: 71-74
- Ashley Chung. "Eudyptula minor Little Penguin". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- "About Little Penguins". penguinfoundation.org.au. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Wiebkin, A. S. (2011) Conservation management priorities for little penguin populations in Gulf St Vincent. Report to Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resources Management Board. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2011/000188-1. SARDI Research Report Series No.588. 97pp
- Hay, Alexander (24 September 1949). "Days of Misery on Barren Isle". The Mail. Adelaide, South Australia. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "S.A. Pair Marooned on Barren Island". The Advertiser. Adelaide, South Australia. 19 September 1949. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Esperance news by telegraph. Loss of the Fleetwing". The Norseman Pioneer. 28 November 1896. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Pim, Mr. (2 March 1951). "Passing By". News. Adelaide, South Australia. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- Tourism Victoria. "Phillip Island Penguin Parade". Visit Victoria. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- "Oamaru Blue Penguin Colony". Penguins.co.nz. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- "Blue Penguins Pukekura". Bluepenguins.co.nz. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- "Penneshaw Penguin Centre". Tourkangarooisland.com.au. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- "Granite Island Recreation & Nature Park : Penguin Tours South Australia". Graniteisland.com.au. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- "Granite Island Penguin Centre : Looking after the Little Penguins of South Australia". Graniteisland.com.au. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- Tourism Tasmania > Bicheno Penguin Tours Accessed 16 September 2013.
- "Little Blue Penguin" (PDF). Zoos South Australia. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Little Penguin". Zoos Victoria. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "AdventureTrail" (PDF). National Zoo & Aquarium. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Little Penguin". Perth Zoo. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Australian Little Penguin". Taronga Conservation Society Australia. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Little Penguins | SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium". www.sydneyaquarium.com.au. Retrieved 2016-12-07.
- "Mystery penguin deaths at Sea World". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Authorities find unknown toxin in Sea World Penguins Archived 13 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Sea World probes mysterious deaths Archived 13 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Penguin deaths remain a mystery Archived 21 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- National Aquarium of New Zealand > New Zealand Land Animals - Little Penguin Accessed 27 December 2014
- New England Aquarium > Animals and Exhibits > Little Blue Penguin Accessed 2 March 2014
- ""Tux" the Aussie Penguin". Linux Australia. Archived from the original on 7 May 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2006.
- "The Eudyptula Challenge".
- "FINA". Melbourne, 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- Protecting our Little Penguins (Victorian Government website) Archived 21 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Williams, Tony D. (1995). The Penguins. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854667-X.
|Wikispecies has information related to Eudyptula minor|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eudyptula minor.|