Faisalabad

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Faisalabad
فیصل آباد
Lyallpur
Metropolitan City / Divisional Capital
Clock Tower Faisalabad by Usman Nadeem.jpg
Official logo of Faisalabad
Seal
Faisalabad is located in Pakistan
Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Location of Faisalabad in Punjab, Pakistan
Coordinates: 31°25′45″N 73°4′44″E / 31.42917°N 73.07889°E / 31.42917; 73.07889Coordinates: 31°25′45″N 73°4′44″E / 31.42917°N 73.07889°E / 31.42917; 73.07889[1]
Country  Pakistan
Region Punjab
District Faisalabad District
Former Name Lyallpur
Official Language Urdu
Native Language Punjabi
First settled 1892
Founded by Sir Charles James Lyall
Government[2]
 • Type City District
 • Body Faisalabad District
 • DCO Noor-ul-Amin Mengal
Area[1]
 • Metropolitan City / Divisional Capital 1,300 km2 (490 sq mi)
 • Land 840 km2 (325 sq mi)
 • Water 430 km2 (165 sq mi)
 • Metro 5,860 km2 (2,261 sq mi)
Elevation[3] 184 m (605 ft)
Population (2014)[4] 7,480,765
 • Rank 3rd, Pakistan
 • Density 927/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Faisalabadi
Time zone Pakistan (PST) (UTC+5)
 • Summer (DST) PST (UTC+4)
ZIP code(s) 38000
Area code(s) 041
Vehicle registration Three letters beginning with F and random four numbers (e.g. FDA 1234)
Website www.faisalabad.gov.pk

Faisalabad (pronunciation: /fɑːɪsɑːlˌbɑːd/; Lyallpur until 1979), historically one of the first planned cities within British India,[5] has long since developed into the third most populated metropolis after Karachi and Lahore[6] in the Punjab province of eastern Pakistan. Faisalabad was restructured into City District status; a devolution promulgated by the 2001 Local Government Ordinance (LGO).[7] The total area of Faisalabad District covers 58.56 km2 (22.61 sq mi) while the area controlled by the Faisalabad Development Authority (FDA) is 1,280 km2 (490 sq mi).[8]:8 Faisalabad has grown to become a major industrial and distribution center because of its central location in the region and connecting roads, rails, and air transportation.[9] It has been referred to as the "Manchester of Pakistan" because it contributes over 20% toward Pakitan's annual GDP.[10][11] Faisalabad's average annual GDP is $20.55 billion (USD),[12] of which 21% comes from agriculture.[8]:41

The surrounding countryside, irrigated by the lower Chenab River, produces cotton, wheat, sugarcane, vegetables and fruits. The city is an industrial centre with major railway repair yards, engineering works, and mills that process sugar, flour, and oil seed. Faisalabad is a major producer of superphosphates, cotton and silk textiles, hosiery, dyes, industrial chemicals, beverages, clothing, pulp and paper, printing, agricultural equipment, and ghee (clarified butter). The Faisalabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry monitors industrial activity in the city and reports their findings to the Federation of Pakistan Chamber of Commerce and Industry and provincial government.[13] The city also has a major dry port[8]:25 and international airport.[8]:26

Faisalabad is home to the University of Agriculture, Government College University as well as the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Divisional Public School Faisalabad and National Textile University.[8]:13 The city has its own cricket team, Faisalabad Wolves, which is based at the Iqbal Stadium.[14] There are several other sports teams that compete internationally, including hockey and snooker as well as other sporting events.[15][16]

History[edit]

The first university was built by the British Empire in 1906 with the foundation stone laying ceremony being laid by Sir Louis Dane, the then Lieut, and Governor of the Punjab.[17]
Mohammed Ali Jinnah, in Lyallpur where he gave an historic speech at Dhobi Ghat. Circ 1943
One of the earlier industrial exhibition at the University of Agriculture which is still a major exhibition held in the city today, Circ 1949

Toponymy[edit]

During the reign of the British Raj, the city Lyallpur was named in honor of Punjab's Lieutenant Governor, Sir James Broadwood Lyall, for his services in the colonization of the lower Chenab Valley.[18][19] His surname Lyall was joined with "pur" which in old Sanskrit language means city.[20] In the late 1970s, the Government of Pakistan changed the name of the city from Lyallpur to "Faisalabad" (meaning City of Faisal), in honor of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, who made several financial contributions to Pakistan.[21]

Early settlements[edit]

According to the University of Faisalabad, the city of Faisalabad traces its origins to the 18th century when the land was inhabited by a number of tribes living in a forestation environment. It is believed these early settlements belonged to the ancient districts of Jhang and Sandalbar, which included the area between Shahdara to Shorekot and Sangla Hill to Toba Tek Singh.[22]

Colonial rule[edit]

Map of Punjab, Circ 1909.
Partition of India, Circ 1947.

By the mid-18th century, the economic and administrative collapse of provinces within the Mughal Empire, from Punjab to Bengal, led to its dissolution. Internal unrest resulted in multiple battles for independence and further deterioration of the region, which then led to formal colonialization as established by the Government of India Act 1858, with direct control under the British Raj from 1858 to 1947.[23] In 1880, Poham Young C.I.E, a British colonial officer, proposed construction of a new strategic town within the area. His proposal was supported by Sir James Broadwood Lyall, Lt. Governor of Punjab, and the city of Lyall was developed.

Young designed the city centre to replicate the design in the Union Jack with eight roads extending from a large clock tower at its epicentre;[24] a design geometrically symbolic of the Cross of Saint Andrew counterchanged with the Cross of Saint Patrick, and Saint George's Cross over all.[25] The eight roads developed into eight separate bazaars (markets) leading to different regions of the Punjab.[26][27] In 1892, the newly constructed town with its growing agricultural surplus was added to the British rail network.[28] Construction of the rail link between Wazirabad and Lyallpur was completed in 1895.[24] In 1896, Gujranwala, Jhang and Sahiwal comprising the Tehsils of Lyallpur were under the administrative control of the Jhang District.[19]

In 1904, the new district of Lyallpur was formed to include the tehsils of Samundri and Toba Tek Singh with a sub-tehsil at Jaranwala, which later became a full tehsil in itself.[29] The University of Agriculture, originally the Punjab Agricultural College and Research Institute, Lyallpur, was established in 1906.[30] The Town Committee was upgraded to a Municipal Committee in 1909. Lyallpur grew into an established agricultural tool and grain center built by the British.[31] The 1930s brought industrial growth and market expansion to the textile industry as well as to food processing, grain crushing and chemicals.[18]

Independence[edit]

In August 1947, following three decades of nationalist struggles, India and Pakistan achieved independence. The British agreed to partition colonial India into two sovereign states - Pakistan with a Muslim majority, and India with a Hindu majority; however, more Muslims remained in India than what governing authorities believed would assimilate into Pakistan.[32] The partitioning led to a mass migration of an estimated 10 million people which made it the largest mass migration in human history.[32] India's Bengal province was divided into East Pakistan and West Bengal (India), and the Punjab Province was divided into Punjab (West Pakistan) and Punjab, India. There were also respective divisions of the British Indian Army, the Indian Civil Service, various administrative services, the central treasury, and the railways.[33] Riots and local fighting followed the expeditious withdrawal of the British, resulting in an estimated one million civilians deaths, particularly in the western region of Punjab.[32] Lyallpur, which was located in the region of the Punjab Province that became West Pakistan, was populated by a number of Hindus and Sikhs who migrated to India, while Muslim refugees from India settled in the district.[33]

In 1977, the name of the city was changed to "Faisalabad", after King Faisal of Saudi Arabia.[34] During the eighties, the city realized an increase in foreign investment.[35] More Faisalabadis began working abroad as bilateral ties improved within the new dominion. This led to more monetary funds returning to the city that aided the development of the region.[36] In 1985, the city was upgraded as a division with the districts of Faisalabad, Jhang and Toba Tek Singh.[22]

Government and public services[edit]

Civic administration[edit]

Faisalabad is governed by the City District Government comprising seven departments, including Agriculture, Community Development, Education, Finance and Planning, Health, Municipal Services, and Works and Services.[37] The District Coordination Officer Faisalabad (DCO) is head of the City District Government and responsible for coordinating and supervising the administrative units.[38] Each of the seven departments has its own Executive District Officer who is charged with coordinating and overseeing the activities of their respective departments.

The intention of the City District Government is to empower politics by improving governance which basically involved decentralizing administrative authority with the establishment of different departments and respective department heads, all working under one platform. The stated vision and mission of the City District Government—Faisalabad is to "establish an efficient, effective and accountable City District Government, which is committed to respecting and upholding women, men and children's basic human rights, responsive towards people's needs, committed to poverty reduction and capable of meeting the challenges of the 21st Century. Our actions will be driven by the concerns of local people." [39]

Tehsil Municipal Administration[edit]

In 2005, Faisalabad was reorganised as a City-District composed of eight Tehsil Municipal Administrations (TMA).[40] The functions of the TMA include preparation of the spatial and land use plans, management of these development plans and exercise of control over land use, land sub-division, land development and zoning by public and private sectors, enforcement of municipal laws, rules and by-laws, provision and management of water, drainage waste and sanitation along with allied municipal services.[41]

There are 118 union councils in Faisalabad. Their role is to collect and maintain statistical information for socio-economic surveys. They consolidate ward neighbourhood development needs and prioritize these into union-wide development proposals. The council also identifies any deficiencies in the delivery of these services and makes recommendations for improvement to the TMA.[42]

Faisalabad Development Authority[edit]

The Faisalabad Development Authority (FDA) was validly established in October 1976 under The Punjab Development of Cities Act, 1976 to regulate, supervise and implement development activities in its jurisdiction area.[43][44] The FDA acts as a policy-making body for the development of the city and is in charge of arranging and supervising major developments within the city. It is responsible for the administration of building regulations, management of parks and gardens and subsoil water management. The FDA works with WASA to control and maintain the water supply, sewerage and drainage. The FDA also works to improve conditions in the slums.[45]

Healthcare[edit]

Health care services are provided to the citizens by both public and private sector hospitals. The government run hospitals are Allied Hospital, District HQ Hospital, Institute of Child Care,[46] PINUM Cancer Hospital, Faisalabad Institute of Cardiology (FIC) and General Hospitals in Ghulam Muhammadabad and Samanabad.[47] There are also a number of private hospitals, clinics and laboratories in the city, notably Al-Rahmat labs, Mujahid Hospital lab, National Hospital lab & Agha Khan lab.[48][49] The City District Government also has a number of basic health units, rural health centres and dispensaries to provide care for its people in the rural parts of the district.

Emergency services[edit]

Law enforcement in Faisalabad is carried out by City Police Faisalabad, whose headquarters are located at the CPO Office, District Court Faisalabad.[50] Police Formations consist of District Police, Elite Police, Traffic Police, Punjab Highway Patrolling, Investigation Branch and Special Branch.[51] Fire and rescue services in Faisalabad are provided by Faisalabad Fire Brigade[52] and emergency medical care by Edhi Ambulances and Rescue 1122.

Water supply and sanitation[edit]

The Water and Sanitation Agency, commonly known as WASA, which is a subsidiary of Faisalabad Development Authority (FDA), was established on 23 April 1978 under the Development of Cities Act 1976.[53] It is estimated that WASA provides about 72% of the city with sewerage services and about 60% with water services.[54] The existing production capacity of WASA is 65 million gallons per day, almost all of which is drawn from wells located in the old beds of the Chenab river. From the wells, water is pumped to a terminal reservoir located on Sargodha Road.[55] Water is normally supplied for a total of about 8 hours per day to the majority of the city.[55] The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has also provided financial and hardware equipment to help improve the water and sanitation conditions in the city.[56]

Geography[edit]

Scope[edit]

Faisalabad is 184 metres (604 ft) above sea level and is situated in the rolling flat plains of northeast Punjab between longitude 73°74 East, latitude 30°31.5 North. The city proper comprises approximately 1,230 square kilometres (470 sq mi) while the district encompasses more than 16,000 square kilometres (6,200 sq mi). The Chenab river flows about 30 km to the northwest, and the Ravi river meanders 40 km to the southeast. The lower Chenab canal provides water to 80% of cultivated lands making it the main source of irrigation. Faisalabad is bound on the north by Chiniot and Sheikhupura, on the east by Sheikhupura and Sahiwal, on the south by Sahiwal and Toba Tek Singh and on the west by Jhang.[57]

Geology[edit]

The district of Faisalabad is part of the alluvial plains between the Himalayan foothills and the central core of the Indian subcontinent. The alluvial deposits are typically over a thousand feet thick.[58] The scalloped interfluves are believed to have been formed during the Late Pleistocene and feature flat-topped river terraces. These were later identified as old and young floodplains of the River Ravi on the Kamalia and Chenab Plains. The old floodplains consist of Holocene deposits from the River Ravi and Chenab.

The soil consists of young stratified silt loams or very fine sand loams which gave the subsoil a very weak structure with common kankers at only five feet. The course of the rivers within Faisalabad are winding and often subject to frequent alternations. In the rainy season, the currents are very strong. This leads to high floods in certain areas which do last for a number of days. The Rakh and Gogera canals have encouraged the water levels in the district however the belt on the river ravi has remained narrow. The river bed does include the river channels which have shifted the sand bars and low sandy levees leading to river erosion.[58]

Faisalabad is situated at the centre of the lower Rachana Doab, the area is located between the Chenab and Ravi rivers. There is on a mild slope from the north-east to the south-west with an average of 0.2-0.3 meter fall per kilometre which is equivalent to 1-1.5 feet per mile. The city is situated at an elevation of about 183.35 meters (equivalent to 612 feet above sea level). The topography is marked by valleys, local depression and high ground.[59]

Climate[edit]

Rainfall is usually highest during the months of July and August in the city when the monsoon season travels westwards across the plains of the Punjab.[59]
Main article: Climate of Faisalabad

The weather in the city is monitored by the Pakistan Meteorological Department.[60] The Pakistan Meteorological Department regularly provides forecasts, public warnings and rainfall information to farmers with the assistance of the National Agromet Centre.[61][62]

Faisalabad has been classified as a hot desert climate (BWh) by the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system.[63] The climate of the district can see extremes, with a summer maximum temperature of 50 °C (122 °F), and a winter temperature of −2 °C (28 °F). The mean maximum and minimum temperature in summer are 39 °C (102 °F) and 27 °C (81 °F) respectively. In winter temperatures tend to peak around 17 °C (63 °F) and 6 °C (43 °F) respectively. The summer season typically ranges from April to October with the hottest temperatures occurring in May, June and July. Winter season usually begins in November and continues until sometime in March with the coldest temperatures occurring in December, January and February.

Average annual rainfall is approximately 384.683 mm (15.145 in), and highly seasonal, with nearly half of all precipitation occurring in July and August.[59] Record-breaking rainfall of 264.2 mm was recorded on 5 September 1961 by the Pakistan Meteorological Department.[64] Observations from the Meteorological Observatory at the University of Agriculture indicate that overall rainfall levels in the city have increased by 90.4 mm over the course of thirty years.[65]

Climate data for Faisalabad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19.4
(66.9)
22.4
(72.3)
27.3
(81.1)
33.8
(92.8)
38.9
(102)
40.7
(105.3)
37.3
(99.1)
36.3
(97.3)
36
(97)
33.6
(92.5)
27.5
(81.5)
21.8
(71.2)
31.25
(88.25)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.9
(53.4)
14.9
(58.8)
19.9
(67.8)
25.9
(78.6)
31.1
(88)
34
(93)
32.3
(90.1)
31.6
(88.9)
30.1
(86.2)
25.6
(78.1)
18.9
(66)
13.7
(56.7)
24.16
(75.47)
Average low °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
7.4
(45.3)
12.6
(54.7)
18.1
(64.6)
23.3
(73.9)
27.4
(81.3)
27.4
(81.3)
26.9
(80.4)
24.2
(75.6)
17.6
(63.7)
10.4
(50.7)
5.7
(42.3)
17.12
(62.81)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14
(0.55)
15
(0.59)
21
(0.83)
14
(0.55)
13
(0.51)
26
(1.02)
102
(4.02)
91
(3.58)
33
(1.3)
6
(0.24)
3
(0.12)
8
(0.31)
346
(13.62)
Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 188m[63]

Demographics[edit]

Faisalabad was established as one of the first planned towns of British India covering an area of 3 sq. kilometres.[66] It was initially designed to accommodate 20,000 people; however, as the land was very fertile it became a thriving centre for trade, bringing people from rural areas into the city. The city's population increased from 69,930 in 1941 to 179,000 in 1951 (152.2% increase).[67] Much of the increase is attributed to the settlement of Muslim refugees from East Punjab and Haryana, India. In 1961, the population rose to 425,248, an increase of 137.4%. Faisalabad set a record in the demographic history of Pakistan by registering an overall population increase of 508.1% between 1941 and 1961. The industrial revolution of the 1960s also contributed to population growth.[67] In 1961, the population was 425,248. A 1972 census ranked Faisalabad as the 3rd largest city of Pakistan with a population of 864,000. In a 1981 census, the population was 1,092,000; however, the Faisalabad Development Authority estimated the number to be 1,232,000.[67] A 2014 demographic profile shows the population count at 3.038 million.[68]

Religion and ethnic groups[edit]

A Mughal inspired mosque in the old city. The majority of the population are Muslim.[69]
A Sikh Gurdwara constructed during the reign of the British Empire in 1911 still exists as a school within the old city.[70]

The province of Punjab, in which Faisalabad is the second largest city, has prevalent sociocultural distinctions.[71] Population sizes vary by district but some distinguishing factors include a young age structure, high age dependency ratio, a higher percentage of males, a higher proportion of married population, and heterogeneity in castes and languages.

Islam is the common heritage in the region with a 97.22% Muslim majority according to the 1998 Pakistan census report and 2001 population data sheet.[71] Islamic influences are evident in the fundamental values of various inhabitants including cultural traditions, marriage, education, diet, ceremonies and policies. Most marriages follow social customs and are arranged by the parents, customarily with weddings that are colorful celebrations. Families may also celebrate the birth of a male child whereas female births are not celebrated.[71]

The prevalent minorities, particularly Hindu and Christian, feel a sense of vulnerability because of their religious beliefs.[72] Labourers and farmhands comprise the countless Christian villages throughout Punjab; many are descendants of people who converted from Hinduism to Christianity under the British Raj, and considered low caste by virtue of their birth.[32] A small population of wealthy, well-educated Christians have settled in Karachi; however, as a result of increasing Islamization, religious intolerance in Pakistani society, blashphemy laws and Islamist militancy, most have left Pakistan to settle in other countries where there is more religious tolerance, such as Canada and Australia.[72][73]

  • Muslims - 97.22%
  • Christian - 2.31%
  • Ahmadi - .25%
  • Hindu - .12%
  • Scheduled castes - .03%
  • Others - .06%

Languages[edit]

Punjabi is the dominant language spoken by over three-fourths of the population.[71] In the south-southwest regions, Saraiki is the common language. The national language is Urdu, which is customarily used between various ethnic groups.[71]

  • Punjabi - 75.23%
  • Saraiki - 17.36%
  • Urdu - 4.54%
  • Pushto - 1.16%
  • Balochi - .66%
  • Sindhi - .13%
  • Others - .95%

Economy[edit]

Ghanta Ghar bazaar is made up of eight bazaars, where local grown produce is bought and sold.
The FCCI Building is home to the Faisalabad Chamber of Commerce and Industries.
Metro Cash & Carry, first foreign supermarket in Faisalabad.
Rural plains remain fertile due to irrigation systems developed by the British Empire.

Faisalabad contributes over 20% toward Pakitan's annual GDP; therefore, it is often referred to as the "Manchester of Pakistan".[10][11] Faisalabad's average annual GDP is $20.55 billion (USD),[12] of which 21% comes from agriculture.[8]:41

Faisalabad is the centre of the textile industry in Pakistan, contributing over 70% to the textile export market of Pakistan which comprises a share of 68% of Pakistan's total exports and represents more than a 45% share in Pakistans total exports.[74]

The Faisalabad clock tower and its eight bazaars (markets) are still a major trading zone in the city today.[75] Each of the eight bazaars has a special name and is known for selling certain goods;[76]

  • Katchery Bazaar, named for the court (Katchery) is known for its mobile phone and accessory market.
  • Rail Bazar is a gold and cloth market.
  • Bhawana Bazaar supplies electrical and electronic goods.
  • Jhang Bazaar supplies fish, meat, vegetables and fruits.
  • Aminpur Bazaar supplies stationery and interior décor.
  • Kharkhana Bazaar is known for herbal medicines.
  • Gol Bazaar contains dry fruit, as well as wholesale soap, oil, and ghee shops.
  • Chiniot Bazaar is famous for allopathic and homeopathic medicinal stores, cloth, blankets, sofa cloth, and curtains. It also has poultry feed wholesale shops.
  • Montgomery Bazaar (also known as Sutar Mandi) is known for yarn and raw cloth trading.

Faisalabad also has large industries in the manufacturing of sugar, fertilizer, chemical, steel, rubber, leather tanning, vegetable ghee, and paints. A detailed breakdown by The Faisalabad Chamber of Commerce and Industries revealed that there are 25 ginning units, 73 spinning units, 35 weaving units, 254 processing units, 27 textile made ups, 6 sugar units, 110 foundry units, 53 rice mills, 59 soap industries, 38 flour mills and 25 confectioneries. Faisalabad is also another exporter of traditional arts and crafts. The city is known for its hand-woven clothes and wood carving. Other traditional products produced in Faisalabad include handbags, carpets, rugs, and lace.

The Faisalabad Industrial Estate developed by the Punjab Small Industries Corporation covers an area of over 244 acres. A total of 1019 plots were built of which 80% are currently occupied today. Two further industrial estates, VAC and FIC are currently under construction and due to be opened soon.[77]

Faisalabad Dry Port started operations on an experimental basis in 1994, which export and import 33,000 export containers and 5,500 import containers per annum. Cargo is expeditiously cleared by customs at the dry port prior to unloading. An on-line tracking facility has also been provided to customers by installing trackers in the Dry Port’s registered vehicles. The Pakistan Revenue Automation Limited (PRAL) has established its office at The Dry Port to evaluate the customs duty and automation of import and export data of customs. The port was constructed on Jumhra Road. Export items include cotton yarn, grey fabrics, shoes/leather products, textile made ups, garments and bed sheets whilst import items include mineral fuel oil, RBD palm oil, textile machinery parts, chemicals, auto spare parts, and vehicles.[78]

Within the banking sector, there are 45 commercial banks (including Islamic banks) licensed by State Bank of Pakistan to operate within the city of Faisalabad. There are also an additional 30 specialised banks, including Punjab Provincial Co-operative Bank and micro-finance banks. As agricultural exports are a major exporter the bank systems within the city offer a package known as "farm credit" to help businesses generate capital. In addition to banking, the insurance market has also grown exponentially in the city. This has led to a number of branches and firms setting up in the city, including State Life Insurance, Eastern federal Union Insurance, Jubilee Insurance and AIG Insurance.

As the economy has shown signs of improving within Pakistan due to various micro and macro economic policies, the wealth of the city has also known signs of growth. Development of international brands are also on the rise. In the late nineties, Faisalabad saw the rise of branded outlets and malls springing up. Fast food restaurants such as McDonald's, KFC, Burger King and Subway all have been very successful in the city. With more foreign investment being made in the city, there has been a rise of shopping malls and housing schemes to tailor the growing needs of the population.

Faisalabad has also received heavy investment from the Government of Punjab and the City District Government.[79] The District Government is working with the National Highway Authority to connect Multan and Faisalabad.[80] The construction of the M4 is planned to be completed in the next three years. Section One was inaugurated on 16 March 2015 which has linked the city to Gojra.[81]

To deal with the energy crisis, the FCCI has been working with private companies to develop renewable energy resources such as solar energy and the construction of dams within the district.[82] CAE, a German based renewable energy company, has disclosed plans to establish the first solar panel manufacturing facility in Faisalabad, second of its kind in Asia, with intentions of investing upwards of €100 million (Rs12.9 billion) for its development.[83]

Transportation[edit]

The M3 interchange connecting the M2 and M4 is an important junction for the city where it connects the north and south of the country.[84]
Cars are driven on the left hand side, one of the remnants of the British empire.[85] The photograph above is a typical intersection.
To reduce traffic pollution, the use of animal-driven carts such as tangas have been banned in the city[86] whilst trucks are allowed after 10pm.

There are many ways to get in and around Faisalabad. Public transportation in Faisalabad includes auto-rickshaws, buses and railways. An international airport on the outskirts of the city operates flights to the Middle East.[87]

Road[edit]

The majority of roads are under the control of the National Highway Authority (Pakistan), linking Faisalabad with other cities of the country. The roads meet international standards and have improved logistical networks for freight companies.

National Highways and Motorways Passing Through Faisalabad

Faisalabad is connected by Road to various parts of the country through several National Highways and Motorways:[55]

  • The Grand Trunk Road, otherwise known as GT Road, is the original highway that links Faisalabad to most parts of Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries. GT Road was the main highway that ran through the district before the completion of the motorways.
  • The M3 motorway (Pakistan) or M3 is an access-controlled motorway connecting Faisalabad with the M2 motorway (Pakistan) or M2 via the Pindi Bhattian Interchange. The M2 was the first motorway connecting Rawalpindi and Islamabad to Lahore.
  • The M4 motorway (Pakistan) or M4 is an access-controlled motorway connecting Faisalabad to Multan. The M4 once complete will join the M5 which will run to the southern city of Karachi.

Important Roads in Faisalabad

  • The Faisalabad Bypass is the ring road of the city.
  • The Canal Expressway connects the Sahianwala motorway interchange (located on the M3) to Samundri via Canal Road (Gatwala Chowk).
  • Jhang Road leads to Jhang, Pir Mahal, Toba Tek Singh and towards Multan.
  • The Sheikhupura-Lahore Road connects the city centre to both cities and Gujranwala.
  • Sargodha Road connects the city to the Chiniot, Chenab Nagar and eventually Sargodha.
  • Samundri Road is the main route to Samundri and Okara.
  • Satyana Road connects the city with the lower Punjab towards Sahiwal, Burewala and Multan.
  • Jaranwala road connects the city to Jaranwala and Nankana Sahib
  • The Sargodha-Faisalabad Expressway connects Sargodha with the city.

Buses[edit]

The Faisalabad Urban Transport System Service (FUTS) is the main bus operator within the city. It was launched in 1994, and operates a number of large CNG buses and smaller Toyota hiace vans connecting the majority of the city.[88] There is another public-private run bus operator, Brothers Metro, which is a consortium between the government of Punjab and a private firm who operates a fleet of air-conditioned CNG buses.[89]

Coaches[edit]

Being at a road and rail junction, the city is well connected by several coach companies that offer inter-city travel to most parts of Pakistan. Several bus operators offer quick services to the provincial capital, Lahore, as well as Islamabad, Jhang, Multan, Peshawar, Karachi and several smaller localities. The city bus terminal is located on Station Road, which is home to a number of privately run coach services. Some of the most popular ones are Bilal Daewoo Express, Khan Brothers Flying Coach, Niazi Express and Kohistan Bus Services.[90] Etihad Airways also launched a dedicated coach service for its passengers travelling from the city to Lahore Airport.[91]

Rails[edit]

The front entrance to the 19th century colonial railway station.
There are seven platforms at the station with a number of cargo sidings.

The Faisalabad railway station is the central railway station in the city. The railway line forms part of the Khanewal-Wazirabad railway branch line. Rail services are operated by Pakistan Railways, owned and operated by the Ministry of Railways (Pakistan). The city's administrative office is located at the station that is headed by an Assistant Operation Officer (AOO).

Active Train Services that pass through Faisalabad

As of January 2016, the following train services operate to and from the city.[92]

  • The Akbar Express originates in Quetta and continues to Lahore via Faisalabad.
  • The Badar Express is a direct train from Lahore to Faisalabad.
  • The Ghouri Express is a direct train from Lahore to Faisalabad.
  • The Karakoram Express originates at Karachi Cant and continues to Lahore.
  • The Millat Express originates in Karachi and terminates at Malakwal.
  • The Night Coach Express is a overnight train that orignates in Karachi which terminates at Lahore.
  • The Pakistan Express originates in Karachi which continues to Rawalpindi.
  • The Shalimar Express originates in Karachi Cantt and terminates at Lahore.

Cargo Services

The Cargo Express service is operated by Pakistan Railways which runs from Karachi to Faisalabad via Multan. Twenty-seven bogies comprise the goods train, and are handled respectively by private contractors at the station.[93] The station has a special cargo facility operated by the Ministry of Railways (Pakistan) for handling various goods from the city to other regions of the country. An express parcel service also runs from Karachi to Lahore via Faisalabad.[94] Cargo includes salt from Khewra Salt Mine and final textile goods to Karachi.[95]

Air traffic[edit]

Faisalabad International Airport is one of the top ten international airports in the country for air travel.[96]

Faisalabad International Airport is approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the city centre and is a major airport for domestic and international travel. The airport also includes a cargo facility. As of January 2016, passenger flights are run by the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines, and a number of middle eastern carriers. There are seasonal Hajj operations to Jeddah and Medina operated by Shaheen Air.[97] FlyDubai became the first international carrier to launch operations from the city followed by Qatar Airways, Air Arabia and Gulf Air.[98][99]

In 2015, significant upgrades and renovations to the airport were initiated by the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority, including updates to aviation technology, construction of additional areas and services for travelers, and the expansion of air traffic capabilities to accommodate wide-body aircraft such as the Boeing 777.[100]

Culture[edit]

The Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Auditorium is home of the Faisalabad Arts Council where the annual literacy and poetry festivals take place.[101]
Chicken Jalfrezi Pizza is made with spicy tandoori styled chicken, two types of cheese and mixed peppers.
The Chenab Club is a social club built in 1904 and was inaugurated by British Officer Henry Cues. It was the first such club in the city.[102]

Faisalabad is the second largest city in the province of Punjab.[103] It is an epicenter for trade and has gained much popularity for its colonial heritage sites.[104] The city established its arts council in 1982, now housed at the Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Arts Auditorium,[105] and its museum in 2011.[106]

Festivals[edit]

There are a number of cultural and religious festivals that take place in the city.[107] The city celebrates its independence day by raising the Pakistan flag at the clock tower in the old city and the Commissioner Office.[108] The markets are decorated with colourful buntings and all government and private buildings are illuminated with white and green lights.[109] The government services including the police, fire and ambulance services usually hold a motorcade through the city on the same day.

The arrival of spring brings the annual "Rang-e-Bahar" festival where the Parks & Horticulture Authority of the city district government organise a flower show and exhibition at Jinnah Gardens.[110] The University of Agriculture also organises a similar event at their main campus which is known as the "Kissan Mela".[111][112] The festival of Basant which involves kite flying is an annual tradition in the city despite the ban.[113] The provincial government also introduced the "Canal Mela" which involves five days of festivities including the main canal in the city being decorated with national floats and lights ending with a musical concert to conclude the festival.[114]

Being a Muslim majority the city religious observances include Ramadan and Muharram. The festivals of Chaand Raat, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are celebrated and are national holidays.[115] The celebration of the Prophet Muhammad birthday is also observed in the city which is often referred to as "Eid Milād-un-Nabī".[116] There are a number of darbar and shrines which attract a number of devotees during the annual Urs.[117] There are a number of Christian churches in the city where Easter and Christmas services take place each year.[118][119]

Fashion[edit]

In the more rural regions of the district, the traditional dhoti and kurta is worn which is accompanied by a pagri (turban).[120] Usually on Friday, Faisalabadi men typically wear a white shalwar kameez when attending the mosque for Jummah prayer. Faisalabadi women also wear the shalwar kameez accompanied with a dupatta (scarf).[121] Traditional lacha, bangles and paranda are also used. Saris and lehngas which have substantial detail and embroidery work are traditionally worn for Marriage in Pakistan.[122]

Faisalabad Fashion Week takes place every year in the city where designers display their latest work.[123] Faisalabad Institute of Textile and Fashion Design at the Government College University teaches Fashion Design as part of their Fine Arts program.[124] Furthermore, the National Textile University hosts a graduate fashion show every year in the city.[125]

Cuisine[edit]

Faisalabad cuisine is very much Punjabi cuisine, most of which originated during the realms of the Mughal and Colonial empires. Key ingredients include rice or roti (flatbread) served with a vegetable or non-vegetable curry, a salad consisting of spiced tomatoes and onions, and yogurt. This is usually accompanied by a variety of South Asian sweets such as Jaggery, Gajar Ka Halwa, Gulab jamun, and Jalebi.[126] Tandoori BBQ specialties consist of a variety of naan bread served with tandoori chicken, chicken tikka or lamb shish kebabs served with a mint chutney.[127]

Street foods are a key element to Faislabadi cuisine.[128] Samosas (deep fried pastry filled with vegetables or meat) topped with an onion salad and two types of chutney. There is even a square dedicated to them in the old city.[129] Other street foods include, dahi bhale (deep fried vadas in creamy yoghurt), Gol Gappay (fried round puri filled with vegetables and topped with tamarind chutney) and vegetable or chicken pakoras. Biryani and Murgh Pilao rice are also a specialty in Faisalabad.[130]

A typical breakfast in Faislabadi is Halwa poori comprising a deep fried flatbread served with a spicy chickpea curry and sweet orange coloured halwa.[131] It is customarily accompanied by a sweet or salty yoghurt based drink called Lassi.[132] During winter, a common breakfast is roghni naan bread served with Paya curry.

Specialty drinks vary depending on climate. During winter, a variety of hot drinks are available, such as Rabri Doodh, a creamy dessert drink commonly made with full-fat milk, almonds, pistachios and basil seeds, Dhood Patti (milky tea), and Kashmiri Chai, a pink coloured milky tea containing almonds and pistachios.[133] During summer, drinks such as sugar cane rusk, limo pani (iced lemon water), skanjvi (iced orange and black pepper) and Lassi are common.[134]

There are also Chinese and American franchises that cater to the local community by offering specialty burgers and pizzas, such as the McDonald's McArabia, a grilled chicken, pita bread sandwich with tomatoes, lettuce and garlic sauce. Pizza Hut offers the BBQ Seekh Kebab flatbread, and the Chicken Jalfrezi pizza.[135]

Literature[edit]

Being a relatively small town pre-independence, there were a number of writers and poets who migrated to India during the war of independence. Post independence, with more focus on economic and industrial polices, the literacy rate suffered during the 1980s with only 40% of the population being literate.[136] It was not until the early 1990s that the city's efforts focused more on education which resulted in increased enrollment in higher education. By 2008, the literacy rate had risen to 70%.[137] In 2014, the city held its first literary festival which brought a number of writers to the city to encourage the community to follow the arts.[138] Two literary groups were also established, The Faisalabad Union of Column Writers and The Faisalabad Union of Journalists, to bring together printed media personalities to provide training to budding writers from the city.[139]

Recreation[edit]

D Ground Central Park was rebuilt by the city district government which now includes miniature versions of the symbols of Pakistan such as the Mazar-e-Quaid, Minar-e-Pakistan and Bab-e-Pakistan.[140]
Iqbal Stadium, home to the Faisalabad Wolves cricket team.

Parks and open spaces[edit]

Faisalabad is home to a number of parks and majority of them are maintained by the Parks and Horticulture Authority.[142] Jinnah Garden is known as the oldest and central park in the city, commonly known as “Company Bagh”. The monument of Sir Charles James Lyall is situated here. The Chenab Club is located in the surroundings of Jinnah Garden, which was built during colonial rule.[143] The park contains a Pakistan Air Force F-86 Sabre, several fountains and colonial pavilions.[144]

Canal Park, on the west bank of the Rakh Branch Canal, is a newly opened park for families.[145] The Gatwala Wildlife Park is a botanical natural reserve located at Gatwala that was renovated by the city district government.[146] The Pahari Grounds near D Ground is also another park that has undergone renovation and a Pakistan Air Force F-86 Sabre is also on display here.[147]

Sports[edit]

Cricket is a popular sport in Faisalabad. Regional and international cricket matches are held in Iqbal Stadium,[148] named after Pakistani poet Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal,[149] and home to Faisalabad's local team, the Faisalabad Wolves. Iqbal Stadium hosted the 2011 inaugural Faysal Bank Super Eight Twenty20 Cricket Cup, the 1987 Cricket World Cup, and the 1996 Cricket World Cup.

The Faisalabad Hockey Stadium located on Susan Road hosts field hockey matches for both national and international competition, such as the Pakistan-China Hockey Series.[150] The stadium's maximum capacity can accommodate 36,000 spectators.[151]

In October 2002, the Government College University established a Directorate of Sports to promote university and national level sports for male and female players. Infrastructure and facilities are available for university players in track, hockey, tennis, basketball, table tennis, badminton and cricket pitch.[152]

Education[edit]

The Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry is part of the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Agriculture (UAF).

The population of Faisalabad has a literacy rate of approximately 60%, with a split of 69% for males and 46% for females (all figures are higher than the national average within the country).[153]

Faisalabad has several research and educational institutions, both public and private, such as the University of Agriculture, Government College University, National Textile University, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, University of Faisalabad, and the University of Engineering & Technology of Lahore.[154] In 2014, the University of Agriculture ranked 1st in agriculture and 4th overall for universities in Pakistan according to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC), and was ranked 142nd in the 2013 Top 200 World Universities for agriculture and forestry by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS).[155]

Education System[edit]

The education system is monitored by the District Education Officer of the City District Government of Faisalabad.[156] The city government reports its findings to the Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training and the Minister for Education (Pakistan). Funding is provided by the Government of Punjab, Pakistan, City District Government and the fees collected from schools. There are four levels of the education system in the city: Primary, Elementary, High and Higher Secondary Level. Primary level education is only compulsory.[157] There are also a number of schools for the assistance of children with special needs.[158]

Public libraries and museums[edit]

There are two libraries that are open to the public: Allama Iqbal Library and Municipal Corporation Public Library. They are funded and regulated by the Government of Punjab, Pakistan under the service sector.[159]

  • Allama Iqbal Library is located on University Road, opposite the District Courts. The library is housed in the 1911-built colonial building originally named "Coronation Library" during the rule of the British Empire.[160] In 2012, the building came under control of the Lyallpur Heritage Foundation[161] and the Punjab Archives and Libraries Department.[162] Membership is open to all - with 500 rupees joining fee and one proof of identification.
  • Lyallpur Museum is located adjacent to the Allama Iqbal Library on University Road. It is a heritage museum and art gallery open to the public. The museum is primarily focused on regional history with a collection of artwork, artefacts and photographs.[163]
  • Municipal Corporation Public Library is located on Narwala Road opposite the historical grounds of Dhobi Ghat.[164] The library has a large collection of books, a photo gallery and a conference centre. In 2011, the library underwent a renovation costing 40 million rupees.[165]
  • The Forest Library at the Punjab Forestry Research Institute (PFRI) is one of two specialist libraries, the other being in Lahore.[166] Opened in 1986, the research library is based at the Wildlife Research Center in Gatwala.[167]

Media[edit]

Radio[edit]

The government of Pakistan installed the first radio transmitters in the city on 15 September 1982.[168] "Radio Pakistan" broadcasts two government regulated FM stations: "Radio Pakistan FM101" and "Radio Pakistan FM93". FM101 became operational in 2002, and FM93 went live in 2010; both stations are standard power KW 2.5.[169] Subsequently, a number of privately funded organisations have emerged to provide a range of entertainment and news services.

Telecommunications[edit]

Pakistan Telecommunication Authority is a government owned organisation that is responsible for the establishment, operation and maintenance of telecommunications in the city.[170] The organisation monitors and prevents illegal exchanges in the city.[171]

Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited is the main provider of fixed line, mobile and broadband services. Regional headquarters is located at the Central Telecom House in Chinot Bazaar.[172] With the deregulation of the telecommunication sector by the Ministry of Information Technology, a range of companies now offer mobile and broadband services in the city.[173]

Film and theatre[edit]

In 2008, the Government of Pakistan lifted a forty year ban on Bollywood films which allowed Indian films to be played in cinemas.[174] The cinema industry has since seen the introduction of new cinemas such as Cinepax by Hotel One,[175] and Cine Nagina.[176] Stage shows which focus on Punjabi life and culture continue to offer entertainment value.

Sister cities[edit]

The following list of cities have ties with the city of Faisalabad:[177]

City Region Country Year
Manchester  England  United Kingdom 1997
Kobe  Hyōgo Prefecture  Japan 2000

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  91. ^ Etihad Bus Service from Lahore to Sialkot & Faisalabad
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  117. ^ http://punjab.gov.pk/node/259 Faisalabad - Shrines / Tombs
  118. ^ http://dunyanews.tv/en/Pakistan/314553-Christmas-Carol-services-sermons-ongoing-in-Laho Christmas: Carol services, sermons ongoing in Lahore churches
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  123. ^ https://www.facebook.com/Faisalabadfashionweek2013 Official Faisalabad Fashion Week Facebook page
  124. ^ http://gcuf.edu.pk/faculties/arts/fine-arts/bfa-fashion-design/
  125. ^ http://ntu.edu.pk/adm-undergraduate.php
  126. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GFx-dQjOunU Faisalabad's famous jalebis
  127. ^ http://www.tdcp.gop.pk/tdcp/ExplorePakistan/AboutPunjab/MajorCities/Faisalabad/WhattoEatinFaisalabad/tabid/682/Default.aspx Tourism Development Corporation of Pakistan: What to Eat in Faisalabad
  128. ^ http://www.dawn.com/news/1170367 Food: My quest for the best nihari in Lahore
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  130. ^ http://www.qatarairways.com/global/en/destinations/flights-to-faisalabad.page Eating in Faisalabad
  131. ^ http://www.subrung.com/travel-pakistan/faisalabad/food-not-to-miss-in-faisalabad.html Food not to miss in Faisalabad
  132. ^ http://www.samaa.tv/editor-s-choice/2011/04/lassi-shop-in-faisalabad/ Lassi shop in Faisalabad
  133. ^ http://www.journeum.com/dst/Asia/Pakistan/Punjab/Faisalabad/Drink/ Where to drink in Faisalabad
  134. ^ http://historypak.com/faisalabad/ History of Pakistan: Faisalabad
  135. ^ https://twitter.com/PizzaHutPak/status/524953431631360003
  136. ^ http://unesco.org.pk/education/life/nfer_library/Reports/4-39.pdf UNESCO Literacy Rates in Pakistan
  137. ^ http://unesco.org.pk/education/life/nfer_library/Reports/4-39.pdf
  138. ^ http://faisalabadliteraryfestival.org/ Faisalabad Literary Festival 2014
  139. ^ http://www.pakistanpressfoundation.org/tag/faisalabad-union-of-journalists/ Journalists’ Day: Working conditions need to improve
  140. ^ http://www.panoramio.com/photo/82796453 Bab e Pakistan D-Ground Faisalabad
  141. ^ http://www.samaa.tv/editor-s-choice/11-Oct-2013/tent-pegging-competition-in-faisalabad-animals-market Tent Pegging Competition in Faisalabad via Samma Tv
  142. ^ http://phafsd.gop.pk/ Official Website to PHA Faisalabad
  143. ^ http://thechenabclub.com/ Official website to The Chenab Club Ltd
  144. ^ https://www.flickr.com/photos/8473389@N03/6864890992 Company Bagh Pavilion
  145. ^ http://www.fcci.com.pk/a-histroty-of-faisalabad-city.html Places of Interest/Tourism, FCCI website
  146. ^ http://www.fwf.punjab.gov.pk/gatwala_forest_wildlife_park Gatwala Forest Wildlife Park
  147. ^ http://tribune.com.pk/story/830467/350000-trees-to-be-planted-in-faisalabad/ 350,000 trees to be planted in Faisalabad
  148. ^ Andrew McGlashan. "Iqbal Stadium". ESPN Sports Media Ltd. Retrieved December 20, 2015. 
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  150. ^ http://www.nihao-salam.com/news-detail.php?id=ODQx Third match of Pakistan China Hockey Series on Saturday in Faisalabad
  151. ^ http://www.worldstadiums.com/asia/countries/pakistan.shtml World Stadiums, Stadiums in Pakistan
  152. ^ "Directorate of Sports". Government College University Faisalabad. Retrieved December 20, 2015. 
  153. ^ http://nation.com.pk/national/20-Mar-2013/low-female-literacy-rate-in-country-regretted Low female literacy rate in country regretted
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  156. ^ http://faisalabad.gov.pk/Home/DepartmentDetail/2 Office of the EDO (Education), Faisalabad City District Government
  157. ^ http://www.kicc.jp/auick/database/apc/apc046/apc04602_06.html Faisalabad:City Report and Action Plan
  158. ^ http://www.punjab.gov.pk/node/612 List of Special Education Centers in Faisalabad
  159. ^ http://punjab.gov.pk/node/599 Faisalabad - Public libraries
  160. ^ https://www.flickr.com/photos/lyallpur/20007331880 Pre Partition 1947 Coronation Library (1911) Lyallpur (Faisalabad) Punjab
  161. ^ http://tribune.com.pk/story/427461/lyllpur-museum-body-formed-to-acquire-conserve-artifacts/ Lyallpur Museum: Body formed to acquire, conserve artifacts
  162. ^ http://tribune.com.pk/story/516789/public-libraries-and-archive-department-formed/ Public Libraries and Archive Department formed
  163. ^ http://www.demotiximages.com/news/2254905/lyallpur-museum-process-opening/all-media Lyallpur Museum in the process of opening, 13 July 2013 by Abdul Majid
  164. ^ http://municipallibraryfsd.com/ Municipal Library Official website
  165. ^ http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2011/03/24/national/municipal-library-building-to-be-reconstructed/ Municipal Library building to be reconstructed
  166. ^ http://fwf.punjab.gov.pk/libraries Forest Library at PFRI Gatwala, Faisalabad
  167. ^ http://fwf.punjab.gov.pk/WRC_gatwala Wildlife Research Center Gatwala, Faisalabad
  168. ^ http://www.radio.gov.pk/chronologyofpbc Chronology of the PCB
  169. ^ http://www.radio.gov.pk/fmstations FM Stations Radio Pakistan
  170. ^ http://www.pta.gov.pk/index.php?cur_t=vtext&option=com_content&task=view&id=523&catid=95&Itemid=229 Pakistan Telecommunication Authority
  171. ^ http://www.pta.gov.pk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2033&catid=92&Itemid=1 Illegal Gateway Exchange Raided in Faisalabad
  172. ^ http://ptcl.com.pk/Home/PageDetail?ItemId=113&linkId=121 Telephone Exchanges in Punjab
  173. ^ https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/telecom_e/sym_feb08_e/siddiqui_e.pdf Telecom Sector Liberalization & Deregulation in Pakistan: Economic and Social Benefits
  174. ^ http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JB08Df05.html The curtain lifts for Bollywood in Pakistan
  175. ^ Cinepax Faisalabad
  176. ^ http://cinenagina.com/ Cine Nagina Faisalabad
  177. ^ Eight Pakistani cities have 47 sister cities around the world

External links[edit]

sector=3 Major projects related to Communication Sector