Faisalabad

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Faisalabad
فیصل آباد
Lyallpur
Metropolitan
Faisalabad
Aerial Views of Faisalabad PAKISTAN (1).jpeg
Faisalabad Punjab (8).jpg Masjid Faisalabad Pakistan.jpg
Faisalabad P1000485 (10).jpg Faisalabad 3.jpg
Faisalabad P1000485 (13).jpg Faisalabad City 1 (40).jpeg
From top left to right: Overview of Faisalabad
Faisalabad is located in Pakistan
Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Location of Faisalabad in Punjab, Pakistan
Coordinates: 31°25′45″N 73°4′44″E / 31.42917°N 73.07889°E / 31.42917; 73.07889Coordinates: 31°25′45″N 73°4′44″E / 31.42917°N 73.07889°E / 31.42917; 73.07889[1]
Country  Pakistan
Region Punjab
District Faisalabad District
Former Name Lyallpur
Official Language Urdu
Native Language Punjab
First settled 1892
Founded by Sir Charles James Lyall
Government[2]
 • Type City District
 • Body Faisalabad District
 • District Coordination Officer Noor-ul-Amin Mengal
Area[1]
 • Metropolitan 1,300 km2 (490 sq mi)
 • Land 840 km2 (325 sq mi)
 • Water 430 km2 (165 sq mi)
 • Metro 5,860 km2 (2,261 sq mi)
Elevation[3] 184 m (605 ft)
Population (August 14, 2014)[4] 7,480,675
 • Rank 3rd, Pakistan
 • Density 927/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Faisalabadi
Time zone Pakistan (PST) (UTC+5)
 • Summer (DST) PST (UTC+4)
ZIP code(s) 38000
Area code(s) 041
Vehicle registration Three letters beginning with F and random four numbers (eg. FDA 1234)
Website www.faisalabad.gov.pk

About this sound Faisalabad  (also known as Lyallpur) is the 3rd largest city in Pakistan after Karachi and Lahore.[5] It is the 2nd largest city in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center.[6] It was one of the first planned cities within British India.[7] Pricewaterhouse Coopers has projected Faisalabad's GDP to be around USD 87 billion by 2025.[8] The city is also referred to as the "Manchester of Pakistan"[9] Faisalabad is a major contributor towards Pakistan's GDP, contributing over 20%.[10] According to the World Bank's Doing Business Report of 2010, Faisalabad was ranked as the best place to do business in Pakistan and the second best location, after Islamabad, to start a business.[11]

The surrounding countryside, irrigated by the lower Chenab River, produces cotton, wheat, sugarcane, vegetables and fruits. The city is an industrial centre with major railway repair yards, engineering works, and mills that process sugar, flour, and oil seed. Faisalabad is a major producers of superphosphates, cotton and silk textiles, hosiery, dyes, industrial chemicals, beverages, apparels, pulp and paper, printing, agricultural equipment, and ghee (clarified butter). The city is also home to The Faisalabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry who work to monitor the industry in the city and report their findings to the Federation of Pakistan Chamber of Commerce and Industry and provincial government.[12] The city also has a major dry port.[13]

Faisalabad is home to the University of Agriculture, Government College University as well as the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute and National Textile University.[14] Arfa Karim, who hailed from Faisalabad, became the youngest Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) in the world.[15]

Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Dildar Hussain and the Fateh Ali Group trace their roots back to the city.[16] Teji Bachchan, mother to Bollywood actor Amitabh Bachan was also born in the city and spent many of her years in Lyallpur.[17] Cricketers Saeed Ajmal and Rameez Raja started their careers in Faisalabad. Rai Bahadur Saudagar Mal Nagpal, owner of one of the largest grain exchange in the city, was made the Crown Representative by the King George V during Delhi Durbar in 1911.[citation needed] Sikh activists Bhagat Singh and Sunder Singh Lyallpuri also spent much of their childhood in Lyallpur.[18]

The city also has its own cricket team, Faisalabad Wolves, who are based at the Iqbal Stadium.[19] The city also has a hockey, snooker and athletics team who feature in international matches.[20]

Toponymy[edit]

The name Lyallpur traces its origins back to the reign of the British Raj. The British decided to name the city after the Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, Sir James Broadwood Lyall.[21] The name was coined by combining the surname of the Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, Lyall, with "Pur" which is derived from old Sanskrit language meaning "city".[22] In the late 1970s, the Government of Pakistan changed the name of the city from Lyallpur to "Faisalabad" (meaning City of Faisal), in honor of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, who made several financial contributions to Pakistan.[23]

History[edit]

Mohammed Ali Jinnah, photographed in Lyallpur during the independence movement, where he held a historic speech at Dhobi Ghat. Circ 1943
The construction of Lyallpur Railway Station gave the city a major advantage during the rule of the British Empire, Circ 1944
One of the earlier industrial exhibition at the University of Agriculture, Circ 1949
The inner city of Faisalabad was originally constructed to be a representation of the Union Jack to pay homage to Queen Victoria.[24]

Early settlements[edit]

According to the University of Faisalabad, the city that is now known to today as Faisalabad, traces its origins as far back as the 18th century when the land was inhabited by a number of tribes living in a forestation environment. It is believed that these early settlements belonged to the ancient districts of Jhang and Sandalbar, which comprised the area between Shahdara to Shorekot and Sangla Hill to Toba Tek Singh.[25]

Colonial rule[edit]

It was not until the victory over the Sikh Empire during the Second Anglo-Sikh War on the 22 February 1849 that the region found its place on the map. The fall of the Sikh Empire lead to the area being governed by the British East India Company. It was in 1880 that Captain Poham Young C.I.E, a British colonial officer, proposed the construction of a new strategic town within the area. The proposed town was put forward for approval to the Governor of Punjab, Sir James Broadwood Lyall. Lyall worked with Young to develop one of the first planned towns of British India. The design was based on the Union Jack, with eight roads extending from a a large clock tower at its epicentre. The eight roads developed into eight separate bazaars (markets) leading to different regions of the Punjab.[26]

In 1892, the British Empire decided to add this newly constructed town to its rail network. In 1895 the railway line was completed allowing trains to run to Wazirabad in the north. It was also within the same year that the British Empire decided to name the newly constructed town after Sir James Lyall for his services in the colonisation of the lower Chenab valley.[27] In 1896, Lyallpur was given the status of a tehsil of the Jhang District, and its administration was carried out in the Theh (mound) of Pucca Mari (present day Tariqabad). The clock tower and water fountain (known as Gumti) were constructed from the funds raised by the largest landlord, the Mian family of Abdullahpur.[28]

In 1903, an agricultural college was founded, which is known today as the University of Agriculture.[29] In 1904 the new district of Lyallpur was constituted, composed of the tehsils of Lyallpur, Samundri and Toba Tek Singh, with a subtehsil at Jaranwala which later became a full tehsil in itself. By 1906, the district headquarters began to function in Lyallpur and all the bazaars and settlements within the bounds of a ring road were nearing completion. The Town Committee was upgraded to a Municipal Committee in 1909 and the Deputy Commissioner was appointed as its first chairman. The Chenab Club was established in 1910 by Captain Dugglis. In the 1930s the industry gained momentum with the inauguration of the Lyallpur Cotton Mills (in 1934). This was soon followed by more industrial mills relating to cotton where basic textiles being constructed. There were also expansions in the food processing, grain crushing and chemicals industries too.[21] In 1943, Mohammad Ali Jinnah visited Lyallpur and addressed a gathering of over 2 million in Dhobi Ghat Grounds. This was inline with the Pakistan movement who were fighting for the creation of an independent Muslim nation.[30]

Independence[edit]

It was not until 1947 that the British decided to divide British India. This lead to the creation of Pakistan resulting in Lyallpur falling under a new government. This lead to a number of Hindus and Sikhs migrating to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the district. It was documented that the Muslim refugees hailed from East Punjab, Haryana and Kashmir. It was agreed that the new arrivals would be given land within the district to start a new life.

Now no longer under British rule, the city saw considerable development and expansion due to government policies that promoted industrialisation and green revolution technologies. In 1977, the name of the city was changed to "Faisalabad", after King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. During the eighties, the city saw heavy foreign investment.[31] More Faisalabadis began working abroad as bilateral ties improved within the new dominon. This lead to more monetary funds returning to the city that aided the development of the region.[32] In 1985, the city was upgraded as a division with the districts of Faisalabad, Jhang and Toba Tek Singh.

Today, Faisalabad's economy has continued to grow with the help of new infrastructure and a new motorway linking it with the rest of Pakistan. The city is also constructing a new expressway that will link Faisalabad to Multan (in the south) via the M4, and Islamabad (in the north) via M3.[33] The airport was also inspected by the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority in April 0215 to prepare it for international operations.[34]

Faisalabad has become the third largest city in Pakistan. The District Government has been working with The Faisalabad Chamber of Commerce and Industries to manage the development and bring economic growth to the city.[35] The Faisalabad Development Authority, a government body, that looks over the planned development, is involved in several projects to meet the Faisalabad Urban Structure Plan of 2035.[36]

Geography[edit]

Faisalabad stands in the rolling flat plains of northeast Punjab, between longitude 73°74 East, latitude 30°31.5 North, with an elevation of 184 metres (604 ft) above sea level. The proper city covers an area of approximately 1,230 square kilometres (470 sq mi), while the district covers more than 16,000 square kilometres (6,200 sq mi).

The Chenab river flows about 30 km in the north west while the Ravi meanders about 40 km off the city in the south east. The lower Chenab canal is the main source of irrigation meeting the requirements of 80% of cultivated land.

There are no natural boundaries between Faisalabad and adjoining districts. Faisalabad is bound on the north by Chiniot and Sheikhupura, on the east by Sheikhupura and Sahiwal, on the south by Sahiwal and Toba Tek Singh and on the west by Jhang.[37]

Cityscape[edit]

Geology[edit]

The district of Faisalabad is part of the alluvial plains between the Himalayan foothills and the central core of the Indian subcontinent. The alluvial deposits are typically over a thousand feet thick.[38] The scalloped interfluves are believed to have been formed during the Late Pleistocene and feature flat-topped river terraces. These were later identified as old and young floodplains of the River Ravi on the Kamalia and Chenab Plains. The old floodplains consist of Holocene deposits from the River Ravi and Chenab.

The soil consists of young stratified silt loams or very fine sand loams which gave the subsoil a very weak structure with common kankers at only five feet. The course of the rivers within Faisalabad are winding and often subject to frequent alternations. In the rainy season, the currents are very strong. This leads to high floods in certain areas which do last for a number of days. The Rakh and Gogera canals have encouraged the water levels in the district however the belt on the river ravi has remained narrow. The river bed does include the river channels which have shifted the sand bars and low sandy levees leading to river erosion.[39]

Climate[edit]

Main article: Climate of Faisalabad

Faisalabad has a hot desert climate (BWh)[40] in Köppen-Geiger classification. The climate of the district can see extremes, with a summer maximum temperature 50 °C (122 °F) and a winter temperature of −2 °C (28 °F). The mean maximum and minimum temperature in summer are 39 °C (102 °F) and 27 °C (81 °F) respectively. In winter it peaks at around 17 °C (63 °F) and 6 °C (43 °F) respectively.

The summer season starts from April and continues until October. May, June and July are the hottest months. The winter season starts from November and continues until March. December, January and February are the coldest months. The average yearly rainfall lies only at about 300 mm (12 in) and is highly seasonal with approximately half of the yearly rainfall in the two months July and August.

Climate data for Faisalabad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19.4
(66.9)
22.4
(72.3)
27.3
(81.1)
33.8
(92.8)
48.9
(120)
49.5
(121.1)
42.3
(108.1)
40.3
(104.5)
36
(97)
33.6
(92.5)
27.5
(81.5)
21.8
(71.2)
33.57
(92.42)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.9
(53.4)
14.9
(58.8)
19.9
(67.8)
25.9
(78.6)
31.1
(88)
34
(93)
32.3
(90.1)
31.6
(88.9)
30.1
(86.2)
25.6
(78.1)
18.9
(66)
13.7
(56.7)
24.16
(75.47)
Average low °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
7.4
(45.3)
12.6
(54.7)
18.1
(64.6)
23.3
(73.9)
27.4
(81.3)
27.4
(81.3)
26.9
(80.4)
24.2
(75.6)
17.6
(63.7)
10.4
(50.7)
5.7
(42.3)
17.12
(62.81)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14
(0.55)
15
(0.59)
21
(0.83)
14
(0.55)
13
(0.51)
26
(1.02)
102
(4.02)
91
(3.58)
33
(1.3)
6
(0.24)
3
(0.12)
8
(0.31)
346
(13.62)
Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 188m[40]

Government and public services[edit]

Civic administration[edit]

The city of Faisalabad is governed by the City District Government, chaired by the district coordination officer (DCO) Noor ul Amin Mangal. The City District Government is made up eight departments who all report into the District Coordination Officer.[41] The departments consist of the following: Finance and Planning, Community Development, Education, Healthcare, Municipal Services, Works and Services, Building Control and Agriculture.[42] The role of the City District Government is to approve all major plans for the city and district. These include the approval of master urban plans, zoning plans, land use planning (which involves the classification and reclassification of the land), environmental control, urban design and ecological effects of the city. The government also tasks with the review of the rules and by-laws in place in regard to the land, housing, zoning, roads, traffic, tax, infrastructure and utilities.

Tehsil Municipal Administration[edit]

District Towns of Faisalabad

In 2005, Faisalabad was reorganised as a City-District composed of eight Tehsil Municipal Administrations (TMA).[43] The functions of the TMA include preparation of the spatial and land use plans, management of these development plans and exercise of control over land use, land sub-division, land development and zoning by public and private sectors, enforcement of municipal laws, rules and by-laws, provision and management of water, drainage waste and sanitation along with allied municipal services.[44]

  1. Lyallpur Town
  2. Madina Town
  3. Jinnah Town
  4. Iqbal Town
  5. Chak Jhumra Town
  6. Jaranwala Town
  7. Samundri Town
  8. Tandlianwala Town

Union councils[edit]

There are 118 union councils in Faisalabad. Their role is to collect and maintain statistical information for socio-economic surveys. They consolidate ward neighbourhood development needs and prioritize these into union-wide development proposals. The council also identifies any deficiencies in the delivery of these services and makes recommendations for improvement to the TMA.[45]

Faisalabad Development Authority[edit]

The Faisalabad Development Authority (FDA) is an institution established in 196, under the Development of Cities Act of 1975 to regulate, supervise and implement development activities in its jurisdiction area.[46] The FDA acts as a policy-making body for the development of the city and is in charge of arranging and supervising major developments within the city. It is responsible for the administration of building regulations, management of parks and gardens and subsoil water management. The FDA works with WASA to control and maintain the water supply, sewerage and drainage. The FDA also works to improve conditions in the slums.[47]

Healthcare[edit]

Health care services are provided to the citizens by both public and private sector hospitals. The government run hospitals are Allied Hospital, District HQ Hospital, PINUM Cancer Hospital, Faisalabad Institute of Cardiology (FIC) and General Hospitals in Ghulam Muhammadabad and Samanabad.[48] There are also a number of private hospitals, clinics and laboratories in the city,notably Al-Rahmat labs , Mujahid Hospital lab, National Hospital lab & Agha Khan lab.[49][50] The City District Government also has a number of basic health units, rural health centres and dispensaries to provide care for its people in the rural parts of the district. During 2014, Faisalabad Division Commissioner Captain Nasim Nawaz announced Rs 1bn was being spent on building a new children's hospital in Faisalabad, which he claimed would be the second largest children's hospital in the world.[51]

Emergency services[edit]

Law enforcement in Faisalabad is carried out by City Police Faisalabad, whose headquarters are located at the CPO Office, District Court Faisalabad.[52] Police Formations consist of District Police, Elite Police, Traffic Police, Punjab Highway Patrolling, Investigation Branch and Special Branch.[53] Fire and rescue services in Faisalabad are provided by Faisalabad Fire Brigade[54] and emergency medical care by Edhi Ambulances and Rescue 1122.

Water supply and sanitation[edit]

The Water and Sanitation Agency, commonly known as WASA, which is a subsidiary of Faisalabad Development Authority (FDA), was established on 23 April 1978 under the Development of Cities Act 1976.[55] It is estimated that WASA provides about 72% of the city with sewerage services and about 60% with water services.[56] The existing production capacity of WASA is 65 million gallons per day, almost all of which is drawn from wells located in the old beds of the Chenab river. From the wells, water is pumped to a terminal reservoir located on Sargodha Road.[57] Water is normally supplied for a total of about 8 hours per day to the majority of the city.[57] The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has also provided financial and hardware equipment to help improve the water and sanitation conditions in the city.[58]

Demographics[edit]

A Persian inspired mosque built on Sargodha Road. The majority of the population in Faisalabad is muslim however there is a significant Christian community.[59]
A Sikh Gurdwara constructed during the reign of the British Empire in 1911 still exists as a school within the old city.[60]

Faisalabad was established as one of the first planned towns of British India covering an area of 3 sq. kilometres. Initially it was designed for twenty thousand people, however, as the land was very fertile and a thriving centre for trading people people from rural areas moved to the city. The population doubled at the time of independence as a result of immigration of refugees from India. Furthermore, the industrial revolution of the 1960s changed the population drastically. In 1961 the population was 425,248.

The city of Faisalabad carried out a census in March 1981 which showed its population was 1,092,000, indicating that the growth rate of the city is only 3.37 percent per annum. In April 1981 the survey was carried out again which recorded the population to 1,232,000 which made the growth rate approximately 4.6%. Given this growth rate, the population at the end of 1981 was estimated to be 1,240,000.

The emergence of Faisalabad as a major agriculture and industrial center created a great increase in the city's population. From a population of 69,930 in 1941, it rose to 179,000 in 1951, an increase of 152.2%. This was mainly due to the settlement of Muslim refugees from East Punjab and Haryana who came from India. The population rose to a future figure of 425,248 in 1961, an increase of 137.4%. Faisalabad set a record in the demographic history of Pakistan by registering an overall population increase of 508.1% between 1941 and 1961. This record has never been matched by the largest city of Pakistan.[61][62]

Religion and ethnic groups[edit]

The majority religion is Islam, making up 98.0% of the city with small minorities of Christians (1.8%) and others (0.2%), mainly Sikhs and Ahmadis. The majority of Muslims belong to Sunni, Hanafi, and Barelvi schools of thought with a minority of Shiites. The main ethnic groups in the district are Jatts(Gill), Arain, Sheikh, Malik, Baloch, Rajput, Bodla, Chishti, Dhudhi, Hans, Johiya, Kathia, Syed, Khagga, Kharal, Khichi, Langrial, Syal, Waince, Tarohly (Jats), and Wattu.

Languages[edit]

Further information: Punjabi dialects

According to the 1999 census of Pakistan, Punjabi language is spoken by 87% of the population. Faisalabad being the second largest city of Punjab province, exhibits a great variety of Punjabi dialects spoken by the people of different districts living in the city.

Other languages include:

  • Urdu being the national language is also spoken and understood by most of the population and primarily used as a second language.
  • English is also understood and spoken by a sizeable segment of the educated population.
  • Minority languages spoken by people of different parts of Pakistan and Afghan refugees living in Faisalabad (Pahari, Raangri, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Brahui, Kashmiri, Shina, Balti, Khowar/Chitrali, Burushaski and Dari).

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Faisalabad
The eight bazaars are still a major trading centre within the city
Metro Cash & Carry was the first foreign supermarket in the city
McDonalds was one of the first international restaurants in the city
Rural plains within the outer regions of the district are still very fertile due to the irrigation systems developed by the British Empire

A PricewaterhouseCoopers study released in 2009, surveying the 2008 GDP of the top cities in the world, calculated Faisalabad's GDP (PPP) at $45 billion. The city was third in Pakistan behind Karachi and Lahore. Faisalabad's GDP is projected to rise to $67 billion in 2025.[63] According to the 2010 World Bank's Doing Business Report, Faisalabad was ranked as the best place do to business in Pakistan and the second best location, after Islamabad, to start a business in.[63]

Faisalabad is known as the centre textile industry in Pakistan. The textile industry of Faisalabad constitutes more than 65% of the textile export market of Pakistan, which itself forms 58% of total exports from Pakistan. This makes Faisalabad's share of total exports from Pakistan more than 40%.[64] Reports by The Faisalabad Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FCCI) showed that exports of locally manufactured machinery (such as auto looms, towel machinery and wheat threshers) to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and some parts of Africa were particularly high.

Faisalabad also has large industries in the manufacturing of sugar, fertilizer, chemical, steel, rubber, leather tanning, vegetable ghee, and paints. A detailed breakdown by The Faisalabad Chamber of Commerce and Industries revealed that there are 25 ginning units, 73 spinning units, 35 weaving units, 254 processing units, 27 textile made ups, 6 sugar units, 110 foundry units, 53 rice mills, 59 soap industries, 38 flour mills and 25 confectioneries. Faisalabad is also another exporter of traditional arts and crafts. The city is known for its hand-woven clothes and wood carving. Other traditional products produced in Faisalabad include handbags, carpets, rugs, and lace.

The Faisalabad Industrial Estate developed by the Punjab Small Industries Corporation covers an area of over 244 acres. A total of 1019 plots were built of which 80% are currently occupied today. Two further industrial estates, VAC and FIC are currently under construction and due to be opened soon.[65]

Faisalabad Dry Port started operations on an experimental basis in 1994, which export and import 33,000 export containers and 5,500 import containers per annum. Cargo is expeditiously cleared by customs at the dry port prior to unloading. An on-line tracking facility has also been provided to customers by installing trackers in the Dry Port’s registered vehicles. The Pakistan Revenue Automation Limited (PRAL) has established its office at The Dry Port to evaluate the customs duty and automation of import and export data of customs. The port was constructed on Jumhra Road. Export items include cotton yarn, grey fabrics, shoes/leather products, textile made ups, garments and bed sheets whilst import items include mineral fuel oil, RBD palm oil, textile machinery parts, chemicals, auto spare parts, and vehicles.[66]

Within the banking sector, there are 45 commercial banks (including Islamic banks) licensed by State Bank of Pakistan to operate within the city of Faisalabad. There are also an additional 30 specialised banks, including Punjab Provincial Co-operative Bank and micro-finance banks. As agricultural exports are a major exporter the bank systems within the city offer a package known as "farm credit" to help businesses generate capital. In addition to banking, the insurance market has also grown exponentially in the city. This has led to a number of branches and firms setting up in the city, including State Life Insurance, Eastern federal Union Insurance, Jubilee Insurance and AIG Insurance.

As the economy has shown signs of improving within Pakistan due to various micro and macro economic policies, the wealth of the city has also known signs of growth. Development of international brands are also on the rise. In the late nineties, Faisalabad saw the rise of branded outlets and malls springing up. Fast food restaurants such as McDonald's, KFC, Burger King and Subway all have been very successful in the city. With more foreign investment being made in the city, there has been a rise of shopping malls and housing schemes to tailor the growing needs of the population.

Faisalabad has also received heavy investment from the Government of Punjab and the City District Government.[67] The District Government is working with the National Highway Authority to connect Multan and Faisalabad.[68] The construction of the M4 is planned to be completed in the next three years. Section One was inaugurated on 16 March 2015 which has linked the city to Gojra.[69]

To deal with the energy crisis, the FCCI has been working with private companies to develop renewable energy resources such as solar energy and the building of dams within the district.[70] German renewable energy company CAE plans to invest more than €100 million (Rs12.9 billion) in setting up the first solar panel manufacturing facility in Faisalabad and the second of its kind in Asia.[71]

Transport[edit]

M3 interchange connecting the M2 and M4
Grand Truck Road Interchange
Niazi Express is one of the many coach services for intercity travel

There are many ways to get in and around Faisalabad. Public transport in Faisalabad is diverse, ranging from auto-rickshaws, buses, railways. There are the plans to construct a new metro bus system to ease congestion in the city.[72] An international airport on the outskirts of the city operates flights to the Middle East.[73]

Road[edit]

The National Highway Authority has rebuilt and improved the standards of roads to meet international standards and improve logistical networks for freight companies. There are many highways under the control of the National Highway Authority, linking Faisalabad with other cities of the country. The M3 access-controlled motorway connects Faisalabad with the motorway M2 near Pindi Bhattian which furthermore connects with Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Lahore. Furthermore, motorway M4 is also under construction which will connect Faisalabad to Multan. An additonal canal expressway is also under construction between Faisalabad and Lahore, Sheikhupura and Mananwala which will reduce travelling time by thirty minutes. The city is connected with Sargodha by a highway known as the Sargodha-Faisalabad Expressway.

The newly furnished Grand Trunk Road, otherwise known as GT Road, is a highway that links Faisalabad to most parts of Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries. GT Road was the main highway that ran through the district, however, with the opening of the motorway M3 and M4 the majority of the traffic has shifted. A proposal has been put forward for the construction of a ring road on the outskirts of the city.[57]

Bus[edit]

The Faisalabad Urban Transport System Service (FUTS) is the main bus operator within the city. Launched in 1994, they operate a number of large CNG buses and smaller Toyota hiace vans connecting the majority of the city.[74] The Federal and Provincial Government are planning to build a Metrobus service similar to the one in operation in Lahore and Islamabad.[75] There is a another public-private run bus operator, Brothers Metro, a consortium between the government of Punjab and a private firm who operate a fleet of air-conditioned CNG buses.

Coach[edit]

Being at a road and rail junction, the city is very well connected by several coach companies that offer inter-city travel to practically all parts of Pakistan. Several bus operators offer quick services to the provincial capital, Lahore, as well as Islamabad, Jhang, Multan, Peshawar, Karachi and several smaller localities. The newly inducted Korean Daewoo and German MAN coaches have proven to be highly successful. The city bus terminal is located on Station Road which is home to a number of privately-run coach services. Some of the most popular ones are Bilal Daewoo Express, Niazi Express and Kohistan Bus Services.[76] The bus stand has undergone a recently renovation to beautify the area. Etihad Airways also launched a dedicated coach service for its passengers travelling from the city to Lahore Airport.[77]

Rail[edit]

The Faisalabad railway station was built in 1896 during the reign of the British. Today there are connections available to Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Multan, Quetta and Peshawar. Pakistan Railways also has a special cargo facility in Faisalabad for shifting of goods from the city to other regions of Pakistan. The major import and export through the railway cargo is salt from Khewra Mines and final textile goods from and to Karachi respectively.[78]

Air[edit]

Faisalabad International Airport is approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the city centre and is a major transit point for exporting goods to other parts of Pakistan and abroad. As of August 2014 passenger flights are run by Pakistan International Airlines, and Shaheen Air. Flights are mostly domestic and some international destinations are available from the airport. Major flying within Pakistan is towards Karachi and Multan, whereas major international destinations are Dubai, Jeddah and Glasgow (suspended). There have been demands to renovate the airport and attract international carriers to the airport but lack of direction has prevented this. In March 2015, Qatar Airways announced direct flights from Doha to Faisalabad, making it the first international airline to launch operations to the city.[79] On 1 June 2015 Air Arabia announced that they will operate thrice a week service from Sharjah and Faisalabad from 18 September 2015.[80] On the 15 June 2015, Flydubai announced daily flights to Faisalabad from the 10 July 2015 with an increase to nine a week from August 3.[81]

Culture[edit]

Annual Canal Mela
Faisalabad is known for its Punjabi BBQ flavoured tandoori cuisines
Halwa Puri Channay, a typical Faisalabadi breakfast
RCG Mall, is the most popular mall of the city where fashion shows are also usually held
Company Bagh, now known as, Jinnah Gardens is the original park built during the reign of the British Empire
Gatwala Wildlife Park is a botanical garden and breeding centre which recently underwent renovation

The culture of Faisalabad is quite diverse because it is an industrial city as well as a labourer city where people from all over Pakistan come to the metropolitan to work. Faisalabad is a very modern city compared to its roots; it has a large diaspora that lives in the middle east and Europe. The changes are being reflected in how the city is progressing with the establishment of new western brands and fashion trends.

Literature[edit]

Faisalabad is home to some renowned poets and prose writers. Sahir Ludhianwi, one of the more influential poets of his time, belongs to Faisalabad. Other writers are Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shehzada Hassan, Adeem Hashmi, Riaz Majeed and Dr. Waheed Ahmed.

Cuisine[edit]

Faisalabad is famous for its samosas. It is the most commonly eaten snack food within the city. Within the old city in the markets of the eight bazaar is a square called Samosa Chock. These samosas are different from any others because they are served with a wide variety of sauces. The most well known samosa vendor is called Chacha Samosaywala (meaning Uncle Samosa). Another speciality of Faisalabad is the dahi bhale, a yoghurt based snack food. The gol gappe are another famous street side snack. A number of gol gappay carts can be found dotted around the city; however, the best ones are in the old city near Ghenta Ghar.

Biryani and pulao are also very well-known. The most famous pulao rice in the city is by Jahangir Murgh Palao located near Ghenta Ghar. Daal chawal (rice topped with daal) is also another famous speciality of Faisalabad. The paratha rolls available at Ghanta Ghar are also very famous. They come in different fillings such as potatoes, mixed vegetable, and chicken. Nirala Sweets is one of the most famous sweets outlets in the city. They are known for their confectionery.

There are also a number of western branded outlets in the city including McDonald’s, KFC, Subway. Samarkend, Pizza Hut, Dynasty, Lasania, Exotica Cafe, Hameed’s, Lahore Chatkhara, and Hawali restaurant. Barbeque and Chinese food have also recently become a trend here. The best Chinese restaurants are Qulim, Exotica Cafe, Pearl Garden and China City.

As far as drinks are concerned, rabri dhood (made of milk, almonds, pistachios, sweetners), sugar cane rusk, limo pani (iced lemon water) and lassi are the favorite drinks of the people of Faisalabad.

Fashion[edit]

The Punjabi dresses are considered as the traditional clothes of Pakistan and hence Faisalabad follows the tradition of Shalwar Kameez. Punjabi dress for men comprises pagri, kurta and dhoti. Punjabi women wear shalwar kameez and dupatta. Traditional lacha, bangles and paranda are also used. Plenty of tailors in the city design lehngas and frocks. With Bollywood trends on the rise in Pakistan, Faisalabad women have started to adapt new styles, some of which are combinations of Pakistani and western clothing. Some women wear embroidered kurta with jeans and trousers. Tight half sleeve and sleeveless shirts with capri trousers have also been adopted. Modern Faisalabad men have also adopted western dressing style and are often seen wearing t-shirts, trousers, dress pants, or jeans.

Shopping[edit]

The old city of Faisalabad is still an epicentre for shopping and experiencing the culture of the city. The Faisalabad clock tower and its eight bazaars (markets) contain some of the oldest monuments, still standing in its original form, since the departure of the British. Each of the eight bazaars is given a special name and is known for selling certain goods;

  • Katchery Bazaar, named for the court (Katchery) is known for its mobile phone and accessory market.
  • Rail Bazar is a gold and cloth market.
  • Bhawana Bazaar supplies electrical and electronic goods.
  • Jhang Bazaar supplies fish, meat, vegetables and fruits.
  • Aminpur Bazaar supplies stationery and interior décor.
  • Kharkhana Bazaar is known for herbal medicines.
  • Gol Bazaar contains dry fruit, as well as wholesale soap, oil, and ghee shops.
  • Chiniot Bazaar is famous for allopathic and homeopathic medicinal stores, cloth, blankets, sofa cloth, and curtains. It also has poultry feed wholesale shops.
  • Montgomery Bazaar (also known as Sutar Mandi) is known for yarn and raw cloth trading.

Another major shopping area is known as D Ground. The area comes to life at night with a number of international brands based within this area. There is also a number of restaurants, shopping malls and banks within this area. Another shopping area that has recently been constructed is located on Jaranwala Road. Four brand new shopping plazas include Mediacom Tradecity Plaza, Kohinoor One, Al-Fatah Shopping Mall and RCG Mall. With the success of the malls, a number of restaurants have also established themselves here which include Jammin Java, Gloria Jeans Coffee, Subway, Burger King and Forkes and Knives for example.

Parks and recreation[edit]

Jinnah Garden is known as the oldest and central park in the city, commonly known as “Company Bagh”. The monument of Sir Charles James Lyall is situated here. The majestic Chenab Club is located in the surroundings of Jinnah Garden.[82] Canal Park, on the west bank of the Rakh Branch Canal, is a good outing place for families.[83] The Forest Park located at Gatwala has recently been renovated by the city district government.[84]

Lyallpur Museum is Faisalabad's first heritage museum. It also contains an art gallery, which provides memories of the ancient and modern culture of Faisalabad.[85] Rex City is a big computer market where one can find computer sales and service shops. Other recreational spots include Aqualand Water Park. It is equipped with flume rides swings for both children and adults.[86]

Media[edit]

Garvaish Luxury Hotel & Conference Hall is often used for talks and concerts.
Cinepax by Hotel One, one of the newly designed 3D cinema halls in the city

In the last few years, the cinema industry has picked up again in the city, with two brand new cinemas being inaugurated. Cinepax by Hotel One has proved to be a successful project.[87] Cine Nagina has also been seeing locals return to the big screen.[88]

As more expatriates have been living abroad, foreign investment has seen demands change. This has resulted in more developments within the city. Faisalabad is also expected to have its first bowling alley inaugated in 2015.[89]

Punjabi stage dramas are still quite popular among Faisalabadis, and there are still some theatres operating quite successfully. Many stars in Lollywood hail from Faisalabad, which draws in the crowds. Shows usually take place at night and involve a range of day-to-day topics as well as dances to many types of music from female artists.

The Dawn Media Group and state-owned Pakistan television (PTV) transmits five terrestrial and cable television channels. There also a number of private television channels that have offices in Faisalabad including Express News, GEO TV, Apna Channel and Punjab TV. The radio industry has expanded with a number of private and government-owned FM channels being introduced. The FM radio channels that broadcast in the city include the government-owned Radio Pakistan.

The Daily Express and Daily Dunya are the national newspapers published in Faisalabad.[90] The Daily Express started publishing in Faisalabad on 17 September 2002. There are other popular Urdu Faisalabadi newspapers including Daily Shelter, Daily Awam, Daily Aman, Daily Tajarti Rahber, Daily Paygaam, Daily Business Report and the Daily Surrat-E-Haal. The weekly Lyallpur Akhbar is one of the oldest newspapers in the district of Faisalabad. It is a popular newspaper amongst the local community, established in 1933 and still serving rural and agriculture business communities. The office is located in the Killa Gift Fund Trust Building (inside the District Courts of Faisalabad). Bashir Ahmad Mumtaz is a well-known publisher and editor of the newspaper in Pakistan.

Education[edit]

The University of Faisalabad

The population of Faisalabad has a literacy rate of approximately 60%, with a split of 69% for males and 46% for females (all figures are higher than the national average within the country).[91]

Faisalabad has a number of world-renowned research and educational institutions. The city has a number of public and private universities including the University of Agriculture, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Punjab Forestry Research Institute, The University of Faisalabad and the National University of Textile Engineering. The University of Engineering & Technology of Lahore also opened a regional campus in the city. The University of Agriculture is one of the largest universities in Asia.

Three polytechnic institutions are located in Faisalabad with an average number of 3556 students enrolled every year in these institutions. There are also eight vocational institutes which have an approximate enrollment of 700 students. In all, about 7,220 skilled technicians are trained every year in the city. A number of public and private schools are also engaged in the educational enhancement for all ages.

Sport[edit]

Tent pegging was brought to the region by the British and still played today.[92]

Cricket, the most popular sport in Pakistan, is the most popular sport in the city. It is played anywhere a city dweller can find a large piece of land. This is known as Bat aur Gendh. It is played in the narrow by-lanes of the city. Night-time cricket can be seen on weekends when people play brightly-lit matches on less-traversed city streets, disused construction sites, parks and several grounds in the district.

The oldest and only venue for international cricket matches is Iqbal Stadium. The Faisalabad Wolves, Faisalabad's local team, are based at this venue and often regional matches are played throughout the spring season which draw in plenty of crowds such as Faysal Bank T20 Cup. The ground hosted matches for the 1987 Cricket World Cup as well as the 1996 Cricket World Cup.

The city is also famous for its hockey facilities. The Faisalabad Hockey Stadium on Susan Road hosts numerous field hockey matches for national and some international matches, such as the Pakistan China Hockey Series.[93] The stadium has plenty of restaurants which bring the stadium to life at night. It has a capacity to hold 36,000 spectators and underwent an upgrade a few years ago to host the 58th National Hockey Championships.[94]

A new sports complex is being planned to host athletic and gymnastic matches as well as Olympic training for future Pakistan participation. Other popular sports in the city are weightlifting, association football, Kabaddi, table tennis, billiards and snooker, squash, and horse racing. Sports like badminton, volleyball, swimming, boxing and basketball have started to gain popularity as western influences have affected the locals. Faisalabad has its own team, the PMC FC, who take part in the Pakistan Premier League. The Punjab Medical College and Divisional Public School have their own stadiums built on their campuses to train and host matches for the sport.

PMC Club Athletico Faisalabad is the city's only participant in the Pakistan Premier League. Athletico's city rival Panther FC plays in the 2nd Division of the Pakistani football pyramid.

Sister cities[edit]

The following list of cities have ties with the city of Faisalabad:[95]

City Region Country Year
Manchester  England  United Kingdom 1997
Kobe  Hyōgo Prefecture  Japan 2000

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • Ultimate Handbook Guide to Faisalabad : (Pakistan) Travel Guide by Karlene Hornyak (2014)
  • Faisalabad: The City I Love by Muhammad Arshad Chaudhri (1996)

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External links[edit]

sector=3 Major projects related to Communication Sector