Fakir Mohan Senapati

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Byasa Kabi
Fakir Mohan Senapati
FakirMohan Senapati.jpg
Native name ଫକୀରମୋହନ ସେନାପତି
Born (1843-01-13)13 January 1843
Balasore , India
Died 14 June 1918(1918-06-14) (aged 75)
Occupation Novelist, Short Story Writer, poet, philosopher, & Social Reformer
Nationality Indian
Period Nineteenth century

Fakir Mohan Senapati (13 January 1843 – 14 June 1918), referred to as Utkal Byasa Kabi (trans. Odisha's Supreme Poet), born on January 13, 1843, at Mallikeshpur in Balasore, played a leading role in establishing the distinct identity of Odia, a language mainly spoken in the Indian state of Odisha. Fakirmohan Senapati is regarded as the father of Odia nationalism and modern Odia literature.

Early life and background[edit]

Born to Laxman Charan Senapati and Tulsi Devi Senapati in a middle class Khandayat[1], Fakirmohan dedicated his life to the progress of Odia language in the later 19th and early 20th century.

He is called the father of Odia fiction. In his native place, school, colleges and universities are constructed in his memory like Fakir Mohan College and Fakir Mohan University.



Mayadhar Mansinha described Senapati as the Thomas Hardy of Odisha.[2] Though he translated from Sanskrit, wrote poetry, and attempted many forms of literature, he is now known primarily as the father of modern Odia prose fiction. His four novels, written between 1897 and 1915, reflect the socio-cultural conditions of Odisha during the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries. While the three novels, 'Chha maana Atha Guntha', 'Mamu' and 'Prayaschita' explore the realities of social life in its multiple dimensions, 'Lachhama' is a historical romance dealing with the anarchical conditions of Odisha in the wake of Maratha invasions during the eighteenth century. Chha Maana Atha Guntha is the first Indian novel to deal with the exploitations of landless peasants by the feudal Lord. It was written much before the October revolution of Russia or much before the emerging of Marxist ideas in India. Fakir Mohan is also the writer of the first autobiography in Odia, "Atma Jeevan Charita" .

Short stories[edit]

His “Rebati” (1898) is widely recognized as the first Odia short story. It is the story of a young innocent girl whose desire for education is placed in the context of a conservative society in a backward Odisha village, which is hit by the killer epidemic cholera. His other stories are “Patent Medicine”, “Daka Munshi”,”Adharma Bitta”etc.


He wrote a long poem, Utkala Bhramanam, that first appeared in 1892. Literally meaning Tour of Odisha, this poem, in reality, is not a travelogue but a commentary on the state of affairs in the Odisha of that time, written in a satirical manner.

Family members[edit]

Senapati married Leelavati Devi in 1856 when he was aged thirteen. She died when he was 29. In summer 1871, he married Krushna Kumari Dei, who died in 1894 leaving behind a son and a daughter.


  1. ^ Senapati, Fakir Mohan; Mishra, Rabi Shankar (2005). "Six Acres and a Third". GoogleBooks. University of California Press. Retrieved 2017-05-11. 
  2. ^ Mansinha, Mayadhar (1962). History of Odia Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 181. 

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