Falange Española de las JONS (1976)

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Falange Española de las JONS
LeaderNorberto Pedro Pico Sanabria
Founded4 October 1976 (1976-10-04)
Preceded byFET y de las JONS
HeadquartersC/ Carranza 13 2º 28004, Madrid
NewspaperEn Marcha (from 2017)
Patria Sindicalista (1977 - 2017)
IdeologyFalangism
Spanish nationalism
Ultranationalism
National syndicalism
Third Position
Republicanism
Anti-capitalism
Anti-communism
Anti-liberalism
Political positionFar-right
National affiliationADÑ–Spanish Identity
Colors  Red   Black
AnthemCara al Sol
Website
www.falange.es

Falange Española de las JONS (Spanish for "Spanish Phalanx of the Committees for the National-Syndicalist Offensive", FE-JONS) is a Spanish political party registered in 1976, originating from a faction the previous Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista.[1] The word Falange is Spanish for phalanx. Members of the party are called Falangists (Spanish: falangistas). The main ideological bases of the party are national syndicalism, Third Position and ultranationalism.

History[edit]

After the death of dictator Francisco Franco in 1975, and coinciding with the period known as the Spanish Transition, a destabilization campaign led by some sectors of the right, trying to repeat the strategy of the 1930s, began. Originally, FE-JONS was linked with the neofascist terrorism in Spain, along with other similar groups.[2] A prominent member of the party was linked with the 1977 Massacre of Atocha. This strategy continued in the following years,[3][4] although the party also participated in elections and fully legal activities. In 1980 an "escuadrilla" (squadron) of the party killed Juan Carlos García Pérez in Ciudad Lineal, Madrid.[5]

After the electoral defeat in the general elections of 1977, in which the candidacies openly defending neo-francoist positions gained less than the 1% of the vote, the party begun a gradual distancing from the Franco regime, highlighting the thoughts of pre-Franco falangists, like José Antonio Primo de Rivera or Ramiro Ledesma.[6] In 1979 the Círculos Doctrinales José Antonio joined the organization, in an attempt to unite neofalangists under a single political party. The same year FE-JONS formed a coalition with Fuerza Nueva and various Carlist political organizations called National Union. The coalition gained 1 MP in the elections of that year, gaining 378,964 votes (2.11%). The party didn't participate in the 23-F coup attempt.

Raimundo Fernández-Cuesta, the "National Chief" of the party since its foundation, resigned in 1983. Diego Márquez Horrillo was elected as the new chief the same year. Since then the party fully broke with Francoism, declaring itself the successor of the original Falange Española de las JONS, and fully rejecting the "Unification Decree" of 1937.

In 1999 a sector of the party split, forming La Falange. In 2004 the small faction Falange Española Independiente (FEI) joined FE-JONS. In 2011 the organization elected a new national chief, Norberto Pedro Pico Sanabria. Pico was an ex-member of the FEI. In 2012 another small faction, Mesa Nacional Falangista, joined FE-JONS.[7]

In March 2020, Luz Belinda Rodríguez, a member of the Parliament of Andalusia who had left Vox to become an unaffiliated legislator in January 2020,[8] reportedly joined the Falange and vowed to bring the initiatives of FE-JONS to the Parliament of Andalusia.[9] She then quit the Falange to found her own party.[10]

Electoral performance[edit]

Cortes Generales[edit]

Cortes Generales
Election Leading candidate Congress Senate Government
Votes % Seats +/– Seats +/–
1977 46,548 0.25
0 / 350
New
0 / 208
New No seats
1979 In coalition with National Union
1 / 350
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Opposition
1982 2,528 0.01
0 / 350
Red Arrow Down.svg1
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
1986 43,449 0.22
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
1989 24,025 0.12
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
1993 8,000 0.03
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
2004 12,266 0.05
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
2008 14,023 0.05
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
2011 2,901 0.01
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
2015 7,495 0.03
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
2016 9,862 0.04
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
Apr. 2019 641 0.00
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Snap election
Nov. 2019 608 0.00
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
Election and year Votes % MPs/MEPs
Congreso de los Diputados 1977 46,548 0.25 -
Congreso de los Diputados 1979 (In the coalition Unión Nacional) 378,964 2.11 1
Congreso de los Diputados 1982 2,528 0.01 -
Congreso de los Diputados 1986 43,449 0.22 -
European Parliament 1987 23,407 0.12 -
European Parliament 1989 24,340 0.15 -
Congreso de los Diputados 1989 24,025 0.12 -
Congreso de los Diputados 1993 8,000 0.03 -
European Parliament 1994 11,733 0.06 -
Congreso de los Diputados 2004 12,266 0.05 -
European Parliament 2004 4,484 0.03 -
Congreso de los Diputados 2008 14,023 0.05 -
European Parliament 2009 10,031 0.06 -
Congreso de los Diputados 2011 2,901 0.01 -
European Parliament 2014 21,687 0.14 -
Congreso de los Diputados 2015 7,495 0.03 -
Congreso de los Diputados 2016 9,862 0.04 -
Congreso de los Diputados 2019 641 0.00 -
European Parliament 2019 (in the coalition ADÑ–Spanish Identity) 11,798 0.05 -
Congreso de los Diputados 2019 608 0.00 -

Symbols[edit]

Symbols of Francoism:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ «Nuevo grupo FE de las JONS». El País. 10 de septiembre de 1976.
  2. ^ José Luis Rodríguez Jiménez. Los terrorismos en la crisis del franquismo y en la transición política a la democracia. Historia del presente, ISSN 1579-8135, Nº 13, 2009, pages 133-151
  3. ^ Violento recorrido por Madrid de una caravana de extrema derecha.
  4. ^ Barbarie falangista
  5. ^ Diez años de prisión a uno de los implicados en el caso San Bao Diario ABC, 9 de julio de 1983.
  6. ^ Sheelagh M. Ellwood, Paul Preston, Historia de la Falange, p.255.
  7. ^ La Mesa Nacional Falangista y FE de las JONS acuerdan integrarse en una misma organización.
  8. ^ "Aprobado que Luz Belinda Rodríguez sea diputada no adscrita tras salir de Vox". La Vanguardia. 24 January 2020.
  9. ^ Cela, Daniel (2020-03-15). "La diputada almeriense que dejó Vox se une a Falange y llevará sus iniciativas al Parlamento de Andalucía". elDiario (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-08-07.
  10. ^ "Una exdiputada de Vox en Andalucía monta un partido para presentarse a las autonómicas". The Objective | Noticias exclusivas y opiniones libres en abierto (in Spanish). 2021-12-13. Retrieved 2022-02-13.

External links[edit]