- This article describes the medieval weapon. For the Finnish heavy metal band, see Falchion (band).
A falchion (//; Old French: fauchon; Latin: falx, "sickle") is a one-handed, single-edged sword of European origin, whose design is reminiscent of the Chinese dadao, and modern machete. Falchions are found in different forms from around the 13th century up to and including the 16th century. In some versions the falchion looks rather like the weapon-seax and later the sabre, and in some versions the form is irregular or like a machete with a crossguard.
The blade designs of falchions varied widely across the continent and through the ages. They almost always included a single edge with a slight curve on the blade towards the point on the end and most were also affixed with a quilloned crossguard for the hilt in the manner of the contemporary arming swords. Unlike the double-edged swords of Europe, few actual swords of this type have survived to the present day; fewer than a dozen specimens are currently known. Two basic types can be identified:
- Cleaver falchions
- One of the few surviving falchions (the Conyers falchion) is shaped very much like a large meat cleaver, or large bladed machete. This type is also illustrated in art (e.g. the Westminster Hall mural, shown to the right) The type seems to be confined to the 13th and 14th centuries. However apart from the profile they present a very thin blade, often only 1.2 mms thick spines 7 cms from the point with a full flat grind tapering to a very acute edge. Current theories are that they were the anti-cloth armour weapon of the day.
- Cusped falchions
- The majority of the depictions in art reflect a design similar to that of the großes Messer. A surviving example from England's 13th century (The Thorpe Falchion) was just under 2 pounds (0.91 kg) in weight. Of its 37.5 inches (95.25 centimetres) length, 31.5 inches (80.01 cm) are the straight blade which bears a cusped or flare-clipped tip similar to the much later kilij of Turkey. This blade style may have been influenced by the Turko-Mongol sabres that had reached the borders of Europe by the 13th century. This type of sword continues in use into the 16th century. Though it is now debated that it is an actual influence of the Turko-Mongol type sabres. It is now categorized as an independent development as the 13th century sabres don't have this type of cusp.
In addition, there are a group of 13th- and early 14th-century weapons sometimes identified with the falchion. These have a falchion-like blade mounted on a wooden haft 1–2 ft (30–61 cm) long, sometimes ending in a curve like an umbrella. These are seen in numerous illustrations in the mid-13th-century Maciejowski Bible.
It is sometimes presumed that these swords had a lower quality and status than the longer, more expensive swords. It is possible that some falchions were used as axe-like tools between wars and fights, since they were practical pieces of equipment. While falchions are commonly thought to be peasants' weapons this is not always the case; the Conyers falchion belonged to a landed family, and the falchion is shown in illustrations of combat between mounted knights. Some later falchions were ornate and used by the nobility; there is an elaborately engraved and gold plated falchion from the 1560s in the Wallace Collection, engraved with the personal coat of arms of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
- "The Conyers Falchion".
- Oakeshott, Ewart (1980). European Weapons and Armour. Guildford & London: Lutterworth Press. p. 152. ISBN 0-7188-2126-2.
- James G. Elmslie
- Nathan Robinson. "German Falchion -- myArmoury.com". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Oakeshott (1980), p.152
- "The Crusader Bible". e.g. folio 3v., folio 14v
- Alchin, Linda. "Falchion sword". The Middle Ages. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- Conyers Falchion, op cit
- *Capwell, Tobias; David Edge; Jeremy Warren (2011). Masterpieces of European Arms and Armour from the Wallace Collection. London: Wallace Collection. pp. 98–9. ISBN 978-0-900785-86-3. Catalogue Reference A710
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