|1885 illustration of Fallopia dumetorum|
Adans., not Lour.
Fallopia is a genus of about 12 species of flowering plants in the buckwheat family, often included in a wider treatment of the related genus Polygonum in the past, and previously including Reynoutria. The genus is native to temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but species have been introduced elsewhere. The genus includes species forming vines and shrubs.
Species of Fallopia grow as vines, lianas, shrubs or subshrubs. Unlike species of the related genus Duma, they do not have thorn-like tips to their branches. Nectaries are present outside the flowers (extrafloral). Plants usually have bisexual flowers. More rarely they may be dioecious, each plant only having flowers with either functional stamens or a functional pistil. The flowers are arranged in a raceme. The tepals of the flowers are dry and paper-like when mature. The flowers have short styles with partially fused stigmas forming a "head". The fruits are achenes with three sharp edges.
The genus Fallopia was first described by Michel Adanson in 1763. He distinguished it from Polygonum and other genera he placed in his family "Persicariae". Adanson did not explain the origin of the name. It is said to be named after the Italian botanist Gabriele Falloppio, known as Fallopius in Latin. He was the superintendent of the botanical garden at Padua and an acclaimed anatomist, being considered a founder of modern anatomy.
The status of the genus has varied considerably over time, and its taxonomic history is complicated. For example, Meissner in 1856 placed both Adanson's Fallopia and the genus Reynoutria in a broadly defined Polygonum, as did Bentham and Hooker in 1880. When the genus Fallopia was recognized, as was generally the case from the 1970s onwards, Reynoutria was sometimes included and sometimes not. Thus the Flora of North America in 2005 included Reynoutria in Fallopia, whereas the Flora of China in 2003 separated the two genera. Subsequent molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed the separation of Fallopia from other related genera.
Classification and phylogeny
Fallopia is placed in the tribe Polygoneae of the subfamily Polygonoideae. Within the tribe, it is most closely related to the genera Reynoutria and Muehlenbeckia, forming the so-called "RMF clade".
- Fallopia aubertii (L.Henry) Holub – silver lace vine; China
- Fallopia baldschuanica (Regel) Holub (syn. Polygonum baldschuanicum) – Russian vine, mile-a-minute vine, fleece vine, fleece flower; Eastern Asia
- Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á.Löve (syns Polygonum convolvulus, Bilderdykia convolvulus) – black-bindweed; Europe, Asia, northern Africa.
- Fallopia cristata (Engelm. ex A.Gray) Holub – eastern and central United States
- Fallopia cynanchoides (Hemsl.) Haraldson (syn. Polygonum cynanchoides) – western China
- Fallopia dentatoalata (F.Schmidt) Holub (syn. Polygonum dentatoalatum) – Eastern Asia
- Fallopia dumetorum (L.) Holub (syns Polygonum dumetorum, Bilderdykia dumetorum) – copse bindweed, small-flower knotweed; Europe, Asia, northern Africa
- Fallopia filipes (H.Hara) Holub – Nepal
- Fallopia koreana B.U.Oh & J.G.Kim – Korean knotweed; Korea
- Fallopia pterocarpa (Meisn.) Holub (syn. Polygonum pterocarpum) – Southern Asia
- Fallopia scandens (L.) Holub (syns Polygonum scandens, Reynoutria scandens) – climbing false buckwheat; North America
- Fallopia schischkinii Tzvelev – Russian Far East
- Fallopia × bohemica → Reynoutria × bohemica, Bohemian knotweed.
- Fallopia ciliinodis (Michx.) Holub – fringed black bindweed → Polygonum ciliinode
- Fallopia denticulata (C.C.Huang) Holub → Pteroxygonum denticulatum
- Fallopia japonica Houtt. – Japanese knotweed → Reynoutria japonica
- Fallopia sachalinensis – giant knotweed → Reynoutria sachalinensis
Crosses between Japanese knotweed and giant knotweed have occurred where the two species grow in close proximity. The hybrid, ×Reyllopia conollyana (J.P.Bailey) Galasso (Reynoutria japonica × Fallopia baldschuanica) is called railway-yard knotweed.
Fallopia species are native to much of the Northern Hemisphere, including most of Eurasia, North Africa and central and eastern North America. They have been widely introduced elsewhere including eastern and southern Africa, eastern North America, including Mexico, and parts of South America.
- illustration from Thomé, Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 1885
- "Fallopia Adans.". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-03-01.
- Schuster, Tanja M.; Wilson, Karen L. & Kron, Kathleen A. (2011). "Phylogenetic Relationships of Muehlenbeckia, Fallopia, and Reynoutria (Polygonaceae) Investigated with Chloroplast and Nuclear Sequence Data". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 172 (8): 1053–1066. doi:10.1086/661293. JSTOR 10.1086/661293.
- Adanson, M. (1763). "XXXIX Famille. Les Persicaires. Persicariae". Familles des Plantes, Vol. 2. Paris: Vincent. pp. 273–277. Retrieved 2019-04-27.
- Freeman, Craig C. & Hinds, Harold R. (2005). "Fallopia". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America (online). 5. eFloras.org. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
- "Fallopia japonica". Online Virtual Flora of Wisconsin. Wisconsin State Herbarium, UW-Madison. Retrieved 2019-04-27.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Gabriello Fallopio". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
- Li, Anjen & Park, Chong-wook (2003). "Fallopia". In Wu, Zhengyi; Raven, Peter H. & Hong, Deyuan (eds.). Flora of China (online). 5. eFloras.org. p. 315. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
- Schuster, Tanja M.; Reveal, James L.; Bayly, Michael J. & Kron, Kathleen A. (2015). "An updated molecular phylogeny of Polygonoideae (Polygonaceae): Relationships of Oxygonum, Pteroxygonum, and Rumex, and a new circumscription of Koenigia". Taxon. 64 (6): 1188–1208. doi:10.12705/646.5.
- English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 467. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
- "Search for Fallopia species". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-03-01.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fallopia.|