Fallopia

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Fallopia
Illustration Fallopia dumetorum0.jpg
1885 illustration of Fallopia dumetorum[1]
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Polygonaceae
Subfamily: Polygonoideae
Genus: Fallopia
Adans., not Lour.
Type species
Polygonum scandens
Synonyms[2]
  • Bilderdykia Dumort.
  • Helxine Raf.
  • Pleuropterus Turcz.
  • Tiniaria (Meisn.) Rchb.

Fallopia is a genus of about 12 species of flowering plants in the buckwheat family,[2] often included in a wider treatment of the related genus Polygonum in the past, and previously including Reynoutria.[3] The genus is native to temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but species have been introduced elsewhere. The genus includes species forming vines and shrubs.[3]

Description[edit]

Species of Fallopia grow as vines, lianas, shrubs or subshrubs. Unlike species of the related genus Duma, they do not have thorn-like tips to their branches. Nectaries are present outside the flowers (extrafloral). Plants usually have bisexual flowers. More rarely they may be dioecious, each plant only having flowers with either functional stamens or a functional pistil. The flowers are arranged in a raceme. The tepals of the flowers are dry and paper-like when mature. The flowers have short styles with partially fused stigmas forming a "head". The fruits are achenes with three sharp edges.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus Fallopia was first described by Michel Adanson in 1763.[2] He distinguished it from Polygonum and other genera he placed in his family "Persicariae". Adanson did not explain the origin of the name.[4] It is said to be named after the Italian botanist Gabriele Falloppio, known as Fallopius in Latin.[5][6] He was the superintendent of the botanical garden at Padua and an acclaimed anatomist, being considered a founder of modern anatomy.[7]

The status of the genus has varied considerably over time, and its taxonomic history is complicated. For example, Meissner in 1856 placed both Adanson's Fallopia and the genus Reynoutria in a broadly defined Polygonum, as did Bentham and Hooker in 1880. When the genus Fallopia was recognized, as was generally the case from the 1970s onwards, Reynoutria was sometimes included and sometimes not.[3] Thus the Flora of North America in 2005 included Reynoutria in Fallopia,[5] whereas the Flora of China in 2003 separated the two genera.[8] Subsequent molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed the separation of Fallopia from other related genera.[3][9]

Classification and phylogeny[edit]

Fallopia is placed in the tribe Polygoneae of the subfamily Polygonoideae. Within the tribe, it is most closely related to the genera Reynoutria and Muehlenbeckia, forming the so-called "RMF clade".[9]

Polygoneae

Knorringia

Polygonum ciliinode (syn. Fallopia ciliinodis)

DAP clade

Duma

Atraphaxis

Polygonum

RMF clade

Reynoutria

Muehlenbeckia

Fallopia s.s.

Species[edit]

As of March 2019, Plants of the World Online accepted 12 species.[2]

Former species[edit]

Many species at one time placed in Fallopia have been moved to other genera in the subfamily Polygonoideae. Some synonyms are listed below.[11]

Hybrids[edit]

Crosses between Japanese knotweed and giant knotweed have occurred where the two species grow in close proximity. The hybrid, ×Reyllopia conollyana (J.P.Bailey) Galasso (Reynoutria japonica × Fallopia baldschuanica) is called railway-yard knotweed.

Distribution[edit]

Fallopia species are native to much of the Northern Hemisphere, including most of Eurasia, North Africa and central and eastern North America. They have been widely introduced elsewhere including eastern and southern Africa, eastern North America, including Mexico, and parts of South America.[2]

Ecology[edit]

Fallopia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora therinella (recorded on F. convolvulus).[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ illustration from Thomé, Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 1885
  2. ^ a b c d e "Fallopia Adans.". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-03-01.
  3. ^ a b c d e Schuster, Tanja M.; Wilson, Karen L. & Kron, Kathleen A. (2011). "Phylogenetic Relationships of Muehlenbeckia, Fallopia, and Reynoutria (Polygonaceae) Investigated with Chloroplast and Nuclear Sequence Data". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 172 (8): 1053–1066. doi:10.1086/661293. JSTOR 10.1086/661293.
  4. ^ Adanson, M. (1763). "XXXIX Famille. Les Persicaires. Persicariae". Familles des Plantes, Vol. 2. Paris: Vincent. pp. 273–277. Retrieved 2019-04-27.
  5. ^ a b Freeman, Craig C. & Hinds, Harold R. (2005). "Fallopia". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America (online). 5. eFloras.org. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
  6. ^ "Fallopia japonica". Online Virtual Flora of Wisconsin. Wisconsin State Herbarium, UW-Madison. Retrieved 2019-04-27.
  7. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Gabriello Fallopio". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
  8. ^ Li, Anjen & Park, Chong-wook (2003). "Fallopia". In Wu, Zhengyi; Raven, Peter H. & Hong, Deyuan (eds.). Flora of China (online). 5. eFloras.org. p. 315. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
  9. ^ a b Schuster, Tanja M.; Reveal, James L.; Bayly, Michael J. & Kron, Kathleen A. (2015). "An updated molecular phylogeny of Polygonoideae (Polygonaceae): Relationships of Oxygonum, Pteroxygonum, and Rumex, and a new circumscription of Koenigia". Taxon. 64 (6): 1188–1208. doi:10.12705/646.5.
  10. ^ a b English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 467. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
  11. ^ "Search for Fallopia species". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-03-01.

External links[edit]