Jump to content

Family Tree DNA

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
IndustryGenealogical DNA testing
FounderBennett Greenspan, Max Blankfeld, and Jim Warren[1]
HeadquartersHouston, Texas
Area served
ParentMYDNA Inc.
Websitewww.familytreedna.com www.mydna.life

FamilyTreeDNA is a division of Gene by Gene, a commercial genetic testing company based in Houston, Texas. FamilyTreeDNA offers analysis of autosomal DNA, Y-DNA, and mitochondrial DNA to individuals for genealogical purpose. With a database of more than two million records, it is the most popular company worldwide for Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA, and the fourth most popular for autosomal DNA. In Europe, it is the most common also for autosomal DNA.[2][3] FamilyTreeDNA as a division of Gene by Gene were acquired by MYDNA, Inc., an Australian company, in January 2021.[4]


Concept and founding (2000–2002)[edit]

FamilyTreeDNA was founded based on an idea conceived by Bennett Greenspan, a lifelong entrepreneur and genealogy enthusiast. In 1999, Greenspan had entered semi-retirement and was working on his family history. He began work on his mother's Nitz lineage.[5][6][7] When faced with a roadblock in his work, he remembered two cases of genetics being used to prove ancestry that had recently been covered by the media. These were a study by University of Arizona researchers showing that many Cohen men from both Ashkenazic and Sephardic groups share the same Y-chromosome[8] and a study that showed that male descendants of a paternal uncle of US President Thomas Jefferson (who presumably shared his Y-chromosome) and male-line descendants of his freed slave Sally Hemings shared the same Y-chromosome and a recent common ancestry.[9]

Greenspan had both Nitz cousins in California and had discovered someone in Argentina with the same ancestral surname and the same ancestral location in Eastern Europe. Wishing to use the same method of DNA comparison for his own genealogy, he contacted Dr. Michael Hammer at the University of Arizona. Greenspan discovered that academic labs did not offer testing directly to the public and that in general direct to consumer testing for genealogy was not commercially available either. Their conversation inspired him to start a company dedicated to using genetics to help solve genealogy mysteries.[7][10][11]

It was early 2000 when Greenspan with his business partners Max Blankfeld and Jim Warren officially launched FamilyTreeDNA.[1] Initially, the Arizona Research Labs at the University of Arizona performed all testing for FamilyTreeDNA. FamilyTreeDNA includes among its scientific staff, Dr. Michael Hammer (PhD), one of a team of scientists that first published on the Cohen Modal Haplotype in 1997 in the journal Nature.[8]

FamilyTreeDNA began with a proof in concept group of twenty-four tests that returned results in January. The company began by offering 12 STR marker Y-chromosome tests much like those used in many scientific publications of the time in March 2000. FamilyTreeDNA became widely known for its Y-chromosome STR testing for the Cohen Modal Haplotype.[12]

They added an interface by which genealogists could run surname research studies. The first person to create such a project through the FamilyTreeDNA site was Doug Mumma, who founded the Mumma project.[12] Such projects can also focus on specific regions and niche populations.

Early testing (2000–2006)[edit]

The first tests offered by FamilyTreeDNA were Y-chromosome STR and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tests like those used by published academic studies at the time.[13]

FamilyTreeDNA's initial Y-chromosome tests were described as 11 marker tests. They eventually began to call this a 12 STR marker test as one of the STRS (DYS385) almost always had two copies. This they billed as a method to affirm or disprove a genealogical connection on the direct paternal line.[citation needed]

FamilyTreeDNA's first mtDNA tests were for HVR1 (hypervariable region 1) of the mtDNA.[citation needed] Eventually, they added a Plus test that tested for both HVR1 and HVR2.[citation needed]

In the early days, they did not confirm haplogroups for either mtDNA or Y-DNA.[citation needed]

Opening of the Genomics Research Center[edit]

In 2006, FamilyTreeDNA bought out the assets of DNA-Fingerprint, which was a German paternity testing company that offered à la carte testing to the genetic genealogy testing community. With this buyout, Thomas and Astrid Krahn, who had owned DNA-Fingerprint, moved to Houston, Texas, and helped open the Genomics Research Center.[citation needed]

The Genomics Research Center initially did testing for many of the same products that had been sold by DNA-Fingerprint. They began to offer individual and panels of Y-chromosome SNP tests using Sanger testing methods. They also offered the mtDNA full genome test and upgrades to it using the Sanger testing method.[citation needed]

Soon came the launch of the Walk Through the Y (WTY) test. The WTY test offered the most adventurous of citizen scientists the chance to seek the discovery of new Y-chromosome SNPs.[14]

Meanwhile, most testing continued to be done at the University of Arizona lab. The demand for additional test types led Greenspan and Blankfeld to move all testing to their own testing lab in Houston, Texas under the Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd. parent company.[1]


Between 2007 and 2010, FamilyTreeDNA forged several new partnerships that allowed them to access additional international markets.


The first of FamilyTreeDNA's new partnerships was with the Switzerland-based iGENEA company. It was formed alongside the closing of DNA-Fingerprint and Thomas Krahn's helping open the Genomic Research Center in Houston. Their website is available in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish.[15][16]

African DNA

In late 2007, Henry Louis Gates created African DNA in partnership with FamilyTreeDNA to help promote genetic testing for personal ancestry among African Americans.[17]

DNA Ancestry & Family Origin

DNA Ancestry & Family Origin DNA Ancestry & Family Origin is a genetic genealogy testing partnership between FamilyTreeDNA and Eastern Biotech & Life Sciences. Their website is available in both English and Arabic.[18]


In November 2008, a dynamic partnership with MyHeritage was launched, allowing users to incorporate DNA testing and advanced family tree technologies into their family history research. MyHeritage is a website offering online, mobile and software platforms for discovering, preserving and sharing family history worldwide.[19]

Acquisition by MYDNA, Inc. (2021)[edit]

In January 2021 it was announced that MYDNA, Inc. a Melbourne, Australia, genomics company, had acquired Family Tree DNA and its parent company Gene by Gene.[4] MYDNA, Inc has historically specialized in pharmacogenomics and nutrigenomics.[20] Dr Lior Rauchberger commenced his role as CEO of MYDNA, Inc immediately. While Gene by Gene co-founders Bennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld joined the MYDNA, Inc Board of Directors.

DNA testing products[edit]

FamilyTreeDNA uses NovaSeq sequencing system by Illumina Inc. for its services. (System in different facility pictured.)

Services provided by FamilyTreeDNA are made in own laboratory meeting CLIA and CAP standards and they are based on various biotechnology products, including for example sequencing platform NovaSeq by Illumina, Inc.[21]

Autosomal DNA testing[edit]

In May 2010, FamilyTreeDNA launched an autosomal microarray chip based DNA test. They called the new product Family Finder. The initial product used an Affymetrix microarray chip, but FamilyTreeDNA changed to the Illumina OmniExpress chip and retested all customers who had results from the Affymetrix chip for forward compatibility.[22]

Family Finder allows customers to match relatives as distant as about fifth cousins. Family Finder also includes a component called myOrigins. The results of this test provide percentages of a DNA associated with general regions or specific ethnic groups (e.g. Western Europe, Asia, Jewish, Native American, etc.). Notably, unlike other testing companies, they chose to strip out markers for mendelian medical issues,[23][24][25] mtDNA results, and Y-DNA SNP results.

Y-DNA testing[edit]

The company markets a range of Y-DNA tests. The Y-chromosome is inherited from father to son, so testers can discover relatives with the same patrilineage. In many cultures these relatives will often share the same surname, since surnames are also inherited father to son. These tests cover 37-111 STR markers depending on the test, and vary in price according to the number of markers covered.[22] FTDNA introduced their "Big Y" test in 2013. Big Y tests approximately 15 million locations on the Y chromosome, looking for novel and shared SNPs.[26] By the end of 2021, FTDNA had identified over 50,000 branches in the tree of all Y-DNA results.[27]

mtDNA testing[edit]

FamilyTreeDNA also sells mtDNA testing, offering the choice of either a limited hypervariable region test, or a full sequence test of the entire mitochondrial DNA chromosome.[22]

Genographic Project[edit]

FamilyTreeDNA staff were instrumental in developing the Geno 2.0 Next Generation product for the second phase of the Genographic Project.[28] Geno 2.0 samples for both public and scientific study were run at the Genomics Research Center in Houston, Texas (operated by FamilyTreeDNA's parent company, Gene by Gene, Ltd.) until 2016, when Geno 2.0 began utilizing Helix for DNA sequencing.[29][30]

Gene by Gene[edit]

In September 2012, Greenspan and Blankfeld restructured FamilyTreeDNA's parent company, Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd. This included their renaming Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd. as Gene by Gene, Ltd.[31][32][33][34] After restructuring, the business consisted of four divisions, one of these being FamilyTreeDNA for genealogical DNA tests. It is Gene by Gene, Ltd. that operates the Genomics Research Center (GRC) lab in Houston, Texas.[31][34][35] In January 2021, Gene by Gene was acquired by MYDNA Inc. Gene by Gene now works together with MYDNA improving genomics testing for a broad range of clinical and non-clinical services.

Data policy and usage by law enforcement[edit]

In December 2018, FamilyTreeDNA changed its terms of service to allow law enforcement to use their service to identify suspects of "a violent crime" (defined as child abduction, sexual assault or homicide)[36] or identify the remains of victims. The company confirmed it was working with the FBI on at least a handful of cases.[37][38][39] As of March 2019, the company instituted a policy allowing its customers to opt out of law enforcement access to their genetic data. All customers were automatically opted in to such exposure except those living in the European Union who were opted out by default.[40] Law enforcement officers will be required to go through a more rigorous process in order to access the database, while customers who opt out of allowing the FBI to access their data will still be able to search for possible relatives as before. “Users now have the ability to opt out of matching with DNA relatives whose accounts are flagged as being created to identify the remains of a deceased individual or a perpetrator of homicide or sexual assault, also referred to as Law Enforcement Matching (LEM),” the company wrote in an email to customers.[41] In May 2019 FamilyTreeDNA prevented access to its Y-DNA database ysearch.org and its mtDNA data base mitosearch making it more difficult for law enforcement agencies to identify crime suspects.[42] In August 2019, FamilyTreeDNA reported that about 50 law enforcement agencies had submitted DNA samples for matching and that almost 150 cases had been submitted.[36] By spring 2020, only around 3% of about 2 million users have opted out.[43] By August 2020, the company helped solve at least 27 cases.[44]

List of arrest or identifications made with FamilyTreeDna[edit]

  • In January 2019, California police arrested Kevin Konther for the brutal rape of a nine-year-old girl in Lake Forest 1995 and a 31-year-old woman at Mission Viejo, California in 1998 and said they had used FamilyTreeDNA services and genetic genealogy techniques to help identify him.[45] Konther has an identical twin brother, and the DNA profile had initially implicated both men, but further detective investigation led authorities to release the brother and focus on Konther as their main suspect. He was also accused of Molesting a 12-year-old girl between January 2002 and December 2003.[46] In February 2023, Konther was found guilty of both rapes as well as committing lewd acts on a girlfriend’s daughter when she was 8 or 9 years old at the couple’s homes in Huntington Beach and Highland.[47]
  • In February 2019, FamilyTreeDNA helped police with the arrest of James Neal for the July 6, 1973 abduction and murder by strangulation of 11-year-old schoolgirl Linda O'Keefe in Newport Beach, California as well as multiple sexual assaults against other children.[48] He pleaded not guilty and faced a maximum sentence of 82 years to life in state prison if convicted. However Neal died while in custody in July 2020 from an illness before he could be tried.[49][50]
  • In February 2019, Jerry Westrom was arrested as the suspect behind the 1993 murder of Jeanne Ann Childs in Minneapolis, Minnesota.[51] In an interview after his arrest, Westrom denied being in the apartment. He said he did not know the victim, and said he did not have sex with any women in Minneapolis in 1993. When confronted with the DNA evidence, he told investigators he had no idea why his DNA would be present at that scene. In August 2022, Westrom was convicted and in September, he was sentenced to life in prison with 30 years before parole.[52][53]
  • In April 2019, Law Enforcement working with Family Tree DNA Positively identified the remains of two young women found in oil fields in 1986 and 1991 in an area known as the "Texas Killing Fields" near League City, Texas.[54] They were 30-year-old Audrey Lee Cook and 34-year-old mother of two Donna Prudhomme.[55]
  • In May 2019, Christopher VanBuskirk was arrested in Goodyear Arizona for the sexual assaults of six women at knife-point from 1995 to 2004 in San Diego and Riverside Counties, California. He had been identified with the help of the FBI Forensic Genetic Genealogy Team and Family Tree DNA. VanBuskirk originally pled not guilty to the crimes and faced 190 years to life in prison, however changed his plea to guilty in December 2019, and was sentenced on February 20, 2020, to 50 years to life in prison.[56][57][58][59][60] Vanbskirk is currently incarcerated in the California Institution for Men and is currently eligible for parole in February 2038.[61]
  • In August 2019, Ralph Bortree was arrested in Ohio for a July 31, 1993, rape and attempted murder of a 19-year-old woman. the DNA profile was also matched to a May 23, 1992 kidnapping and rape of another 19-year-old woman. Other evidence links him to two similar attacks on women on July 22, 1993 and May 24, 1995.[62][63][64] Bortree cannot be charged with rape, kidnapping or attempted kidnapping or rape due to the states 20 year statute of limitations for those crimes so the prosecution only charged him with one count of attempted murder. The defense argued that the statue has expired for that offense as well. However the judge ruled against the motion and Bortree was found guilty of Attempted Aggravated Murder at trial in November 2020 and was sentenced to 11 years in prison on December 18.[65][66][67][68][69] Bortree was imprisoned in the Richland Correctional Institution.[70] In November 2022, the state Supreme Court overturned his conviction, ruling that the statute of limitations had indeed expired by the time of his arrest.[71]
  • In September 2019, Donald Perea was posthumously identified as the 1981 rapist and murderer of 18-year old Jeannie Moore in Jefferson county Colorado. Perea was previously convicted of a different rape that also took place in 1981. He could not be arrested due to his death in 2012.[72][73]
  • In September 2019, Mark Douglas Burns was identified and arrested as a suspect in nine rapes that took place in Wyoming and Utah between 1991 and 2001. According to Barbara Rae-Venter the case took over a year and a half and was one of the most difficult ones to solve as Mark was adopted and the building where his records were located burned to the ground. Burns was also later connected to the 2001 Wyoming murder of 28-year-old Sue Ellen Higgins, Burns initially pled not guilty but later changed his plea to guilty.[74] In April 2020, Burns was sentenced to a total of 242 years in prison for the rapes and in December 2020, Burns was sentenced to life in prison without parole for the murder of Sue Ellen Higgins.[75][76][77][78][79] Burns is imprisoned in the Utah State Prison.[80]
  • In February 2020, Michael Green was arrested for the 1985 murder of 54-year old Jane Hylton in El Dorado Hills, California. Green was initially not named since he was a juvenile at the time of the murder. Ricky Davis was previously convicted of the murder and had been sentenced to 16 years to life of which he had served 14 years when he was exonerated and the new suspect arrested. Davis is the first person in California, and the second in the United States, to be exonerated due to the use of genetic genealogy. Christopher Tapp, a man in Idaho was convicted for the 1996 rape and murder of Angie Dodge but was exonerated with the help of genetic genealogy in 2019 after spending 22 years in jail.[81][82][83] Green pled guilty and in September 2022, Green was sentenced to 15 years-to-life in prison.[84]
  • In February 2020, Deborah Riddle O' Conner was arrested for the murder of a "Baby Michael" in Raleigh, North Carolina in 1999.[85] In August 2021, O’Connor pled guilty to second-degree murder and was sentenced to 12 years in prison.[86][87][88]
  • In April 2020, James Raymond Taylor was identified as the Aug. 18, 1963 rapist and murderer of 16-year old Margaret "Peggy" Beck near Deckers, Colorado.[89]
  • In May 2020, Angelo Alleano Jr., a firefighter, was arrested for four burglaries and sexual assaults that occurred between 2001 and 2008 in Manchester and Vernon, Connecticut.[90][91][92] In June 2022, Alleano pled guilty to the charges against him.[93] In September, he was sentenced to 25 years in prison.[94]
  • In May 2020, Christopher Lovrien was charged with the murder of Mark Dribin in Portland, Oregon in 1999.[95] Lovrien is now also being charged with the murder of Kenneth Griffin, who had gone missing on February 1, 2020 by authorities searching a shed at Lovrien’s home several weeks after his arrest found Griffins dismembered remains.[96]
  • In July 2020, Lesa Lopez was arrested in Salida, California for the murder of her newborn baby boy who was found dead on May 15, 1988 in Castro Valley.[97]
  • In October 2020, a skull and other remains of a man found in a wooded area in Giddings, Texas were identified as James L. Hamm. The DNA Doe Project had been investigating the case since June 2019, and had uploaded his DNA to both FamilyTreeDNA and GEDMatch.[98] Hamm's matches were notably much poorer on GEDMatch, and Hamm's brother, Eugene, was found on FamilyTreeDNA in June 2020. After DNA comparison, the remains in Texas were conclusively identified as Hamm.[99]
  • In February 2021, David Dwayne Anderson was arrested for the August 4, 1981 Murder of Sylvia Quayle in Cherry Hills Village, Colorado.[100][101] In June 2022, Anderson was found guilty of his offenses and in August, Anderson was sentenced to life in prison with 20 years before parole.[102]
  • In November 2021, Kenneth Robert Stough, Jr was arrested for the murder of 31-year old Terence Paquette who was found stabbed to death at the Lil' Champ convenience store n Orlando, Florida in 1996.[103]
  • In May 2022, Jennifer Lynn Matter, of Belvidere Township, Minnesota was arrested and charged with second-degree murder with intent, not premeditated, and second-degree murder without intent for the murders of her newborn daughter who was found dead in the Mississippi River in 1999 and her newborn son who was found dead in Lake Pepin in 2003.[104][105] In January 2023, Matter pled guilty to second-degree intentional murder for her sons death.[106]
  • In November 2022, Douglas L. Weber was arrested for the January 7, 1996 kidnapping and rape of a teenaged woman in Larkin Township, Michigan.[107]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Bradford, Nicole (February 24, 2008). "Riding the 'genetic revolution'". Houston Business Journal. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  2. ^ "Family Tree DNA Learning Center". Autosomal DNA testing comparison chart. ISOGG. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  3. ^ Haag, Matthew (2019-02-04). "FamilyTreeDNA Admits to Sharing Genetic Data With F.B.I." New York Times. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  4. ^ a b Mathews, Chris (2021-01-08). "Houston-based Gene by Gene and FamilyTreeDNA acquired by Australian firm". Houston Business Journal. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
  5. ^ Capper, Russ (November 15, 2008). "Bennett Greenspan of FamilyTreeDNA.com". The BusinessMakers Radio Show. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  6. ^ Dardashti, Schelly Talalay (March 30, 2008). "When oral history meets genetics". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved June 14, 2013. Greenspan, born and raised in Omaha, Nebraska, has been interested in genealogy from a very young age; he drew his first family tree at age 11.
  7. ^ a b Lomax, John Nova (April 14, 2005). "Who's Your Daddy?". Houston Press. Retrieved June 14, 2013. A real estate developer and entrepreneur, Greenspan has been interested in genealogy since his preteen days.
  8. ^ a b Skorecki, Karl; Selig, Sara; Blazer, Shraga; Bradman, Robert; Bradman, Neil; Waburton, P. J.; Ismajlowicz, Monica; Hammer, Michael F. (January 1, 1997). "Y chromosomes of Jewish priests". Nature. 385 (6611): 32. Bibcode:1997Natur.385...32S. doi:10.1038/385032a0. PMID 8985243. S2CID 5344425.
  9. ^ Ugo A. Perego; Ann Turner; Jayne E. Ekins; Scott R. Woodward (December 2005). "The Science of Molecular Genealogy". National Genealogical Society Quarterly. 93 (1–4). National Genealogical Society: 248. Businessman Bennett Greenspan hoped that the approach used in the Jefferson and Cohen research would help family historians. After reaching a brick wall on his mother's surname, Nitz, he discovered and Argentine researching the same surname. Greenspan enlisted the help of a male Nitz cousin. A scientist involved in the original Cohen investigation tested the Argentine's and Greenspan's cousin's Y chromosomes. Their haplotypes matched perfectly.
  10. ^ Gibbens, Pam (April 2006). "Talk of The Town – At Familytree DNA, it's all Relative". Greater Houston Weekly / Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on August 31, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
  11. ^ Belli, Anne (January 18, 2005). "Moneymakers: Bennett Greenspan". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved June 14, 2013. Years of researching his family tree through records and documents revealed roots in Argentina, but he ran out of leads looking for his maternal great-grandfather. After hearing about new genetic testing at the University of Arizona, he persuaded a scientist there to test DNA samples from a known cousin in California and a suspected distant cousin in Buenos Aires. It was a match. But the real find was the idea for Family Tree DNA, which the former film salesman launched in early 2000 to provide the same kind of service for others searching for their ancestors.
  12. ^ a b Bopp, Georgia. "DNA Genealogy Timeline Genetic Genealogy".
  13. ^ "FamilyTreeDNA Review - Everything You Need to Know About FTDNA Tests". smarterhobby.com. 2017-08-14. Retrieved 2017-09-12.
  14. ^ "Walk Through the Y (WTY)". Archived from the original on 2009-04-25. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
  15. ^ "Family Tree DNA takes root in Europe". Houston Business Journal. Houston, TX.
  16. ^ iGENEA web site, accessed February 23, 2015
  17. ^ "Harvard Professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Joins Forces With Family Tree DNA To Launch africandna.com". Retrieved June 23, 2007.
  18. ^ "DNA Ancestry Website, Homepage". Retrieved June 23, 2013.
  19. ^ "Try our family offer to trace your ancestors using genetics and FamilyTreeDNA". MyHeritage. November 2008.
  20. ^ Russell, Judy G. (2021-01-10). "DNA winds of change". The Legal Genealogist. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
  21. ^ "DNA Testing for Ancestry & Genealogy | FamilyTreeDNA". www.familytreedna.com. Retrieved 2023-10-20.
  22. ^ a b c "DNA Testing Kits for Ancestry & Finding Relatives". familytreedna.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  23. ^ Roberta Estes (30 December 2013). "Promethease – Genetic Health Information Alternative". DNAeXplained - Genetic Genealogy. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  24. ^ firemylasers (15 July 2015). "SNP coverage analysis/comparisons (23andme v3/v4, AncestryDNA, FTDNA) • r/23andme". reddit. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  25. ^ "I hate the way they delete data from autosomal test - Family Tree DNA Forums". forums.familytreedna.com. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  26. ^ "Is BIG Y the only Y-DNA test That You Will Ever Need?". DNA Testing Choice. 2015. Retrieved 2016-09-01.
  27. ^ "Y-DNA Haplotree Reaches 50,000 Branches, a Milestone for Genealogy". FamilyTreeDNA.com blog. 2021-12-06. Retrieved 2022-08-14.
  28. ^ Elhaik, E.; Greenspan, E.; Staats, S.; Krahn, T.; Tyler-Smith, C.; Xue, Y.; Tofanelli, S.; Francalacci, P.; et al. (2013). "The GenoChip: A New Tool for Genetic Anthropology". Genome Biology and Evolution. 5 (5): 1021–31. doi:10.1093/gbe/evt066. PMC 3673633. PMID 23666864.
  29. ^ Geno 2.0 Next Generation National Geographic. June 28, 2018. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
  30. ^ Helix DNA Sequencing and Geno 2.0 Archived 2023-10-21 at the Wayback Machine Helix. January 26, 2018. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
  31. ^ a b Moore, Charles (April 24, 2013). "Houston-Based Gene By Gene To Provide Student Clinical Phase Instruction, Training, And Supervision At MD Anderson Cancer Center". BioNews Texas. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
  32. ^ "Gene by Gene". Gene by Gene. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  33. ^ "Supreme Court Ruling Today Allows DNATraits to Offer Low Cost BRCA Breast and Ovarian Cancer Gene Testing in U.S." Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 19, 2013. DNA DTC is the Research Use Only (RUO) division serving both direct-to-consumer and institutional clients worldwide. Gene By Gene offers AABB certified relationship tests through its paternity testing division, DNA Findings. The privately held company is headquartered in Houston, which is also home to its state-of-the-art Genomics Research Center.
  34. ^ a b Estes, Roberta (November 13, 2012). "Family Tree DNA Conference 2012 – Nits and Grits". dna-explained.com. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  35. ^ Moore, CeCe (February 9, 2013). "A Visit to Family Tree DNA's State-of-the-Art Lab". Your Genetic Genealogist. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
  36. ^ a b Marcus, Amy Dockser (2019-08-22). "Customers Handed Over Their DNA. The Company Let the FBI Take a Look". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2019-08-31.
  37. ^ Greenspan, Bennett (February 2019). "Connecting Families and Saving Lives". FamilyTreeDNA Press Release. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  38. ^ Hernandez, Salvador (January 31, 2019). "One Of The Biggest At-Home DNA Testing Companies Is Working With The FBI". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  39. ^ Haag, Matthew (2019-02-04). "FamilyTreeDNA Admits to Sharing Genetic Data With F.B.I." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  40. ^ "Horseshoes and Hand Grenades". The DNA Geek. 2019-03-15. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  41. ^ "Home DNA testing company agrees to shield genetic data from FBI". 2019-03-14.
  42. ^ Augenstein, Seth (2018-05-24). "Golden State Killer Backlash? Public Databases Shutting Down in Wake of Arrest". Forensic Magazine. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  43. ^ "Your DNA Test Could Crack a Cold Case". 26 December 2020.
  44. ^ texasobserver.org/genetic-genealogy-texas-murder-dna
  45. ^ Silva, Precious (2019-02-04). "DNA Testing Company FamilyTreeDNA Gives FBI Access To Nearly Two Million Profiles". International Business Times. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  46. ^ "Man Charged in Cold Case Rapes of Woman and 9-Year-Old Girl, Accused of Sexually Abusing 3rd Victim: O.C. DA". 15 January 2019.
  47. ^ "Man convicted of California rapes that attorney blamed on defendant's twin". 24 February 2023.
  48. ^ Grewe, Lindsey (2019-02-21). "Witnesses asked to come forward in cold case murder, suspect arrested in El Paso County". KKTV 11 News, Colorado Springs, Co. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  49. ^ "Linda Ann O'Keefe cold case: Murder, sexual assault suspect dies in custody". True Crime Daily. Retrieved Oct 3, 2022.
  50. ^ "Man accused of 1973 slaying of Linda O'Keefe and child sexual assaults pleads not guilty". Los Angeles Times. 30 March 2019.
  51. ^ Augenstein, Seth (2019-03-19). "Exclusive: The FBI Had Already Accessed Family Tree DNA's Database Before Cooperation". Forensic Magazine. Retrieved 2019-05-08.
  52. ^ "Jurors convict Westrom in cold case killing". 25 August 2022.
  53. ^ "Westrom sentenced to life in prison". 9 September 2022.
  54. ^ "FamilyTreeDNA Helps Identify Two Victims from the "Texas Killing Fields"". Cision. 11 April 2019.
  55. ^ Flynn, Meagan (2019-04-17). "Bodies found in the 'killing fields' haunted Southeast Texas for decades. Will new clues lead to a suspect?". The Washington Post.
  56. ^ "Arizona man faces 8 counts in 24-year-old rape cases in San Diego". azcentral. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  57. ^ Avitabile, Rafael; Ojeda, Artie; Garske, Monica. "New Details Emerge on Suspect in 1995 Sex Assault Series". NBC 7 San Diego. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  58. ^ "Arizona man pleads guilty to series of knife-point rapes". 18 December 2019.
  59. ^ "1995 rapist in Pacific Beach pleads guilty - an Arizona man who was linked by DNA evidence to a series of rapes in 1995 in Pacific Beach and elsewhere pleaded guilty on Dec. 16 to committing six rapes. The agreed-upon prison sentence for Christoph".
  60. ^ "Suspect in series of rapes in San Diego, Riverside counties sentenced". 21 February 2020.
  61. ^ "CDCR Public Inmate Locator Disclaimer".
  62. ^ "Judge rejects effort to toss Bortree attempted case". 15 August 2020.
  63. ^ Tipple, Bill (2019-08-20). "DNA helped solve 1993 rape case; county man indicted". Peak of Ohio. Retrieved 2019-09-06.
  64. ^ Mcentyre, Glen (2019-08-21). "Fresh look at evidence, discarded cigarette butt lead to arrest in 1993 cold case attack". WBNS-10TV Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved 2019-09-06.
  65. ^ "County man sentenced to maximum in cold case". Retrieved Oct 3, 2022.
  66. ^ "Cold case ends with attempted aggravated murder conviction".
  67. ^ "County man sentenced to maximum in cold case". Retrieved Oct 3, 2022.
  68. ^ Mcentyre, Glen (2019-08-30). "Defense says case against accused serial predator is too old to prosecute". WBNS-10TV Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved 2019-09-06.
  69. ^ [1] [dead link]
  70. ^ "Offender Details".
  71. ^ "Ohio high court throws out conviction in 26-year cold case". 10Tv.com. 3 November 2022.
  72. ^ Donald Perea Jeannie Moore Genealogy
  73. ^ "'God took him before we got the chance': Suspect identified in 1981 killing of 18-year-old woman". 9 September 2019.
  74. ^ "Ogden man pleads not guilty to slew of sexual assault charges, files motion to dismiss some charges | Courts | standard.net". Archived from the original on 2019-12-07. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
  75. ^ "'Clearfield Rapist' avoids death penalty in new murder case, receives life in prison". 4 December 2020.
  76. ^ "Serial rapist sentenced to life in prison for 2001 murder of Wyoming woman". 7 December 2020.
  77. ^ "Serial rapist to spend life in prison for decades-old attacks in northern Utah". April 6, 2020.
  78. ^ "Trucker arrested in series of decades-old Wyoming and Utah rape cases". 27 September 2019.
  79. ^ "Finding accused serial rapist Mark Douglas Burns involved DNA, burned down building". 27 September 2019.
  80. ^ "Offender Search".
  81. ^ "A man convicted of murder is the first person in California to be exonerated with the help of genetic genealogy". CNN. 14 February 2020.
  82. ^ "CA Man Who Spent 14 Years in Prison for Murder Becomes First to be Exonerated with Help of Genetic Genealogy". 14 February 2020.
  83. ^ "New suspect in 1985 El Dorado Hills murder jailed in Placerville". 17 February 2020.
  84. ^ "Murderer sentenced in South Lake Tahoe; Family of victim addresses killer". 28 September 2022.
  85. ^ Chapin, Josh (2020-02-22). "Forensic genealogy group helps Cumberland County investigators crack 21-year-old cold case". ABC11 Raleigh-Durham. Retrieved 2020-11-11.
  86. ^ "NC woman gets 12 years in death of infant she left on a road 20 years ago". 11 August 2021.
  87. ^ "Burke County woman gets 12 years in death of infant she left on a road 20 years ago". 11 August 2021.
  88. ^ "NC woman gets 12 years in death of infant she left on a road 20 years ago | Sandhills NC".
  89. ^ "Genealogy helps track another Colorado cold case suspect, the oldest one yet". KMGH. 2020-04-23. Retrieved 2020-04-25.
  90. ^ "Genealogy Service Leads to Arrest of Firefighter Charged in Sex Assaults in Vernon, Manchester". NBC Connecticut. 2020-05-28. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  91. ^ "Family Ancestry Search Connects Longtime Firefighter to Rape Investigation". NBC Connecticut. 2020-05-29. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  92. ^ "DNA, genealogy led to arrest in series of rapes". 10 June 2020.
  93. ^ Staff, Journal Inquirer (24 June 2022). "Former firefighter pleads guilty to four sexual assaults". Journal Inquirer. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  94. ^ Inquirer, Matthew P. Knox / Journal (3 September 2022). "Former Manchester firefighter gets max 25-year sentence in serial rape case". Journal Inquirer. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  95. ^ Portland Police Public Information (2020-05-04). "PPB Cold Case Homicide Detectives Identify Suspect in 20 year-old Homicide with Forensic Genealogy-Arrest Made". Portland Oregon Police Bureau. Retrieved 2020-11-11.
  96. ^ Oregon man Christopher Lovrien charged in 2 killings that took place 2 decades apart
  97. ^ "California woman accused of killing newborn 32 years ago is loving grandma, attorney says". 5 August 2020.
  98. ^ "Lee County John Doe 1984". DNA Doe Project Cases. Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  99. ^ "CONFIRMED SIBLING OF SKELETAL REMAINS". www.leecountysherifftx.org. Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  100. ^ "DNA on discarded Vanilla Coke can leads to arrest in 40-year-old Colorado cold case murder". 2 March 2021.
  101. ^ "1981 Cold Case: David Dwayne Anderson Arrested for Murder of Sylvia Quayle in Cherry Hills Village". 25 February 2021.
  102. ^ "Judge sentences killer to life for 1981 murder in Cherry Hills Village: "You will never breathe another free breath"". The Denver Post. 2022-08-04. Retrieved 2022-12-05.
  103. ^ "DNA on beer cans leads to arrest in 1996 cold case murder of Florida man stabbed 73 times". NBC News. 4 November 2021.
  104. ^ "Red Wing woman arrested in deaths of two babies found deceased in 1999 and 2003". 9 May 2022.
  105. ^ "How genetic genealogy works to solve cold cases, used in recent Red Wing case". 10 May 2022.
  106. ^ "Red Wing woman pleads guilty to murder of baby found by Mississippi River in 2003". 25 January 2023.
  107. ^ Waterman, Cole (3 November 2022). "DNA links suspect to 1996 kidnapping, rape of teen girl in Midland County". mlive. Retrieved 8 December 2022.

External links[edit]