Family of Donald Trump
|Family of Donald Trump|
|Current region||Manhattan, New York City, New York / Washington D.C. / Mar-a-Lago, Palm Beach, Florida, United States of America|
The family of Donald Trump, the owner of The Trump Organization and 45th president of the United States, is a prominent American family active in real estate, entertainment, business, and politics. Trump's immediate family circle has been the first family of the United States since his inauguration on January 20, 2017. They are part of the broader Trump family originating from Germany. Donald Trump's mother, Mary Anne MacLeod, came from the Hebridean Isle of Lewis, off the west coast of Scotland. Trump has five children from three wives, and ten grandchildren.
Ivana Marie Trump (née Zelníčková), the first wife of Donald Trump, was born on February 20, 1949, in Zlín, Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic). She is a former fashion model and a businesswoman. They were married from 1977 until 1992.
Ivana Trump took a major role in the Trump Organization. She became the vice president of interior design for the company, leading the signature design of Trump Tower. Afterwards, her then-husband appointed her to head up the Trump Castle Hotel and Casino as president. She became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1988.
Marla Ann Maples, the second wife of Donald Trump, was born on October 27, 1963, in Dalton, Georgia, making her Donald Trump's only wife who was an American citizen at the time of their marriage. She is an actress and television personality. They were married from 1993 to 1999.
Melania Trump (née Knavs), the third wife of Donald Trump, was born on April 26, 1970, in Novo Mesto, Yugoslavia (present-day Slovenia). She had a lengthy modeling career and is the second foreign-born first lady of the United States, the first being Louisa Adams. They were married in 2005.
Children with Ivana
Donald Jr., Ivanka, and Eric are Trump's three eldest children, from his first marriage with Ivana Trump.
Prior to the election, each of the siblings held the title of executive vice president at the Trump Organization. During the campaign, they served as surrogates for their father on national news programs. Following Trump's election victory, all three were named to the presidential transition team.
Following the inauguration, Donald Jr. and Eric took charge of the family's real estate empire. Ivanka moved to Washington, D.C., with her husband Jared Kushner, who was appointed to a senior White House advisory position.
Tiffany Ariana Trump (born October 13, 1993) is Donald Trump's only child with Marla Maples. In 2016, she participated little in her father's campaign because she was studying sociology and urban studies at the University of Pennsylvania. Shortly after graduating, she made a supportive speech for her father at the Republican National Convention at age 22.
Barron William Trump (born March 20, 2006) is Donald Trump's youngest child and his only child with Melania Trump. Melania Knauss had been a Permanent Resident of the United States since March 2001 and became a US citizen during July 2006, following the January 2005 marriage to Donald.
He is of German and Scottish descent on his father's side and Slovenian descent on his mother's side. In May 2006, Barron Trump was baptized at the Episcopal Church of Bethesda-by-the-Sea in Palm Beach, Florida. He attended the Columbia Grammar & Preparatory School in Manhattan. In addition to English, Barron is fluent in Slovene. During his early childhood, Barron made several television appearances, including on The Apprentice and a May 16, 2006, episode of The Oprah Winfrey Show at only two months old. Barron did not immediately move into the White House when his father became president, but remained at Trump Tower with his mother until the end of the 2016–2017 school year. Melania and Barron moved to the White House on June 11, 2017. He now attends St. Andrew's Episcopal School in Potomac, Maryland.
He appeared at a campaign rally in South Carolina, and was present for his father's 2016 RNC acceptance speech, presidential victory speech, and inauguration ceremony in January 2017, and some of the subsequent events.
Barron is known to be a fan of soccer. He appeared in an Arsenal F.C. jersey and met D.C. United players at the White House Easter Egg Roll in April 2017. In September 2017, he was selected to join the U-12 team for D.C. United's Development Academy for the 2017–2018 season. As of February 2019, Barron plays with the Arlington Soccer Association.
Donald Trump has ten grandchildren.
Donald Trump Jr. and his former wife Vanessa have five children: daughters Kai Madison (born May 12, 2007) and Chloe Sophia (born June 16, 2014), and sons Donald John III (born February 18, 2009), Tristan Milos (born October 2, 2011), and Spencer Frederick (born October 21, 2012).
Ivanka Trump and her husband Jared Kushner have three children: daughter Arabella Rose (born July 17, 2011), and sons Joseph Frederick (born October 14, 2013) and Theodore James (born March 27, 2016).
Donald Trump's paternal ancestry is traceable to Bobenheim am Berg, a village in the Palatinate, Germany, in the 18th century. Johann Trump, born in Bobenheim in 1789, moved to the nearby village of Kallstadt where his grandson, Friedrich Trump, the grandfather of Donald Trump, was born in 1869. This German heritage was long concealed by Donald Trump's father, Fred Trump, who had grown up in a mainly German-speaking environment until he was ten years old; after World War II and until the 1980s, he told people he was of Swedish ancestry. Donald Trump repeated this version in The Art of the Deal (1987) but later said he is "proud" of his German heritage, and served as grand marshal of the 1999 German-American Steuben Parade in New York City.
Select family tree of the Trump family
Donald Trump's father, Fred Trump (1905–1999), born in New York, was a successful real estate developer in New York City. Using their inheritance, Fred Trump and his mother Elizabeth founded E. Trump & Son by 1927. The company grew to build and manage single-family houses in Queens, barracks and garden apartments for U.S. Navy personnel near major shipyards along the East Coast, and more than 27,000 apartments in New York City. Trump was investigated by a U.S. Senate committee for profiteering in 1954, and again by the State of New York in 1966.
Donald Trump became the president of his father's real estate business in 1971 and renamed it the Trump Organization around 1973. That year, Donald and his father were sued by the U.S. Justice Department's Civil Rights Division for violating the Fair Housing Act. In the mid-1970s, Donald received loans from his father exceeding $14 million (later claimed by Donald to have been only $1 million). Donald served as the Trump Organization's chairman and president until assuming the office of U.S. president.
Mary Anne MacLeod Trump
Born as Mary Anne MacLeod (1912–2000) in Tong, a small village near Stornoway, in the Western Isles of Scotland, she was the daughter of fisherman Malcolm MacLeod and Mary MacLeod (née Smith). At age 17, she immigrated to the United States with $50 (equivalent to $772 in 2020), and moved in with a sister before starting work as a maid in New York. Mary and Fred Trump met in New York and married in 1936, settling together in Queens. Mary became a U.S. citizen in 1942. While visiting Scotland in June 2008, Donald Trump said in part, "I think I do feel Scottish."
In 1885, Donald Trump's grandfather, Friedrich Trump, emigrated from Kallstadt, Palatinate (then part of the Kingdom of Bavaria), to the United States at age 16. He anglicized his name to Frederick in 1892 when he became a U.S. citizen. During the Klondike Gold Rush, he amassed a fortune by opening a restaurant and hotel in Bennett and later Whitehorse, serving gold seekers on their way to the region; one biographer wrote that the business included a brothel, a portrayal Donald Trump has said was "totally false". Frederick Trump died in the first wave of the Spanish flu pandemic. After his death, his fortune was passed on to his wife and son.
Elizabeth Christ Trump
Donald Trump's grandmother, Elizabeth Christ Trump, née Christ, was born in 1880 and died on June 6, 1966. She married Frederick Trump in 1902 and moved to the United States with him. Like her husband, she was a native of Kallstadt, born as the daughter of Philipp and Marie Christ. Philipp Christ was descended from Johannes Christ (1626–1688/9) of Flörsheim, Hesse. Elizabeth Christ Trump was a descendant of organ builder Johann Michael Hartung (1708–1763) through her paternal grandmother Sabina Christ.
Maryanne Trump Barry
Maryanne Barry (born 1937) is Donald Trump's eldest sister. She was a senior federal judge on the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, became inactive in 2017 after her brother took office, and retired in 2019.
Fred Trump Jr.
Frederick "Freddy" Crist [sic] Trump Jr. (October 14, 1938 – September 26, 1981) was Donald Trump's older brother. On September 26, 1981, at the age of 42, he died from a heart attack.[a]
Elizabeth Trump Grau
Elizabeth Trump Grau (born 1942) is an older sister of Donald Trump. In 1989, she married film producer James Grau. She worked as an administrative assistant for Chase Manhattan Bank, before retiring to Florida.
Robert Trump (1948–2020) was Donald Trump's younger brother. He was a business executive who managed Trump Management Inc, the Trump Organization's real estate holdings outside Manhattan. He was an investor in SHiRT LLC, one of two owners of Virginia-based CertiPathx which was awarded a $33 million government contract in 2019.
Robert Trump married Blaine Beard in 1980. They were divorced in 2009 after Trump had left his wife for Trump Organization employee Ann Marie Pallan. He married Pallan in early 2020. Trump died on August 15, 2020, at the age of 71. According to The New York Times, he had been having brain bleeds after a recent fall.
John G. Trump
Donald Trump's paternal uncle John George Trump (1907–1985) was an electrical engineer, inventor and physicist who developed rotational radiation therapy, and, together with Robert J. Van de Graaff, one of the first million-volt X-ray generators. He was a recipient of Ronald Reagan's National Medal of Science and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.
John W. Walter
Trump's first cousin John W. Walter (1934–2018) was the son of father Fred's sister Elizabeth Trump and William Walter. He worked for the Trump Organization for most of his life and was executive vice president of Trump Management, Inc. He shared ownership of All County Building Supply & Maintenance Corp with Donald Trump, Maryanne Trump Barry, Elizabeth Trump Grau, and Robert Trump.
Mary L. Trump
This section does not cite any sources. (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|16. Johannes Trump|
|8. Christian Johannes Trump|
|17. Susanna Maria Bechtloff|
|4. Friedrich Trump|
|18. Johann Jakob Kober|
|9. Katharina Kober|
|19. Elisabeth Peter|
|2. Frederick Christ Trump|
|20. Johann Georg Christ|
|10. Philipp Christ|
|21. Sabina Christina Hartung|
|5. Elisabeth Christ|
|22. Johannes Anthon|
|11. Anna Marie Anthon|
|23. Eva Farny|
|1. Donald John Trump|
|24. William MacLeod|
|12. Alexander MacLeod|
|25. Catherine MacLeod|
|6. Malcolm MacLeod|
|26. Alexander MacLeod|
|13. Ann MacLeod|
|27. Ann MacKenzie|
|3. Mary Anne MacLeod|
|28. Duncan Smith|
|14. Donald Smith|
|29. Henrietta MacQueen|
|7. Mary Smith|
|30. John MacAulay|
|15. Mary MacAulay|
|31. Isabella Murray|
- His death certificate states that he died on September 29 of "natural causes".
- "Scottish Roots – Donald Trump". Scottish Roots. Archived from the original on January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
- "Ivana Trump becomes U.S. citizen". Associated Press. May 27, 1988. Archived from the original on April 18, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
- "The Model American". The New Yorker. May 9, 2016. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- "Donald Trump's kids might have saved the convention". CNN. July 22, 2016. Archived from the original on April 1, 2018. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
- Effron, Lauren; Santucci, John (January 19, 2017). "How Trump's Eldest Children Have Been Handling the White House Transition". ABC News. Archived from the original on January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- "US election: Trump children – who is the new first family?". BBC News. November 9, 2016. Archived from the original on November 10, 2016. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- "Who Is Donald's Lesser-Known Daughter, Tiffany Trump?". Vogue. July 20, 2016. Archived from the original on November 8, 2016. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- Alison Fox (November 21, 2016). "Get to know Barron Trump, the president-elect's 5th child". am New York. Archived from the original on January 14, 2017. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- Caldwell, Alicia; Day, Chad; Pearson, Jake (November 5, 2016). "Melania Trump Modeled in US Prior to Getting Work Visa". Associated Press.
Mrs. Trump, who received a green card in March 2001 and became a U.S. citizen in 2006
- Jamieson, Amber (August 5, 2016). "Melania Trump denies working unlawfully as model in US on improper visa". The Guardian.
On Thursday, Melania Trump's statement concluded: 'In July 2006, I proudly became a US citizen. Over the past 20 years, I have been fortunate to live, work and raise a family in this great nation and I share my husband's love for our country.' The Trump campaign did not immediately respond.
- Stoynoff, Natasha (January 23, 2005). "Donald Trump Weds Melania Knauss". People.
Trump tied the knot with his girlfriend, model Melania Knauss, in a lavish celebration Saturday.
- Bailey, Sarah Pulliam (May 25, 2017). "Melania Trump is Catholic, she confirms after Vatican visit". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 27, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
He and the first lady were married in 2005 in an Episcopal church in Palm Beach, Fla., where their son Barron Trump was later baptized.
- Murphy, Stephanie (May 9, 2017). "Melania Trump Mother's Day interview: 'It's unconditional love'". Palm Beach Daily News. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
Donald and Melania Trump leave The Episcopal Church of Bethesda-by-the-Sea after the baptism of 8-month-old Barron William Trump on December 8, 2006.
- Al-Sibi, Noor (December 12, 2016). "Does Barron Trump Speak Slovenian? The New First Boy Has Great Language Skills". Bustle. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
- "The TV Debut of Barron Trump". The Oprah Winfrey Show. OWN. Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
- Haberman, Maggie (November 20, 2016). "Melania and Barron Trump Won't Immediately Move to White House". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
- Bailey, Sarah Pulliam (May 25, 2017). "Melania Trump is Catholic, she confirms after Vatican visit". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 27, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
Melania and Barron Trump have been living in Manhattan while he finishes his school year on the Upper West Side. After they move to the White House this summer, he will attend St. Andrew's Episcopal, a prep school in Potomac, Md., where just 16 percent of its students are Episcopalian.
- Lopez, Marina (July 17, 2016). "What Does Barron Trump Think of His Dad Running for President? He Hasn't Given Interviews". Romper. Archived from the original on November 12, 2016. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- Chen, Joyce (January 20, 2017). "Barron Trump Resurfaces at Dad Donald Trump's Presidential Inauguration". Us Weekly. Archived from the original on November 6, 2019. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
- Goff, Steven (April 18, 2017). "Barron Trump likes soccer. And Arsenal. And D.C. United?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 23, 2017. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- Kennedy, Paul (September 22, 2017). "Barron Trump plays for D.C. United in Development Academy". Soccer America. Archived from the original on September 23, 2017. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- Laviola, Erin (February 3, 2019). "Trump: I'd Have a 'Hard Time' Letting Barron Play Football". Heavy.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
- "First Lady Melania Trump: "My personal experience with COVID-19."". The White House. October 14, 2020. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
- Dagostino, Mark (May 13, 2007). "It's a Girl for Donald Trump Jr. and Wife Vanessa". People. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
- Michaud, Sarah (June 18, 2014). "Donald and Vanessa Trump Welcome Daughter Chloe Sophia". People. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
- Dagostino, Mark (February 18, 2009). "Donald Trump Jr. 'Extremely Excited' About New Baby". People. Archived from the original on April 7, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- Ravitz, Justin (October 3, 2011). "Update: Vanessa, Donald Trump Jr. Welcome Baby Boy Tristan Milos". US Weekly. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- Michaud, Sarah (October 3, 2011). "Donald Trump, Jr. Welcomes Son Tristan Milos". People. Archived from the original on January 6, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- JAG (February 13, 2017). "Meet Spencer Frederick Trump; youngest son of Donald Jr. and Vanessa Trump". BiographyTree. Archived from the original on November 6, 2019. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
- "Ivanka Trump and Jared Kushner welcome baby girl". Herald Sun. July 17, 2011. Archived from the original on September 6, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
- "Ivanka Trump tweets birth announcement of 1st child, a daughter born in NYC". The Washington Post. July 17, 2011. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
- Ivanka Trump [@IvankaTrump] (April 11, 2013). "Jared and I are excited that Arabella will become a big sister this fall. Thanks for all your good wishes! xo Ivanka" (Tweet). Retrieved May 21, 2013 – via Twitter.
- "Ivanka Trump Gives Birth to Theodore James Kushner". NBC News. March 28, 2016. Archived from the original on March 28, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- "Eric Trump, Lara welcome first son". Fox News. September 12, 2017. Archived from the original on September 15, 2018. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- "Lara and Eric Trump welcome second child". NBC Montana. August 20, 2019. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- Verein für Computergenealogie: Vorfahren von Friederich "Fritz" Trump Archived August 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.
- Other spelling variants found in Kallstadt include Drumb, Tromb, Tromp, Trum, Trumpff, Dromb. Kate Connolly, Kallstadt, Germany: on the trail of 'the Donald' in the Trump ancestral home Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, January 29, 2016. (Blair 2001:26) cites Hanns Drumpf, recorded in 1608.
- Blair, The Trumps, p. 115.
- Rozhon, Tracie (June 26, 1999). "Fred C. Trump, Postwar Master Builder of Housing for Middle Class, Dies at 93". New York Times. Archived from the original on November 4, 2019. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- Carrell, Severin (June 9, 2008). "'I feel Scottish,' says Donald Trump on flying visit to mother's cottage". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 30, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Frates, Chris (August 24, 2015). "Donald Trump's immigrant wives". CNN. Archived from the original on August 31, 2015. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
- Blair, Gwenda (August 24, 2015). "The Man Who Made Trump Who He Is". Politico. Archived from the original on April 28, 2019. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- "Mary MacLeod Trump Philanthropist, 88". The New York Times (Obituary). August 9, 2000. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- "New concerns function with Queens capital". The Daily Star. April 16, 1927. p. 16.
E. Trump & Son Company, Inc., of Jamaica, has been formed with $50,000 capital to deal in realty.
- Rozhon, Tracie (June 26, 1999). "Fred C. Trump, Postwar Master Builder of Housing for Middle Class, Dies at 93". The New York Times. New York: New York Times Company. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Moyer, Justin William (January 22, 2016). "The Unbelievable Story of Why Woody Guthrie Hated Donald Trump's Dad". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Blair 2015, pp. 213–216. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBlair2015 (help)
- Trump, Donald J.; Schwartz, Tony (2009) . Trump: The Art of the Deal. New York: Random House. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-307-57533-3.
- Kranish, Michael; O'Harrow, Robert Jr. (January 23, 2016). "Inside the Government's Racial Bias Case Against Donald Trump's Company, and How He Fought It". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.: Nash Holdings. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Berzon, Alexandra; Rubin, Richard (September 23, 2016). "Trump's Father Helped GOP Candidate With Numerous Loans". Wall Street Journal. New York: Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Trump Organization Next Generation: Donald Jr Ivanka Eric Trump Hotel Collection Real Estate Casinos Golf Clubs Restaurants Merchandise Corporation Company Publications". Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved May 14, 2016.
- Pilon, Mary (June 24, 2016). "Donald Trump's Immigrant Mother". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on May 18, 2019. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- Hannan, Martin (May 20, 2016). "The mysterious Mary Trump". The National. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- McGrane, Sally (April 29, 2016). "The Ancestral German Home of the Trumps". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on February 1, 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- Pearson, Natalie Obiko (October 26, 2016). "Trump's Family Fortune Originated in a Canadian Gold-Rush Brothel". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on December 27, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- "GEDBAS: Vorfahren von Frederick Christ TRUMP". Archived from the original on November 4, 2016. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- Goldmacher, Shane (January 25, 2017). "Trump's sister weighs in on Supreme Court pick". Politico. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Neumeister, Larry; Dale, Maryclaire (April 11, 2019). "Trump's sister retires, negating judicial ethics complaints". Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 26, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
- Trump 2020, p. 31.
- "Part 1: New Frontiers". Biography: The Trump Dynasty. February 25, 2019. Event occurs at 1:21. A&E.
- Blair 2015, p. 320. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBlair2015 (help)
- Trump 2020, author's note
- Trump 2020, p. 127.
- "Meet the Trumps: The family tree of Donald Trump". MSN News. May 8, 2018. Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- "Elizabeth Trump weds James Grau". The New York Times. New York City: New York Times Company. March 27, 1989. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Gavin, Michael (June 23, 2017). "Trump sister sells oceanfront Westhampton Beach home for $3.8M". Newsday. Melville, New York City: Newsday Media. Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Chabba, Seerat (November 15, 2016). "Who Are Donald Trump's Siblings?". International Business Times. Yahoo News. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- Blair 2015, p. 454. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBlair2015 (help)
- Horowitz, Jason (January 2, 2016). "For Donald Trump, Lessons From a Brother's Suffering". New York Times. Archived from the original on October 27, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- Partlow, Joshua (October 26, 2019). "Company with ties to Trump's brother Robert awarded $33 million government contract". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 11, 2019. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
- "The Winning Ways of Blaine Trump". New York Times. October 28, 1987. Archived from the original on January 27, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- Adams, Cindy (March 2, 2020). "Robert Trump ties the knot again". Page Six. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
- "Robert Trump: brother of president Donald Trump dies aged 71". The Guardian. August 16, 2020. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
- Phillips, Morgan (August 14, 2020). "Robert Trump, brother of President Trump, dead at 71". Fox News. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
- Karni, Annie (August 15, 2020). "Robert S. Trump, the President's Younger Brother, Dies at 71". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
- "In Memory of John Whitney Walter". Retrieved August 14, 2020.
- Blair, Gwenda (October 17, 2018). "Did the Trump Family Historian Drop a Dime to the New York Times?". Politico. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
- Trump 2020, pp. 193–94.
- "Celebrating 85 years". The First National Bank of Long Island. p. 19. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
- Horowitz, Jason (August 12, 2016). "Fred Trump Taught His Son the Essentials of Showboating Self-Promotion". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
- Barstow, David; Craig, Susanne; Buettner, Russ (October 2, 2018). "Trump Engaged in Suspect Tax Schemes as He Reaped Riches From His Father". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
- Blair, Gwenda (2015) . The Trumps: Three Generations of Builders and a Presidential Candidate. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1501139369.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Trump, Mary L. (2020). Too Much and Never Enough. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-9821-4146-2. OCLC 1164093746.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)