|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Fan fiction or fanfiction (also abbreviated to fan fic, fanfic, or fic) is fiction about characters or settings from an original work of fiction, created by fans of that work rather than by its creator. It is a popular form of fan labor, particularly since the advent of the Internet.
Fan fiction is rarely commissioned or authorized by the original work's creator or publisher, and is rarely professionally published. It may or may not infringe on the original author's copyright, depending on the jurisdiction and on such questions as whether or not it qualifies as "fair use" (see Legal issues with fan fiction). Attitudes of authors and copyright owners of original works to fan fiction have ranged from indifference to encouragement to rejection. Copyright owners have occasionally responded with legal action.
Fan fiction is defined by being both related to its subject's canonical fictional universe (often referred to as "canon") and simultaneously existing outside it. Most fan fiction writers assume that their work is read primarily by other fans, and therefore presume that their readers have knowledge of the canon universe (created by a professional writer) in which their works are based.
A review of the two largest sites, FanFiction.Net and Archive of Our Own, shows that firstly, a large percentage of the efforts are 'crossovers' where one or more book-based universes or characters are conflated; secondly, an even larger proportion are very short (at less than 1000 words); thirdly, a significant number of the larger works are incomplete; fourthly, that the readership for many genres is very low.
Earlier meanings of the term
The term "fan fiction" has been attested in print as early as 1939; in this earliest known citation, it is used in a disparaging way to refer to amateurish science fiction (as opposed to "pro fiction"). The term also appears in the 1944 Fancyclopedia, an encyclopedia of fandom jargon. It is defined there as "fiction about fans, or sometimes about pros, and occasionally bringing in some famous characters from [science fiction] stories." The book also mentions that the term is "[s]ometimes improperly used to mean fan science fiction, that is, ordinary fantasy published in a fan magazine."
The modern phenomenon of fan fiction as an expression of fandom and fan interaction was popularized and defined via Star Trek fandom and their fanzines published in the 1960s. The first Star Trek fanzine, Spockanalia (1967), contained some fan fiction; many others followed its example.:1 These fanzines were produced via offset printing and mimeography, and mailed to other fans or sold at science fiction conventions for a small fee to help recoup costs. Unlike other aspects of fandom, women dominated fan fiction authoring; 83% of Star Trek fan fiction authors were female by 1970, and 90% by 1973. One scholar states that fan fiction "fill[s] the need of a mostly female audience for fictional narratives that expand the boundary of the official source products offered on the television and movie screen."
Fan fiction has become more popular and widespread since the advent of the World Wide Web; according to one estimate, fan fiction comprises one third of all content about books on the Web. In addition to traditional fanzines and conventions, Usenet group electronic mailing lists were established for fan fiction as well as fan discussion. Online, searchable fan fiction archives were also established. The online archives were initially non-commercial hand-tended and fandom- or topic-specific. These archives were followed by non-commercial automated databases. In 1998, the not-for-profit site FanFiction.Net came online, which allowed anyone to upload content in any fandom. The ability to self-publish fan fiction at an easily accessible common archive that did not require insider knowledge to join, and the ability to review the stories directly on the site, became popular quite quickly. One popular example of modern fan fiction is E. L. James' Fifty Shades of Grey. This series was originally written as fan fiction for the Twilight series of books and movies and played off the characters of Bella and Edward. In order to not infringe on copyright issues, James changed the character names to Anna and Christian for the purposes of her novels, which is a practice known as 'pulling-to-publish'. Anna Todd's 2013 fan fiction After about the English boy band One Direction secured a book and movie deal with renamed characters in 2014.
On May 22, 2013, the online retailer Amazon.com established a new publishing service, Kindle Worlds. This service would enable fan fiction stories of certain licensed media properties to be sold in the Kindle Store with terms including 35% of net sales for works of 10,000 words or more and 20% for short fiction ranging from 5000 to 10,000 words. However, this arrangement includes restrictions on content, copyright violations, poor document formatting and/or using misleading titles.
A similar trend in Japan also began appearing around the 1960s and 1970s, where independently published manga and novels, known as dōjinshi, are frequently published by dōjin circles; many of these dōjinshi are based on existing manga, anime, and video game franchises. Manga authors like Shotaro Ishinomori and Fujiko Fujio formed dōjin groups such as Fujio's New Manga Party (新漫画党 Shin Manga-tō?). At this time, dōjin groups were used by artists to make a professional debut. This changed in the coming decades with dōjin groups forming as school clubs and the like. This culminated in 1975 with the Comiket in Tokyo.
Categories and terms
|This section requires expansion. (November 2015)|
Fan fiction can be categorized in a number of ways.
The genre enables the reader to know what type of story they are about to read. The genres include:
A fan fiction in which a character is put through a traumatizing experience in order to be comforted.
Romantic fan fiction is typically read by women. While men who are attracted to an actress often search for revealing photographs of her, women attracted to an actor are more likely to seek out erotic stories featuring a character he plays. A fan of Orlando Bloom, for example, might search for "Legolas erotica".
Slash fiction is romantic fan fiction that depicts characters in homosexual relationships regardless of their actual preference. It is popular on fan fiction archive Archive of Our Own, comprising twice as much as heterosexual pairings. Slash fiction resulted in arrests of some authors in China.
Also of note is the concept of the "Mary Sue", a term credited as originating in Star Trek fan fiction that has crossed over to the mainstream, at least among editors and writers. In early Trek fan fiction, a common plot was that of a minor member of the USS Enterprise's crew saving the life of Captain Kirk or Mister Spock, often being rewarded with a sexual relationship as a result. The term "Mary Sue", originating in a parody of stories in this wish fulfillment genre, thus tends to refer to an idealized character, often representing the author.
Canon is the original story. This means anything related to the original source including the plot, settings, and character developments.
A songfic, also known as a song fic or a song-fic, is a term used to describe a genre of fan fiction that features a fictional work interspersed with the lyrics of a relevant song. The term is a portmanteau of "song" and "fiction"; as such, one might also see the genre referred to as "songfiction". As many lyrics are under copyright, whether songfics are a violation of that copyright law is a subject of debate and some fan fiction websites such as FanFiction.Net have barred authors from posting songfics with lyrics outside public domain.
In an essay in Music, Sound, and Silence in Buffy the Vampire Slayer, University of Sydney professor Catherine Driscoll commented that the genre was "one of the least distinguished modes of fan production" and that "within fan fiction excessive attachment to or foregrounding of popular music is itself dismissed as immature and derivative".
Interactivity in the online era
Reviews can be given by both anonymous and registered users of most sites, and sites are often programmed to notify the author of new feedback, making them a common way for readers and authors online to communicate directly. This system is intended for a type of bond between the reader and the writer, as well as helping the author improve his or her writing skills through constructive criticism, enabling him or her to produce a better work next time.[unreliable source?] Occasionally, unmoderated review systems are abused to send flames, spam, or trolling messages. As a result, the author of the story can either disable or enable anonymous reviews, depending on his/her preference. Internet fan fiction gives young writers a wider audience for their literary efforts than ever before, resulting in improved literacy.
Some argue that fan fiction does not fall under fair use. The 2009 ruling by United States District Court judge Deborah A. Batts, permanently prohibiting publication in the United States of a book by a Swedish writer whose protagonist is a 76-year-old version of Holden Caulfield of The Catcher in the Rye, may be seen as upholding this position regarding publishing fan fiction, as the judge stated, "To the extent Defendants contend that 60 Years and the character of Mr. C direct parodied comment or criticism at Catcher or Holden Caulfield, as opposed to Salinger himself, the Court finds such contentions to be post-hoc rationalizations employed through vague generalizations about the alleged naivety of the original, rather than reasonably perceivable parody."
In 1981, Lucasfilm Ltd. sent out a letter to several fanzine publishers, asserting Lucasfilm's copyright to all Star Wars characters and insisting that no fanzine publish pornography. The letter also alluded to possible legal action that could be taken against fanzines that did not comply.
The Harry Potter Lexicon is one case where the encyclopaedia-like website about everything in the Harry Potter series, moved towards publishing and commercializing the Lexicon as a supplementary and complementary source of information to the series. Rowling and her publishers levied a lawsuit against the website creator, Steven Vander Ark, and the publishing company, RDR Books, for a breach of copyright. While the lawsuit did conclude in Vander Ark's favor, the main issue in contention was the majority of the Lexicon copied a majority of the Series' material and does not transform enough of the material to be held separately from the series itself.
While the HP Lexicon case is an example of Western culture treatment of fan fiction and copyright law, in China, Harry Potter fan fiction is less addressed in legal conflicts but is used as a cultural and educational tool between Western and Chinese cultures. More specifically, while there are a number of "fake" Harry Potter books in China, most of these books are treated as addressing concepts and issues found in Chinese culture. This transformative usage of Harry Potter in fan fiction is mainly from the desire to enhance and express value to Chinese tradition and culture.
Some prominent authors have given their blessings to fan fiction, notably J.K. Rowling. Rowling said she was "flattered" that people wanted to write their own stories based on her fictional characters. Similarly, Stephenie Meyer has put links on her website to fan fiction sites about her characters from the Twilight series. The Fifty Shades trilogy was developed from a Twilight fan fiction originally titled Master of the Universe and published episodically on fan-fiction websites under the pen name "Snowqueen's Icedragon". The piece featured characters named after Stephenie Meyer's characters in Twilight, Edward Cullen and Bella Swan.
As an example of changing views on the subject, author Orson Scott Card (best known for the Enders Game series) once stated on his website, "to write fiction using my characters is morally identical to moving into my house without invitation and throwing out my family." He changed his mind completely and since has assisted fan fiction contests, arguing to the Wall Street Journal that "Every piece of fan fiction is an ad for my book. What kind of idiot would I be to want that to disappear?"
However, Anne Rice has consistently and aggressively prevented fan fiction based on any of her "fictional" characters (mostly those from her famous Interview with the Vampire and its sequels in The Vampire Chronicles). She, along with Anne McCaffrey (whose stance has been changed by her son, Todd McCaffrey, since her death) and Raymond Feist, have asked to have any fiction related to their series removed from FanFiction.Net. George R.R. Martin, who was selected by Time magazine as one of the "2011 Time 100" and is most famous for his epic fantasy series, A Song of Ice and Fire, is also strongly opposed to fan fiction, believing it to be copyright infringement and a bad exercise for aspiring writers. Sharon Lee and Steve Miller, creators of the Liaden universe, strongly oppose fan fiction written in their universe. Sharon Lee has stated, "I don’t want 'other people interpreting' our characters. Interpreting our characters is what Steve and I do; it’s our job. Nobody else is going to get it right. This may sound rude and elitist, but honestly, it’s not easy for us to get it right sometimes, and we’ve been living with these characters... for a very long time... We built our universes, and our characters; they are our intellectual property; and they are not toys lying about some virtual sandbox for other kids to pick up and modify at their whim. Steve and I do not sanction fanfic written in our universes; any such work that exists, exists without our permission, and certainly without our support."
- Canon (fiction)
- Collaborative fiction
- Legal issues with fan fiction
- Media fandom
- Parallel novel
- Revisionist fiction
- Schulz, Nancy. "Fan Fiction - Literature". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
- Jeff Prucher, ed. (2007). Brave New Words: The Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-19-530567-8.
- "John Bristol" (1944). Fancyclopedia. The Fantasy Foundation.
- Verba, Joan Marie (2003). Boldly Writing: A Trekker Fan & Zine History, 1967-1987 (PDF). Minnetonka MN: FTL Publications. ISBN 0-9653575-4-6.
- Coppa, Francesca (2006). "A Brief History of Media Fandom". In Hellekson, Karen; Busse, Kristina. Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. pp. 41–59. ISBN 978-0-7864-2640-9.
- Bacon-Smith, Camille (2000). Science Fiction Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-0-8122-1530-4.
- Boog, Jason (September 18, 2008). "Brokeback 33 Percent". Mediabistro. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- Buechner, Maryanne Murray (March 4, 2002). "Pop Fiction". Time Magazine. Retrieved May 29, 2010
- Bradley, Karen (Winter 2005). "Internet lives: Social context and moral domain in adolescent development". New Directions for Youth Development 2005 (108): 57–76. doi:10.1002/yd.142. PMID 16570878.
- Marah Eakin (February 12, 2015). "Holy crow! Fifty Shades Of Grey is crazy similar to its Twilight origin story". The A.V. Club.
- Brennan, Joseph; Large, David (2014). "‘Let’s get a bit of context’: Fifty Shades and the phenomenon of ‘pulling to publish’ in Twilight fan fiction". Media International Australia 152 (1): 27–39. doi:10.1177/1329878X1415200105.
- "'After' Movie: Paramount Acquires Rights To Wattpad Book By Anna Todd". Deadline Hollywood. 16 October 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Ford, Rebecca. "'Mom' Writer Susan McMartin to Adapt One Direction-Inspired Fan-Fiction 'After' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- Pepitone, Julianne (3 May 2013). "Amazon's "Kindle Worlds" lets fan fiction writers sell their stories". CNN Money. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- "A Fanspeak Dictionary".
- Ogas, Ogi (2011-04-30). "The Online World of Female Desire". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- a, c. "Slash Fiction: A Fantasy World in Which Male TV Characters Find Romance — With Each Other". L.A. Weekly. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Aja Romano (April 18, 2014). "Chinese authorities are arresting writers of slash fanfiction". The Daily Dot.
- Jill Pantozzi (April 21, 2014). "Several Women Arrested For Writing Fanfic In China". The Mary Sue.
- Segall (2008). Fan Fiction Writing: New Work Based on Favorite Fiction. Rosen Pub. p. 26. ISBN 1404213562.
- "Common Fandom Terms". May 2016. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
- Heilman, Elizabeth E. (2008-09-01). Critical Perspectives on Harry Potter. Routledge. pp. 320–321. ISBN 9781135891541.
- Lugmayr, Artur; Zotto, Cinzia Dal (2016-07-23). Media Convergence Handbook - Vol. 2: Firms and User Perspectives. Springer. p. 148. ISBN 9783642544873.
- "Guidelines". FanFiction.net. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- Attinello, Paul Gregory; Halfyard, Janet K.; Knights, Vanessa (2010-01-01). Music, Sound and Silence in Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 114, 129. ISBN 9780754660415.
- "Fanfiction.Net Review Form". Fanfiction.net. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
- Merlin, Missy (September 13, 2007). "Dr. Merlin's Guide to Fanfiction". Firefox. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- Tosenberger, Catherine (2008) "Homosexuality at the Online Hogwarts: Harry Potter Slash Fanfiction" Children's Literature 36 pp. 185-207 doi:10.1353/chl.0.0017
- Lee, A.T. (October 1998). "What's "Derivative Work?"". A Brief Introduction to Copyright for Fanfiction Authors. Woosh!. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
- Burns, Elizabeth and Webbr, Carlie. "When Harry Met Bella: Fan fiction is all the rage. But is it plagiarism? Or the perfect thing to encourage young writers?" School Library Journal, 8/1/2009.
- Chan, Sewell (July 1, 2009). "Chan, Sewell. "Ruling for Salinger, Judge Bans 'Rye' Sequel" ''New York Times'', July 1, 2009". Cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- "Frequently Asked Questions - Legal". Organization for Transformative Works. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
- Jenkins, Henry (2003). "Quentin Tarantino's Star Wars?: Digital Cinema, Media Convergence, and Participatory Culture". Archived from the original on March 9, 2009.
- Schwabach, Aaron (2009). "The Harry Potter Lexicon and the World of Fandom: Fan Fiction, Outsider Works and, Copyright". University of Pittsburgh Law Review 70 (3): 387–434.
- Gupta, Suman (2009). Re-Reading Harry Potter 2nd Ed. Basingstoke (UK); New York (US): Palgrave Macmillan.
- Waters, Darren (May 27, 2004). "Rowling backs Potter fan fiction". BBC. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
- "Twilight Series Fansites". StephenieMeyer.com. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- GalleyCat. "The Lost History of Fifty Shades of Grey". mediabistro.com.
- "Fifty Shades of Grey: Stephenie Meyer Speaks Out". mtv.com. MTV.
- Romano, Aja (2013-05-07). "Orson Scott Card’s long history of homophobia". Salon.com. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- "Frequently Asked Questions - George R. R. Martin's Official Website". Georgerrmartin.com. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- Martin, George R.R. (May 7, 2010). "Someone Is Angry On the Internet". Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- Sharon Lee, Writer (2013-10-26). "Lee, Sharon. "The second answer" ''Sharon Lee, Writer'' October 26, 2013". Sharonleewriter.com. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- Black, R. (2008). Adolescents and online fan fiction. New York: Peter Lang.
- Jamison, Anne. Fic: Why Fan Fiction is Taking Over the World. Dallas, Tx: Smart Pop, 2013. ISBN 978-1-939529-19-0.
- Jenkins, Henry. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture (Studies in Culture and Communication). New York: Routledge, 1992. ISBN 0-415-90571-0.
- Larsen, Katherine, and Lynn Zubernis, eds. Fan Culture: Theory / Practice. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 2012
- Lawrence, K. F. (2007) The Web of Community Trust - Amateur Fiction Online: A Case Study in Community Focused Design for the Semantic Web. PhD thesis, University of Southampton. (URL retrieved on 20 August 2008)
- Orr, David. "Where to Find Digital Lit." The New York Times. October 3, 2004.
- Pugh, Sheenagh. The Democratic Genre: Fan Fiction in a Literary Context. Bridgend, Wales: Seren, 2005. ISBN 1-85411-399-2.
- Grossman, Lev. The Boy Who Lived Forever. http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,2081784-1,00.html
- Hellekson, Karen, and Kristina Busse, eds.The Fan Fiction Studies Reader. Iowa City: The University of Iowa Press. 2014.
- ------.Fan fiction and fan communities in the age of the Internet: new essays. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 2006. ISBN 0-7864-2640-3.
- Lipton, Shana Ting. "How Fifty Shades Is Dominating the Literary Scene." Vanity Fair. February 13, 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fan fiction.|
|Wikinews has related news: FanFiction.Net adult content purge felt across fandom two weeks on|
- "Quentin Tarantino's Star Wars?: Digital Cinema, Media Convergence, and Participatory Culture"—Henry Jenkins on fan fiction