|First appearance||The Fantastic Four #1 (November, 1961)|
|Created by||Stan Lee (writer)
Jack Kirby (artist)
|See: List of Fantastic Four members|
The Fantastic Four is a fictional superhero team appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The group debuted in The Fantastic Four #1 (cover dated Nov. 1961), which helped to usher in a new level of realism in the medium. The Fantastic Four was the first superhero team created by editor/co-plotter Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby, who developed a collaborative approach to creating comics with this title that they would use from then on.
The four individuals traditionally associated with the Fantastic Four, who gained superpowers after exposure to cosmic rays during a scientific mission to outer space, are Mister Fantastic (Reed Richards), a scientific genius and the leader of the group, who can stretch his body into incredible lengths and shapes; the Invisible Woman (Susan "Sue" Storm), who eventually married Reed, who can render herself invisible and later project powerful invisible force fields; the Human Torch (Johnny Storm), Sue's younger brother, who can generate flames, surround himself with them and fly; and the monstrous Thing (Ben Grimm), their grumpy but benevolent friend, a former college football star and Reed's college roommate as well as a good pilot, who possesses tremendous superhuman strength, durability, and endurance due to the nature of his stone-like flesh.
Since their original 1961 introduction, the Fantastic Four have been portrayed as a somewhat dysfunctional, yet loving, family. Breaking convention with other comic book archetypes of the time, they would squabble and hold grudges both deep and petty and eschewed anonymity or secret identities in favor of celebrity status. The team is also well known for its recurring encounters with characters such as the villainous monarch Doctor Doom, the planet-devouring Galactus, the sea-dwelling prince Namor, the spacefaring Silver Surfer and the shape-changing alien Skrulls.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Spinoffs
- 3 Characters
- 4 Supporting characters
- 5 Cultural impact
- 6 In other media
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Apocryphal legend has it that in 1961, longtime magazine and comic book publisher Martin Goodman was playing golf with either Jack Liebowitz or Irwin Donenfeld of rival company DC Comics, then known as National Periodical Publications, and that the top executive bragged about DC's success with the new superhero team the Justice League of America.[note 1] While film producer and comics historian Michael Uslan has debunked the particulars of that story,[note 2] Goodman, a publishing trend-follower, aware of the JLA's strong sales, did direct his comics editor, Stan Lee, to create a comic-book series about a team of superheroes. According to Lee, writing in 1974, "Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most. It was a book called The [sic] Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes. ... 'If the Justice League is selling', spoke he, 'why don't we put out a comic book that features a team of superheroes?'":16
Lee, who had served as editor-in-chief and art director of Marvel Comics and its predecessor companies, Timely Comics and Atlas Comics, for two decades, found that the medium had become creatively restrictive. Determined "to carve a real career for myself in the nowhere world of comic books",[note 3] Lee concluded that, "For just this once, I would do the type of story I myself would enjoy reading.... And the characters would be the kind of characters I could personally relate to: they'd be flesh and blood, they'd have their faults and foibles, they'd be fallible and feisty, and — most important of all — inside their colorful, costumed booties they'd still have feet of clay.":17
Lee said he created a synopsis for the first Fantastic Four story that he gave to penciller Jack Kirby, who then drew the entire story. Kirby turned in his penciled art pages to Lee, who added dialogue and captions. This approach to creating comics, which became known as the "Marvel Method", worked so well for Lee and Kirby that they used it from then on; the Marvel Method became standard for the company within a year.:87
Kirby recalled events somewhat differently. Challenged with Lee's version of events in a 1990 interview, Kirby responded: "I would say that's an outright lie",:39 although the interviewer, Gary Groth, notes that this statement needs to be viewed with caution.[note 4] Kirby claims he came up with the idea for the Fantastic Four in Marvel's offices, and that Lee had merely added the dialogue after the story had been pencilled.:38 Kirby also sought to establish, more credibly and on numerous occasions, that the visual elements of the strip were his conceptions. He regularly pointed to a team he had created for rival publisher DC Comics in the 1950s, the Challengers of the Unknown. "[I]f you notice the uniforms, they're the same... I always give them a skintight uniform with a belt... the Challengers and the FF have a minimum of decoration. And of course, the Thing's skin is a kind of decoration, breaking up the monotony of the blue uniform.":4 The chest insignia of a "4" within a circle, however, was designed by Lee. The characters wear no uniforms in the first two issues.
Given the conflicting statements, outside commentators have found it hard to identify with precise detail who created the Fantastic Four. Although Stan Lee's typed synopsis for the Fantastic Four exists, Earl Wells, writing in The Comics Journal, points out that its existence does not assert its place in the creation: "[W]e have no way of knowing of whether Lee wrote the synopsis after a discussion with Kirby in which Kirby supplied most of the ideas".:78 Comics historian R. C. Harvey believes that the Fantastic Four was a furtherance of the work Kirby had been doing previously, and so "more likely Kirby's creations than Lee's".:69 But Harvey notes that the Marvel Method of collaboration allowed each man to claim credit,:68 and that Lee's dialogue added to the direction the team took.:69 Wells argues that it was Lee's contributions which set the framework within which Kirby worked, and this made Lee "more responsible".:85 Comics historian Mark Evanier, a studio assistant to Jack Kirby in the 1970s, says that the considered opinion of Lee and Kirby's contemporaries was "that Fantastic Four was created by Stan and Jack. No further division of credit seemed appropriate".:122
The release of The Fantastic Four #1 (Nov. 1961) was an unexpected success. Lee had felt ready to leave the comics field at the time, but the positive response to Fantastic Four persuaded him to stay on. The title began to receive fan mail and Lee started printing the letters in a letter column with issue #3. Also with the third issue, Lee created the hyperbolic slogan "The Greatest Comic Magazine in the World!!" With the following issue, the slogan was changed to "The World's Greatest Comic Magazine!" and became a fixture on the issue covers into the 1990s,:87 and on numerous covers in the 2000s.
Issue #4 (May 1962) reintroduced Namor the Sub-Mariner, an aquatic antihero who was a star character of Marvel's earliest iteration, Timely Comics, during the late 1930s and 1940s period that historians and fans call the Golden Age of Comics. Issue #5 (July 1962) introduced the team's most frequent nemesis, Doctor Doom. These earliest issues were published bimonthly. With issue #16 (July 1963), the cover title dropped its The and became simply Fantastic Four.
While the early stories were complete narratives, the frequent appearances of these two antagonists, Doom and Namor, in subsequent issues indicated the creation of a long narrative by Lee and Kirby that extended over months. According to comics historian Les Daniels, "only narratives that ran to several issues would be able to contain their increasingly complex ideas".:88 During its creators' lengthy run, the series produced many acclaimed storylines and characters that have become central to Marvel, including the hidden race of alien-human genetic experiments, the Inhumans; the Black Panther, an African king who would be mainstream comics' first black superhero; the rival alien races the Kree and the shapeshifting Skrulls; Him, who would become Adam Warlock; the Negative Zone and unstable molecules. The story frequently cited as Lee and Kirby's finest achievement is the three-part "Galactus Trilogy" that began in Fantastic Four #48 (March 1966), chronicling the arrival of Galactus, a cosmic giant who wanted to devour the planet, and his herald, the Silver Surfer. Fantastic Four #48 was chosen as #24 in the 100 Greatest Marvels of All Time poll of Marvel's readers in 2001. Editor Robert Greenberger wrote in his introduction to the story that, "As the fourth year of the Fantastic Four came to a close, Stan Lee and Jack Kirby seemed to be only warming up. In retrospect, it was perhaps the most fertile period of any monthly title during the Marvel Age." Daniels noted that "[t]he mystical and metaphysical elements that took over the saga were perfectly suited to the tastes of young readers in the 1960s", and Lee soon discovered that the story was a favorite on college campuses.:128 The Fantastic Four Annual was used to spotlight several key events. The Sub-Mariner was crowned king of Atlantis in the first annual (1963). The following year's annual revealed the origin story of Doctor Doom. Fantastic Four Annual #3 (1965) presented the wedding of Reed Richards and Sue Storm. Lee and Kirby reintroduced the original Human Torch in Fantastic Four Annual #4 (1966) and had him battle Johnny Storm. Sue Richards' pregnancy was announced in Fantastic Four Annual #5 (1967), and the Richards' son, Franklin Richards was born in Fantastic Four Annual #6 (1968) in a story which introduced Annihilus as well.
Kirby left Marvel in mid-1970, having drawn the first 102 issues plus an unfinished issue, partially published in Fantastic Four #108, with alterations, and later completed and published as Fantastic Four: The Lost Adventure (April 2008), Fantastic Four continued with Lee, Roy Thomas, Gerry Conway and Marv Wolfman as its consecutive regular writers, working with artists such as John Romita Sr., John Buscema, Rich Buckler and George Pérez, with longtime inker Joe Sinnott adding some visual continuity. Jim Steranko also contributed some covers during this time. A short-lived series starring the team, Giant-Size Super-Stars, began in May 1974 and changed its title to Giant-Size Fantastic Four with issue #2. The fourth issue introduced Jamie Madrox, a character who later became part of the X-Men. Giant-Size Fantastic Four was canceled with issue #6 (Oct. 1975). Roy Thomas and George Pérez crafted a metafictional story for Fantastic Four #176 (Nov. 1976) in which the Impossible Man visited the offices of Marvel Comics and met numerous comics creators. Marv Wolfman and Keith Pollard crafted a multi-issue storyline involving the son of Doctor Doom which culminated in issue #200 (Nov. 1978). John Byrne joined the title with issue #209 (Aug. 1979), doing pencil breakdowns for Sinnott to finish. He and Wolfman introduced a new herald for Galactus named Terrax the Tamer in #211 (Oct. 1979).
1980s and 1990s
Bill Mantlo briefly followed Wolfman as writer of the series and wrote a crossover with Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man #42 (May 1980). Byrne wrote and drew a giant-sized Fantastic Four promotional comic for Coca-Cola, which was rejected by Coca-Cola as being too violent and published as Fantastic Four #220–221 (July–Aug. 1980) instead. Writer Doug Moench and penciller Bill Sienkiewicz then took over for 10 issues. With issue #232 (July 1981), the aptly titled "Back to the Basics", Byrne began his run as writer, penciller and inker, the last under the pseudonym Bjorn Heyn for this issue only.
Byrne revitalized the slumping title with his run.:265 Originally, Byrne was slated to write with Sienkiewicz providing the art. Sienkiewicz left to do Moon Knight, and Byrne subsequently became writer, artist, and inker. Various editors were assigned to the comic; eventually Bob Budiansky became the regular editor. Byrne told Jim Shooter that he could not work with Budiansky, although they ultimately continued to work together. In 2006, Byrne said "that's my paranoia. I look back and I think that was Shooter trying to force me off the book". Byrne left following issue #293 (Aug. 1986) in the middle of a story arc, explaining he could not recapture the fun he had previously had on the series. One of Byrne's changes was making the Invisible Girl into the Invisible Woman: assertive and confident. During this period, fans came to recognize that she was quite powerful, whereas previously, she had been primarily seen as a superpowered mother and wife in the tradition of television moms like those played by Donna Reed and Florence Henderson.
Byrne staked new directions in the characters' personal lives, having the married Sue Storm and Reed Richards suffer a miscarriage and the Thing quitting the Fantastic Four, with She-Hulk being recruited as his long-term replacement. He also re-emphasized the family dynamic which he felt the series had drifted away from after the Lee/Kirby run, commenting that, "Family—and not dysfunctional family—is the central, key element to the FF. It is an absolutely vital dynamic between the characters." [emphases in original]
Byrne was followed by a quick succession of writers: Roger Stern, Tom DeFalco, and Roy Thomas. Steve Englehart took over as writer for issues 304–332 (except #320). The title had been struggling, so Englehart decided to make radical changes. He felt the title had become stale with the normal makeup of Reed, Sue, Ben, and Johnny, so in issue #308 Reed and Sue retired and were replaced with the Thing's new girlfriend, Sharon Ventura, and Johnny Storm's former love, Crystal. The changes increased readership through issue #321. At this point, Marvel made decisions about another Englehart comic, West Coast Avengers, that he disagreed with, and in protest he changed his byline to S.F.X. Englehart (S.F.X. is the abbreviation for Simple Sound Effects). In issue #326, Englehart was told to bring Reed and Sue back and undo the other changes he had made. This caused Englehart to take his name entirely off the book. He used the pseudonym John Harkness, which he had created years before for work he didn't want to be associated with. According to Englehart, the run from #326 through his last issue, #332, was "one of the most painful stretches of [his] career." Writer-artist Walt Simonson took over as writer with #334 (December 1989), and three issues later began pencilling and inking as well. With brief inking exceptions, two fill-in issues, and a three-issue stint drawn by Arthur Adams, Simonson remained in all three positions through #354 (July 1991).
Simonson, who had been writing the team comic The Avengers, had gotten approval for Reed and Sue to join that team after Engelhart had written them out of Fantastic Four. Yet by The Avengers #300, where they were scheduled to join the team, Simonson was told the characters were returning to Fantastic Four. This led to Simonson quitting The Avengers after that issue. Shortly afterward, he was offered the job of writing Fantastic Four. Having already prepared a number of stories involving the Avengers with Reed and Sue in the lineup, he then rewrote these for Fantastic Four. Simonson later recalled that working on Fantastic Four allowed him the latitude to use original Avengers members Thor and Iron Man, which he had been precluded from using in The Avengers.
After another fill-in, the regular team of writer and Marvel editor-in-chief Tom DeFalco, penciller Paul Ryan and inker Dan Bulanadi took over, with Ryan self-inking beginning with #360 (Jan. 1992). That team, with the very occasional different inker, continued for years through #414 (July 1996). DeFalco nullified the Storm-Masters marriage by retconning that the alien Skrull Empire had kidnapped the real Masters and replaced her with a spy named Lyja. Once discovered, Lyja, who herself had fallen for Storm, helped the Fantastic Four rescue Masters. Ventura departed after being further mutated by Doctor Doom. Although some fans were not pleased with DeFalco's run on Fantastic Four, calling him "The Great Satan", the title's sales increased over the period.
Other key developments included Franklin Richards being sent into the future and returning as a teenager; the return of Reed's time-traveling father, Nathaniel, who is revealed to be the father of time-travelling villain Kang the Conqueror and Reed's apparent death at the hands of a seemingly mortally wounded Doctor Doom. It would be two years before DeFalco resurrected the two characters, revealing that their "deaths" were orchestrated by the supervillain Hyperstorm.
The ongoing series was canceled with issue #416 (Sept. 1996) and relaunched with vol. 2, #1 (Nov. 1996) as part of the multi-series "Heroes Reborn" crossover story arc. The yearlong volume retold the team's first adventures in a more contemporary style, and set in a parallel universe. Following the end of that experiment, Fantastic Four was relaunched with vol. 3, #1 (Jan. 1998). Initially by the team of writer Scott Lobdell and penciller Alan Davis, it went after three issues to writer Chris Claremont (co-writing with Lobdell for #4–5) and penciller Salvador Larroca; this team enjoyed a long run through issue #32 (Aug. 2000).
Following the run of Claremont, Lobdell and Larroca, Carlos Pacheco took over as penciller and co-writer, first with Rafael Marín, then with Marín and Jeph Loeb. This series began using dual numbering, as if the original Fantastic Four series had continued unbroken, with issue #42 / #471 (June 2001). At the time, the Marvel Comics series begun in the 1960s, such as Thor and The Amazing Spider-Man, were given such dual numbering on the front cover, with the present-day volume's numbering alongside the numbering from the original series. After issue #70 / #499 (Aug. 2003), the title reverted to its original vol. 1 numbering with issue #500 (Sept. 2003).
Karl Kesel succeeded Loeb as co-writer with issue #51 / #480 (March 2002), and after a few issues with temporary teams, Mark Waid took over as writer with #60 / 489 (October 2002) with artist Mike Wieringo with Marvel releasing a promotional variant edition of their otherwise $2.25 debut issue at the price of nine cents US. Pencillers Mark Buckingham, Casey Jones, and Howard Porter variously contributed through issue #524 (May 2005), with a handful of issues by other teams also during this time. Writer J. Michael Straczynski and penciller Mike McKone did issues #527–541 (July 2005 – Nov. 2006), with Dwayne McDuffie taking over as writer the following issue, and Paul Pelletier succeeding McKone beginning with #544 (May 2007).
As a result of the events of the "Civil War" company-crossover storyline, the Black Panther and Storm temporarily replaced Reed and Susan Richards on the team. During that period, the Fantastic Four also appeared in Black Panther, written by Reginald Hudlin and pencilled primarily by Francis Portela. Beginning with issue #554 (April 2008), writer Mark Millar and penciller Bryan Hitch began what Marvel announced as a sixteen-issue run. Following the summer 2008 crossover storyline, "Secret Invasion", and the 2009 aftermath "Dark Reign", chronicling the U.S. government's assigning of the Nation's security functions to the seemingly reformed supervillain Norman Osborn, the Fantastic Four starred in a five-issue miniseries, Dark Reign: Fantastic Four (May–Sept. 2009), written by Jonathan Hickman, with art by Sean Chen. Hickman took over as the series regular writer as of issue #570 with Dale Eaglesham and later Steve Epting on art.
In the storyline "Three", which concluded in Fantastic Four #587 (cover date March 2011, published January 26, 2011), the Human Torch appears to die stopping a horde of monsters from the other-dimensional Negative Zone. The series ended with the following issue, #588, and relaunched in March 2011 as simply FF. The relaunch saw the team assume a new name, the Future Foundation, adopt new black-and-white costumes, and accept longtime ally Spider-Man as a member. In October 2011, with the publication of FF #11 (cover-dated Dec. 2011), the Fantastic Four series reached its 599th issue.
In November 2011, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Fantastic Four and of Marvel Comics, the company published the 100-page Fantastic Four #600 (cover-dated Jan. 2012), which returned the title to its original numbering and featured the return of the Human Torch. It revealed the fate of the character of Johnny Storm after issue #587, showing that while he did in fact die, he was resurrected to fight as a gladiator for the entertainment of Annihilus. Storm later formed a resistance force called Light Brigade and defeated Annihilus.
Although it was launched as a continuation of the Fantastic Four title, FF continues publication as a separate series. Starting with issue #12, the title focuses upon the youthful members of the Future Foundation, including Franklin and Valeria Richards.
In the graphic novel Fantastic Four: Season One, the Fantastic Four is given an updated origin story set in the present day instead of the 1960s. The hardcover compilation debuted at number four on The New York Times Best Seller list for graphic novels.
As part of Marvel NOW! Fantastic Four ended with #611, ending Jonathan Hickman's long run on FF titles, and the title was relaunched in November 2012 with the creative team of writer Matt Fraction and artist Mark Bagley. In the new title with its numbering starting at #1, the entire Fantastic Four family explore space together, with the hidden intent for Reed Richards to discover why his powers are fading.
Robinson later confirmed that Fantastic Four would be cancelled in 2015 with issue #645, saying that "The book is reverting to its original numbers, and the book is going away for a while. I'm moving towards the end of Fantastic Four. I just want to reassure people that you will not leave this book with a bad taste in your mouth." In the aftermath of the "Secret Wars" storyline, the Thing is working with the Guardians of the Galaxy and the Human Torch is acting as an ambassador with the Inhumans. With Franklin's powers restored and Reed having absorbed the power of the Beyonders from Doom, the Richards family is working on travelling through and reconstructing the multiverse, but Peter Parker has purchased the Baxter Building to keep it "safe" until the team is ready to come back together.
Ancillary titles and features spun off from the flagship series include the 1970s quarterly Giant-Size Fantastic Four and the 1990s Fantastic Four Unlimited and Fantastic Four Unplugged; Fantastic Force, an 18-issue spinoff (November 1994 – April 1996) featuring an adult Franklin Richards, from a different timeline, as Psi-Lord. A 12-issue series Fantastic Four: The World's Greatest Comics Magazine ran in 2001, paying homage to Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's legendary run. A spinoff title Marvel Knights 4 (April 2004 – August 2006) was written by Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa and initially illustrated by Steve McNiven in his first Marvel work. As well, there have been numerous limited series featuring the group.
In 1996, Marvel launched Fantastic Four 2099. The series was part of the company's Marvel 2099 imprint, which explored an alternate future of the Marvel Universe. The four protagonists inexplicably find themselves in 2099, with the world believing them to be clones of the original members of the Fantastic Four. The series ran for 8 issues (Jan. – Aug. 1996), serving as a companion to Doom 2099—an original Marvel 2099 title which featured an individual claiming to be the original Victor von Doom.
In 2004, Marvel launched Ultimate Fantastic Four. As part of the company's Ultimate Marvel imprint, the series re-imagined the team as teenagers. The series ran for 60 issues (Feb. 2004 – Feb. 2009). In 2008, Marvel also launched Marvel Adventures: Fantastic Four, an out-of-continuity series aimed at younger readers.
Although it was launched by Marvel as a continuation of the Fantastic Four title in 2011, FF continued publication as a separate series after the regular series resumed in 2012. From issues #12, the title focused upon the youthful members of the Future Foundation, including Franklin and Valeria Richards. A second volume was launched as part of Marvel NOW! by Matt Fraction and Mike Allred depicting a substitute Fantastic Four team starring Scott Lang, Medusa, She-Hulk, and Ms. Thing.
The Human Torch solo
The Human Torch was given a solo strip in Strange Tales in 1962 in order to bolster sales of the title.:98 The series began in Strange Tales #101 (October 1962), in 12- to 14-page stories plotted by Lee and initially scripted by his brother, Larry Lieber, and drawn by penciller Kirby and inker Dick Ayers.
Here, Johnny was seen living with his older sister, Susan, in fictional Glenview, Long Island, New York, where he continued high school and, with youthful naiveté, attempted to maintain a "secret identity". In Strange Tales #106 (March 1963), Johnny discovered that his friends and neighbors knew of his dual identity all along, from Fantastic Four news reports, but were humoring him. Supporting characters included Johnny's girlfriend, Doris Evans, usually in consternation as Johnny cheerfully flew off to battle bad guys. She was seen again in a 1973 issue of Fantastic Four, having become a heavyset but cheerful wife and mother. Ayers took over the penciling after ten issues, later followed by original Golden Age Human Torch creator Carl Burgos and others. The Fantastic Four made occasional cameo appearances, and the Thing became a co-star with issue #123 (Aug. 1964).
The Human Torch shared the split book Strange Tales with fellow feature Doctor Strange for the majority of its run, before being replaced in issue #135 (August 1965) by Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.. The Silver Age stories were republished in 1974, along with some Golden Age Human Torch stories, in a short-lived ongoing Human Torch series.
A later ongoing solo series in Marvel's manga-influenced Tsunami imprint, Human Torch, ran 12 issues (June 2003 – June 2004), followed by the five-issue limited series Spider-Man/Human Torch (March–July 2005), an untold tales team-up arc spanning the course of their friendship.
The Thing solo
The Thing appeared in two team-up issues of Marvel Feature (#11–12, September–November 1973). Following their success, he was given his own regular team-up title Marvel Two-in-One, co-starring with Marvel heroes not only in the present day but occasionally in other time periods (fighting alongside the World War II-era Liberty Legion in #20 and the 1930s hero Doc Savage in #21, for example) and in alternate realities. The series ran 100 issues (January 1974 – June 1983), with seven summer annuals (1976–1982) and was immediately followed by the solo title The Thing #1–36 (July 1983 – June 1986). Another ongoing solo series, also titled The Thing, ran eight issues (January–August 2006).
The Fantastic Four is formed after four civilian astronauts are exposed to cosmic rays during an unauthorized outer space test flight in an experimental rocket ship designed by Dr. Reed Richards. Pilot Ben Grimm and crew-members Susan Storm and her brother Johnny Storm survive an emergency crash-landing in a field on Earth. Upon exiting the rocket, the four discover they have developed incredible superpowers, and decide to use these powers to help others.
In the first issue the crew talks about Reed Richards' rocketship flying to the stars. Stan Lee's original synopsis described the crew's plan to fly to Mars, but Lee later shortly afterward wrote that due to "the rate the Communists are progressing in space, maybe we better make this a flight to the STARS, instead of just to Mars, because by the time this mag goes on sale, the Russians may have already MADE a flight to Mars!"
In a significant departure from preceding superhero conventions, the Fantastic Four make no effort to maintain secret identities or, until issue #3, to wear superhero costumes, instead maintaining a public profile and enjoying celebrity status for scientific and heroic contributions to society. At the same time, they are often prone to arguing and even fighting with one another. Despite their bickering, the Fantastic Four consistently prove themselves to be "a cohesive and formidable team in times of crisis.":204–205
While there have been a number of lineup changes to the group, the four characters who debuted in Fantastic Four #1 remain the core and most frequent lineup.
- Mister Fantastic (Reed Richards), a scientific genius, can stretch, twist and re-shape his body to inhuman proportions. Mr. Fantastic serves as the father figure of the group, and is "appropriately pragmatic, authoritative, and dull".:19 Richards blames himself for the failed space mission, particularly because of how the event transformed pilot Ben Grimm.:205 Stan Lee said the stretch powers were inspired by DC's Plastic Man, which had no equivalent in Marvel.
- Invisible Girl/Invisible Woman (Susan Storm), Reed Richards' girlfriend (and eventual wife) has the ability to bend and manipulate light to render herself and others invisible. Stan Lee did not want Sue to have superstrength, "to be Wonder Woman and punch people", so eventually he came to invisibility, inspired by works such as The Invisible Man. She later develops the ability to generate invisible force fields, which she uses for a variety of defensive and offensive effects.
- The Human Torch (Johnny Storm), Sue Storm's younger brother, possesses the ability to control fire, allowing him to project fire from his body, as well as the power to fly. This character was loosely based on a Human Torch character published by Marvel's predecessor Timely Comics in the 1940s, an android that could ignite itself. Lee said that when he conceptualized the character, "I thought it was a shame that we didn't have The Human Torch anymore, and this was a good chance to bring him back".:85 Unlike the teen sidekicks that preceded him, the Human Torch in the early stories was "a typical adolescent — brash, rebellious, and affectionately obnoxious.":204 Johnny Storm was killed in the 2011 storyline "Three", before being brought back and rejoining the reformed Fantastic Four.
- The Thing (Ben Grimm), Reed Richards' college roommate and best friend, has been transformed into a monstrous, orange, rock-like humanoid possessing high levels of superhuman strength and durability. The Thing is often filled with anger, self-loathing and self-pity over his new existence. He serves as "an uncle figure, a long-term friend of the family with a gruff Brooklyn manner, short temper, and caustic sense of humor".:204 In the original synopsis Lee gave to Kirby, The Thing was intended as "the heavy", but over the years, the character has become "the most lovable group member: honest, direct and free of pretension".:86 Lee said his original pitch to Kirby stated that The Thing was "someone who turned into a monster" and is bitter because unlike the other three he cannot change back to a normal appearance.
The Fantastic Four has had several different headquarters, most notably the Baxter Building, located at 42nd Street and Madison Avenue in New York City. The Baxter Building was replaced by Four Freedoms Plaza at the same location after its destruction at the hands of Kristoff Vernard, adopted son of the team's seminal foe Doctor Doom. (Prior to the completion of Four Freedoms Plaza, the team took up temporary residence at Avengers Mansion.) Pier 4, a waterfront warehouse, served as a temporary headquarters after Four Freedoms Plaza was destroyed by the ostensible superhero team the Thunderbolts shortly after the revelation that they were actually the supervillain team the Masters of Evil in disguise. Pier 4 was eventually destroyed during a battle with the longtime Fantastic Four supervillain Diablo, after which the team received a new Baxter Building, courtesy of one of team leader Reed Richards' former professors, Noah Baxter. This second Baxter Building was constructed in Earth's orbit and teleported into the vacant lot formerly occupied by the original.
Allies and supporting characters
A number of characters are closely affiliated with the team, share complex personal histories with one or more of its members but have never actually held an official membership. Some of these characters include, but are not limited to: Namor the Sub-Mariner (previously an antagonist), Alicia Masters, Lyja the Lazerfist, H.E.R.B.I.E., Kristoff Vernard (Doctor Doom's former protégé), Wyatt Wingfoot, Sue and Johnny's father Franklin Storm, the receptionist android Roberta, governess Agatha Harkness, and Reed and Sue's children Franklin Richards and Valeria Richards.
Several allies of the Fantastic Four have served as temporary members of the team, including Crystal, Medusa, Power Man (Luke Cage), Nova (Frankie Raye), She-Hulk, Ms. Marvel (Sharon Ventura), Ant-Man (Scott Lang), Namorita, Storm, and the Black Panther. A temporary lineup from Fantastic Four #347–349 (December 1990 – February 1991) consisted of the Hulk (in his "Joe Fixit" persona), Spider-Man, Wolverine, and Ghost Rider (Daniel Ketch).
Other notable characters who have been involved with the Fantastic Four include Alyssa Moy, Caledonia (Alysande Stuart of Earth-9809), Fantastic Force, the Inhumans (particularly the royal family members Black Bolt, Crystal, Medusa, Gorgon, Karnak, Triton, and Lockjaw), Reed's father Nathaniel Richards, the Silver Surfer (previously an antagonist), Thundra, postal worker Willie Lumpkin, Baxter Building landlord Walter Collins, the Thing's rivals the Yancy Street Gang and Uatu the Watcher.
Author Christopher Knowles states that Kirby's work on creations such as the Inhumans and the Black Panther served as "a showcase of some of the most radical concepts in the history of the medium".
Writers and artists over many years have created a variety of characters to challenge the Fantastic Four. Knowles states that Kirby helped to create "an army of villains whose rage and destructive power had never been seen before," and "whose primary impulse is to smash the world." Some of the team's oldest and most frequent enmities have involved such foes as the Mole Man, the Skrulls, Namor the Sub-Mariner, Doctor Doom, the Puppet Master, Kang the Conqueror/Rama-Tut/Immortus, Blastaar, the Frightful Four, Annihilus, Galactus, and Klaw. Other prominent antagonists of the Fantastic Four have included the Wizard, the Impossible Man, the Red Ghost and the Super-Apes, the Mad Thinker, the Super-Skrull, the Molecule Man, Diablo, Dragon Man, Psycho-Man, Ronan the Accuser, Salem's Seven, Terrax the Tamer, Terminus, Hyperstorm and Lucia von Bardas.
The Fantastic Four's characterization was initially different from all other superheroes at the time. One major difference is that they do not conceal their identities, leading the public to be both suspicious and in awe of them. Also, they frequently argued and disagreed with each other, hindering their work as a team. Described as "heroes with hangups" by Stan Lee, the Thing has a temper, and the Human Torch resents being a child among adults. Mr. Fantastic blames himself for the Thing's transformation. Social scientist Bradford W. Wright describes the team as a "volatile mix of human emotions and personalities". In spite of their disagreements, they ultimately function well as a team.
The first issue of The Fantastic Four proved a success, igniting a new direction for superhero comics and soon influencing many other superhero comics. Readers grew fond of Ben's grumpiness, Johnny's tendency to annoy others and Reed and Sue's spats. Stan Lee was surprised at the reaction to the first issue, leading him to stay in the comics field despite previous plans to leave. Comics historian Stephen Krensky said that "Lee's natural dialogue and flawed characters appealed to 1960s kids looking to 'get real'".
As of 2005, 150 million comics featuring the Fantastic Four had been sold.
In other media
There have been four The Fantastic Four animated TV series and three released feature films. The Fantastic Four also guest-starred in the "Secret Wars" story arc of the 1990s Spider-Man animated series, and the Thing guest-starred (with a small cameo from the other Fantastic Four members) in the "Fantastic Fortitude" episode of the 1996 The Incredible Hulk series. The Fantastic Four also appeared in the 2012 series The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes.
There was a short-lived radio show in 1975 that adapted early Lee/Kirby stories and is notable for casting a pre-Saturday Night Live Bill Murray as the Human Torch. Also in the cast were Bob Maxwell as Reed Richards, Cynthia Adler as Sue Storm, Jim Pappas as Ben Grimm and Jerry Terheyden as Doctor Doom. Other Marvel characters featured in the series included Ant-Man, Prince Namor, Nick Fury and the Hulk. Stan Lee narrated the series and the scripts were taken almost verbatim from the comic books. The radio show was packaged into five-minute segments, with five segments comprising a complete adventure. The team appeared on the Power Records album Fantastic Four: "The Way It Began" book and record set, an audio dramatization of Fantastic Four #126.
The Fantastic Four has been the subject of four animated television series. The first, Fantastic Four, produced by Hanna-Barbera, ran 20 episodes on ABC from September 9, 1967 to March 15, 1970. The second Fantastic Four series, produced by DePatie-Freleng, ran 13 episodes from September 9, 1978, to December 16, 1978; this series features a H.E.R.B.I.E. Unit in place of the Human Torch.
The third Fantastic Four was broadcast as part of The Marvel Action Hour umbrella, with introductions by Stan Lee. This series ran 26 episodes from September 24, 1994 to February 24, 1996. The fourth series, Fantastic Four: World's Greatest Heroes, debuted on September 2, 2006, on Cartoon Network and ran for 26 episodes.
In 1979, the Thing was featured as half of the Saturday morning cartoon Fred and Barney Meet the Thing. The character of the Thing received a radical make-over for the series. The title character for this program was Benjy Grimm, a teenage boy who possessed a pair of magic Thing-rings which could transform him into the Thing when he put them together and said "Thing-ring, do your thing!" The other members of the Fantastic Four do not appear in the series, nor do the animated The Flintstones stars Fred Flintstone and Barney Rubble, despite the title of the program.
Different Fantastic Four members appear briefly and with little or no dialogue and are mentioned various times throughout the first season of The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes. The most expansive appearances are in the episode "The Private War of Doctor Doom", in which the Avengers team up with the Fantastic Four to battle the titular supervillain, and in the final episode of season two, in which the groups team up to battle Galactus. The Thing becomes a member of the New Avengers in episode 23 of season 2.
A film adaptation of the characters, The Fantastic Four, was completed in 1994 by producer Roger Corman. The film was not released to theaters or on home video, but it has since been made available through bootleg video distributors. It was made because Constantin Film owned the film rights and would have lost them if it failed to begin production by a certain deadline, a tactic known as creating an ashcan copy. According to producer Bernd Eichinger, Avi Arad had Marvel purchase the film for a few million dollars.
In 2005, the second film adaptation, Fantastic Four directed by Tim Story, was released by 20th Century Fox. Despite mixed reviews from critics, it earned US$155 million in North America and $330 million worldwide. The sequel, Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, directed by Story and written by Don Payne, was released in 2007. Despite mixed-to-negative reviews, the sequel earned $132 million in North America and a total of $330.6 million worldwide. Both films feature Ioan Gruffudd as Reed Richards / Mr. Fantastic, Jessica Alba as Susan Storm / Invisible Woman, Chris Evans as Johnny Storm / Human Torch, Michael Chiklis as Ben Grimm / The Thing, and Julian McMahon as Victor Von Doom / Dr. Doom. Stan Lee makes cameo appearances as the mailman Willie Lumpkin in the first film and as himself in the second film.
A reboot directed by Josh Trank (also titled Fantastic Four, but stylized as Fant4stic) was released on August 7, 2015. The film stars Miles Teller as Reed Richards, Kate Mara as Sue Storm, Michael B. Jordan as Johnny Storm, Jamie Bell as Ben Grimm and Toby Kebbell as Doctor Doom. It is based on Ultimate Fantastic Four. It earned poor reviews and box office results.
In 1985, the Fantastic Four starred in Questprobe #3 The Fantastic Four, an adventure game from Adventure International for the Atari 8-bit series. In 1997, the group starred in the Fantastic Four video game. The team appeared in the Spider-Man: The Animated Series video game, based on the 1990s Spider-Man animated series, for the Super NES and Sega Genesis. The Thing and the Human Torch appeared in the 2005 game Marvel Nemesis: Rise of the Imperfects.
All of the Fantastic Four appear as playable characters in the game Marvel: Ultimate Alliance with Doctor Doom being the main enemy. The members of the Fantastic Four are also featured in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2, although the team is separated over the course of the game, with Mister Fantastic being 'locked' into the Pro-Registration side of the game's storyline and the Thing briefly becoming unavailable to the player- just as he left America in protest of the war- until he returns to assist in preventing civilian casualties during the conflict.
The Human Torch has an appearance in a mini-game where the player races against him in all versions of Ultimate Spider-Man, except on the Game Boy Advance platform. The Fantastic Four star in tie-in videogames based on the 2005 film Fantastic Four and its sequel. The Fantastic Four are also playable characters in Marvel Heroes and Lego Marvel Super Heroes.
- That DC all-star superhero team had debuted in The Brave and the Bold #28 (cover-dated Feb. 1960) before going on to its own hit title (issue #1 cover-dated Nov. 1960).
- Uslan, in a letter published in Alter Ego #43 (December 2004), pp. 43–44, writes: "Irwin Donenfeld said he never played golf with Goodman, so the story is untrue. I heard this story more than a couple of times while sitting in the lunchroom at DC's 909 Third Avenue and 75 Rockefeller Plaza office as Sol Harrison and [production chief] Jack Adler were schmoozing with some of us... who worked for DC during our college summers.... [T]he way I heard the story from Sol was that Goodman was playing with one of the heads of Independent News, not DC Comics (though DC owned Independent News). ... As the distributor of DC Comics, this man certainly knew all the sales figures and was in the best position to tell this tidbit to Goodman. ... Of course, Goodman would want to be playing golf with this fellow and be in his good graces. ... Sol worked closely with Independent News' top management over the decades and would have gotten this story straight from the horse's mouth."
- Lee, Stan (September 1974). Origins of Marvel Comics. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster/Fireside Books. ISBN 978-0-671-21863-8.
[My wife] Joan was commenting about the fact that after 20 years of producing comics I was still writing television material, advertising copy and newspaper features in my spare time. She wondered why I didn't put as much effort and creativity into the comics as I seemed to be putting into my other freelance endeavors. ...[H]er little dissertation made me suddenly realize that it was time to start concentrating on what I was doing — to carve a real career for myself in the nowhere world of comic books.
- Groth explains in his 2002 introduction to the interview that Kirby's state of mind needs to be taken into consideration when evaluating certain statements within the interview. Kirby was involved in an acrimonious dispute with Marvel Comics regarding the return of his artwork, and his relationship with Lee had deteriorated, in part due to this dispute but also due to Lee's public statements through the years, which Kirby saw as diminishing his role. Groth states: "Lee's contribution is a matter for endless speculation, but most observers and historians consider Kirby's claims here to be excessive."
- Lee, Stan (September 1974). Origins of Marvel Comics. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster/Fireside Books. ISBN 978-0-671-21863-8.
- Daniels, Les (1993). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. New York, New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-8146-7.
- Groth, Gary (February 1990). "Interview III: 'I've never done anything halfheartedly'". The Comics Journal. Seattle, Washington: Fantagraphics Books (134). Reprinted in George, Milo, ed. (May 2002). The Comics Journal Library Volume 1: Jack Kirby. Seattle, Washington: Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 1-56097-434-6.
- Kirby, Jack (May 14, 1971). "Interview II: 'I created an army of characters, and now my connection to them is lost'". The Great Electric Bird (Interview). Interview with Tim Skelly. Evanston, Illinois: WNUR-FM. Transcribed and published in The Nostalgia Journal #27. Reprinted in George, The Comics Journal Library.
- Thomas, Roy (August 2011). "Clothes Make the Man – and the Super-hero Team!". Alter Ego. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (104): 14.
Stan himself at some point played around by drawing a number of possible chest insignias, as seen at left, before settling on the simple number '4' in a circle ...
- Wells, Earl (October 1995). "Once and For All, Who Was the Author of Marvel". The Comics Journal. Seattle, Washington (181). Reprinted in George, The Comics Journal Library.
- Harvey, R. C. (April 1994). "What Jack Kirby Did". The Comics Journal. Seattle, Washington (167). Reprinted in George, The Comics Journal Library.
- Evanier, Mark (2008). Kirby: King of Comics. New York, New York: Abrams Books. ISBN 0-8109-9447-X.
- Krensky, Stephen (2007). Comic Book Century: The History of American Comic Books. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Twenty-First Century Books. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-8225-6654-0.
- DeFalco, Tom; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1960s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 84. ISBN 978-0756641238.
It did not take long for editor Stan Lee to realize that The Fantastic Four was a hit...the flurry of fan letters all pointed to the FF's explosive popularity.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 86: "Stan Lee and Jack Kirbuy reintroduced one of Marvel's most popular Golden Age heroes – Namor, the Sub-Mariner."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 86: "The introduction of Dr. Doom signaled a slight shift in direction for Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. At last they were moving away from their monster-book formulas to embrace the super hero genre. Dr. Doom was their first real attempt to create an enduring super villain."
- Cronin, Brian (September 18, 2010). "A Year of Cool Comics – Day 261". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 111: "The Inhumans, a lost race that diverged from humankind 25,000 years ago and became genetically enhanced."
- Cronin, Brian (September 19, 2010). "A Year of Cool Comics – Day 262". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 117: Stan Lee wanted to do his part by creating the first black super hero. Lee discussed his ideas with Jack Kirby and the result was seen in Fantastic Four #52.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 84: "The second issue of the increasingly popular The Fantastic Four introduced the shapeshifting Skrulls, created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby...Like the 1956 sci-fi mmovie The Invasion of the Body-Snatchers, Lee and Kirby tapped into a fear that gripped the U.S. at this time: the fear that Russian spies were infiltrating society."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 124: "Adam Warlock was an artificial being created by scientists to be the first of an invincible army. Simply referred to as "Him' in his early appearances, Warlock later rebelled against his creators in Fantastic Four #66."
- Thomas, Roy (2006). "Moment 29: The Galactus Trilogy". Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Universe. New York, New York: Sterling Publishing. pp. 112–115. ISBN 978-1-4027-4225-5.
- Hatfield, Charles (February 2004). "The Galactus Trilogy: An Appreciation". The Collected Jack Kirby Collector. 1: 211.
- Cronin, Brian (February 19, 2010). "A Year of Cool Comics – Day 50". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on May 4, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 115: "Stan Lee may have started the creative discussion that culminated in Galactus, but the inclusion of the Silver Surfer in Fantastic Four #48 was pure Jack Kirby. Kirby realized that a being like Galactus required an equally impressive herald."
- Greenberger, Robert, ed. (December 2001). 100 Greatest Marvels of All Time. Marvel Comics. p. 26.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 95
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 103: "Fantastic Four Annual #2 revealed that Dr. Doom had been a college classmate of Reed Richards."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 110: "Having seen them together as a couple since Fantastic Four #1, the fans couldn't wait for the wedding of Sue Storm and Reed Richards."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 119
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 133: "November  saw the birth of Franklin Richards, the son of Reed and Sue."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 133: "Annihilus first encountered humanity when Mr. Fantastic, the Human Torch, and the Thing entered the Negative Zone in search of anti-matter particles."
- "Fantastic Four". Markify. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- Sanderson, Peter "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 144: "In 1970, [the Silver Age of comic books] began its end with the departure of artist Jack Kirby...marking the end of the most creative period in Marvel history."
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 157: "September  witnessed a new generation taking command at Marvel Comics. Roy Thomas not only became writer of 'The World's Greatest Comic Magazine' with Fantastic Four #126, but also simultaneously became Marvel's Editor-in-Chief."
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 165
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 168: "New Marvel writer Chris Claremont and artist John Buscema introduced Madrox the Multiple Man, a mutant who could duplicate his own body over and over."
- Giant-Size Fantastic Four at the Grand Comics Database
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 176: "In a venture into metafictional comedy, the mischievous Impossible Man visited the Marvel offices, where he met his creators Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, as well as the collaborators on his current story, writer Roy Thomas and artist George Pérez."
- Martini, Frank (December 2013). "Marv Wolfman's Bicentennial Battles". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (69): 44–47.
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 190: "Created by writer Marv Wolfman and artist John Byrne, Terrax would not only become a threat to the Fantastic Four but also Galactus himself."
- Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1980s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 113. ISBN 978-0756692360.
In the conclusion to a tale that had begun in the pages of Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man #42 (May), writer [Bill] Mantlo and artist John Byrne had the latest incarnation of the Frightful Four face off against their Fantastic counterparts
- Mantlo, Bill (w), Zeck, Mike (p), Mooney, Jim (i). "Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death!" Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man 42 (May 1980)
- Mantlo, Bill (w), Byrne, John (p), Sinnott, Joe (i). "When A Spider-Man Comes Calling!" Fantastic Four 218 (May 1980)
- Powers, Tom (February 2010). "John Byrne's Fantastic Four: The World's Greatest Family Magazine!". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (38): 3–22.
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 200: "John Byrne went back to basics with the Fantastic Four and evoked the title's early days of Stan Lee and Jack Kirby."
- "GCD :: Issue :: Fantastic Four #232 [Direct Edition]". www.comics.org.
- Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5.
- Cooke, Jon B.; Eric Nolen-Weathington (2006). Modern Masters Volume Seven: John Byrne. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 42–44. ISBN 978-1-893905-56-6.
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 221: "After freeing herself from the Psycho-Man's control, Susan changed her name from the Invisible Girl to the Invisible Woman."
- "Jessica Alba – Fantastic Four Girls". UGO. Archived from the original on April 6, 2008. Retrieved March 6, 2009.
- Englehart, Steve. "Fantastic Four 304–332". SteveEnglehart.com. pp. 1–3. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013. Retrieved March 9, 2009.
- Manning, Matthew K. "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 252: "Spider-Man, the Hulk, Wolverine, and Ghost Rider were tricked into forming a new Fantastic Four...Written by Walter Simonson with art by Arthur Adams, this new FF found themselves locked in battle with the Mole Man."
- Cowsill, Alan "1990s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 186: "Take Spidey, Ghost Rider, Wolverine, and the Hulk, add a script by Walt Simonson and illustrations by Art Adams, and the result is one of the best Marvel comics of the decade."
- Nolen-Weathington, Eric (2006). Modern Masters Volume Eight: Walter Simonson. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-893905-64-1.
- Manning, Shaun (January 15, 2008). "Brand New (May) Day: DeFalco talks Amazing Spider-Girl". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
- Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 265: "In this issue penned by Tom DeFalco and penciled by Paul Ryan, Dr. Doom...managed to lure Reed Richards to him and seemingly ended both of their lives"
- Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 280: "Jim Lee both wrote and drew this Heroes Reborn relaunch title with the help of fellow scripter Brandon Choi."
- Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 288: "Writer Scott Lobdell rearranged his X-schedule to try his hand at writing a different team of Marvel heroes in this new Heroes Reborn series. It was drawn by Alan Davis."
- "Fantastic Four (III) (1998–2003)". The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators.
- Waid, Mark (w), Wieringo, Mike (p), Kesel, Karl (i). "Inside Out" Fantastic Four v3, 60 (October 2002)
- Hudlin, Reginald; Portela, Francis (2007). Black Panther: Four the Hard Way. Marvel Comics. p. 120. ISBN 978-0785126553.
- Hudlin, Reginald; Portela, Francis (2008). Black Panther: Little Green Men. Marvel Comics. p. 96. ISBN 978-0785126577.
- Boyle, Sean (February 12, 2008). "Mark Millar: Tripping the Light Fantastic". Comics Bulletin. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008.
- Richards, Dave (August 11, 2007). "WWC: Mark Millar is the New Fantastic Four-Man". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- "Dark Reign: Fantastic Four". The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators.
- Smith, Zack (January 12, 2009). "Jonathan Hickman – Secret Warriors, the FF and More". Newsarama. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013.
- Richards, Dave (February 13, 2009). "The Osborn Supremacy: Fantastic Four". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013.
- Hickman, Jonathan (w), Eaglesham, Dale (p), Eaglesham, Dale (i). "Solve Everything Part One" Fantastic Four 570 (October 2009)
- Ching, Albert (January 25, 2011). "Associated Press Spoils Fantastic Four #587 Hours Before Comic Goes on Sale". Newsarama. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013.
- Ching, Albert (January 25, 2011). "Hickman Details Fantastic Four #587's Big Character Death". Newsarama. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013.
- Moore, Matt (January 25, 2011). "After Half Century, It's 1 Fantastic's Farewell". Associated Press via The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015.
- Khouri, Andy (February 9, 2011). "Fantastic Four Get a New Name, New Costumes and an Old Spider-Man". ComicsAlliance.com. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013.
- Hanks, Henry (February 11, 2011). "Spider-Man replacing Human Torch on new 'FF' team". CNN. Archived from the original on February 11, 2011.
- Cowsill "2010s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 336: "In a hologram left for Reed, [Johnny Storm] urged his teammates to continue their work, and to replace him on the team with Spider-Man."
- "GCD :: Issue :: Fantastic Four #600". www.comics.org.
- Hickman, Jonathan (w), Di Giandomenico, Carmine (p), Di Giandomenico, Carmine (i). "Whatever Happened to Johnny Storm?" Fantastic Four 600 (January 2012)
- "Best Sellers – The New York Times – Hardcover Graphic Books". The New York Times. March 11, 2012. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2012.
- Beard, Jim (August 13, 2012). "Marvel NOW! Q&A: Fantastic Four". Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- Richards, Dave (November 27, 2012). "Fraction Celebrates Marvel's First Families in Fantastic Four & FF". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- Richards, Dave (November 20, 2013). "James Robinson Ushers in a New Era for the Fantastic Four". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on April 29, 2014.
These questions and more will be explored in an all-new volume of Fantastic Four by writer James Robinson and artist Leonard Kirk, which kicks off in February.
- Ching, Albert (October 12, 2014). "NYCC: Marvel's Axel-In-Charge Panel Reveals Fantastic Four Fate, New Ant-Man and More". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015.
- Johnston, Rich (October 14, 2015). "More Secrets From All-New All-Different Marvel – Human Torch And Rogue? Really?". Bleeding Cool. Archived from the original on October 15, 2015.
The Thing has joined the Guardians Of The Galaxy amidst cosmic wordplay between Rocket Raccoon and the Kitty Pryde Starlord. While the Human Torch has joined the Uncanny Avengers, and we already know is getting down with Inhuman Queen Medusa.
- Hickman, Jonathan (w), Ribić, Esad (p), Ribić, Esad (i). "Beyond" Secret Wars 9 (March 2016)
- Slott, Dan (w), Camuncoli, Giuseppe (p), Smith, Cam (i). "Friendly Fire" The Amazing Spider-Man v4, 3 (January 2016)
- THE FANTASTIC FOUR RETURN -Marvel.com
- Marvel's FANTASTIC FOUR Are Back -Newsarama
- Manning "2000s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 321: "Playwright Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa and artist Steve McNiven focused on the family dynamic that holds the Fantastic Four together in this new ongoing series."
- Manning "2000s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 320: "Brian Michael Bendis, Mark Millar, and Adam Kubert reexamined Marvel's first family, creating this alternate version of the Fantastic Four."
- Conway, Gerry (w), Buscema, John (p), Sinnott, Joe (i). "A Dragon Stalks the Skies" Fantastic Four 134 (May 1973)
- Note reprinted in Lee, Stan (2011). "Snopses" [sic] The Fantsiuc [sic] Four July '61 Schedule (#)". Marvel Firsts: The 1960s. Marvel Comics. pp. 484–485. ISBN 978-0785158646.
- McLaughlin, Jeff, ed. (2007). "Stan Lee Looks Back: The Comics Legend Recalls Life with Jack Kirby, Steve Ditko, and Heroes". Stan Lee: Conversations. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi. p. 179. ISBN 1578069858.
- Irving, Christopher (March 1, 2009). "A Land of Geeks and Goblins". New York. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
- Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Ordway, Jerry (i). "Towards Infinity!" Fantastic Four 282 (September 1985)
- Busiek, Kurt (w), Bagley, Mark (p), Russell, Vince (i). "Heroes' Reward" Thunderbolts 10 (January 1998)
- Pacheco, Carlos; Marin, Rafael (w), Pacheco, Carlos (p), Merino, Jesus (i). "Shadows in the Mirror!" Fantastic Four v3, 35 (November 2000)
- Pacheco, Carlos; Marin, Rafael (w), Pacheco, Carlos (p), Merino, Jesus (i). "Day of the Dark Sun" Fantastic Four v3, 36 (December 2000)
- Pacheco, Carlos; Marin, Rafael (w), Pacheco, Carlos (p), Merino, Jesus (i). "Things Change" Fantastic Four v3, 39 (March 2001)
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 89: "[The Puppet Master] used his blind stepdaughter Alicia in a plot to destroy the Fantastic Four, but the young sculptress soon fell in love with the Thing."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 116: "Roughly based on the Native American athlete Jim Thorpe, Wyatt Wingfoot casually sauntered into Johnny Storm's life in Fantastic Four #51."
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 144: "Issue #94 of the Fantastic Four introduced Agatha Harkness, the kindly witch who dwelt in a Gothic mansion atop Whisper Hill."
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 159: "In Fantastic Four #132, Medusa of the Inhumans replaced Susan Richards briefly on the FF."
- Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Byrne, John (i). "The Lady Is for Burning!" Fantastic Four 238 (January 1982)
- Knowles, Christopher (2007). Our Gods Wear Spandex. Newburyport, Massachusetts: Weiser. p. 173–174. ISBN 1-57863-406-7.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 107: "The Wizard...gathered together his former partner the Trapster, along with the Sandman and Medusa to form the Frightful Four."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 90: "An alien with the power to morph into any shape or substance he desired, the Impossible Man was hated by readers at first because he was not a serious menace."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 92: "With the Cold War's space race dominating the news, Stan Lee and Jack Kirby mixed real world events with comic book fantasy in The Fantastic Four #13...Familiar with the Fantastic Four's origin, Ivan Kragoff – the Red Ghost – trained a crew of apes to pilot a space ship...he deliberately exposed himself and them to cosmic rays so that they could develop super-powers."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 95: "Owen Reece...became Molecule Man when he inadvertently gained the power to control and reshape matter on the molecular level."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 107: "The fire-breathing monster known as Dragon Man first took wing Fantastic Four #35. Stan Lee and Jack Kirby modeled him after both Frankenstein and King Kong."
- Bing, Jonathon (July 2005). "The Doom-Defying, Two-Fisted Marketing of Fantastic Four". Wired. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved 2009-02-25.
- Wright (2001). Comic Book Nation. p. 205.
- Fein, Eric (2006). The Creation of the Fantastic Four. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4042-0765-3.
- Carty, Adrian (February 22, 2014). "Marvel-lous – The Fantastic Four". PulpInterest.com. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014.
- Mangels, Andy (May 1991). "Reel Marvel: Fantastic Four in the cartoons history". Marvel Age. Marvel Comics. 1 (100). Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Fantastic Four: "The Way It Began" book and record set at the Grand Comics Database
- Thomas, Roy; Sanderson, Peter (2007). The Marvel Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the World of Marvel. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0762428441.
In 1967, Spider-Man and Fantastic Four took over Saturday morning slots on ABC-TV, the latter produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions.
- Vishnevetsky, Ignatiy (December 1, 2014). "Our option on Atlas Shrugged expires in two days: 6-plus copyright extensions disguised as movies". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on December 8, 2014. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- Brady, Terrence J. (n.d.). "The Fantastic Four-Gotten". Teako170.com. Archived from the original on July 31, 2014.
- "Fantastic Four". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on September 4, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- Fantastic Four at Box Office Mojo
- "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015.
- McClintock, Pamela (September 18, 2014). "X-Men Spin-Off Deadpool Gets Winter 2016 Release Date". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
- Vejvoda, Jim (March 8, 2014). "Miles Teller on What Appealed to Him About The Fantastic Four Reboot". IGN. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- "Toby Kebbell to Play Fantastic Four Villain Doctor Doom (Exclusive)". Variety. April 1, 2014. Archived from the original on August 28, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Kebbell, Toby (April 2, 2014). "Thank you for all the support". Twitter. Archived from the original on April 17, 2014.
- Kroll, Justin (February 19, 2014). "Fantastic Four Cast Revealed". Variety. Archived from the original on September 4, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- Hoad, Phil (August 11, 2015). "Fantastic Four flop: the biggest superhero disaster since Catwoman". The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 30, 2015.
Fox’s handling of Fantastic Four – Marvel’s original multi-superhero squad, the rights for whom were leased out to Constantin Film back in 1986 – is a total disaster. A competent marketing campaign, casting Josh Trank’s $120m reboot in a Christopher Nolan-esque penumbra, has fooled no one.
- "Download the Marvel Pinball Fantastic Four Table". Marvel Comics. April 27, 2011. Archived from the original on November 6, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
Marvel Pinball is celebrating 50 years of the Fantastic Four with the addition of its newest table, which highlights the teamwork of Mister Fantastic, the Invisible Woman, the Thing and the Human Torch!
- Gresh, Lois H.; Robert Weinberg (2002). The Science of Superheroes. John Wiley & Sons. p. 21–29. ISBN 0-471-02460-0.