Fantasy (Mariah Carey song)
|Single by Mariah Carey|
|from the album Daydream|
|Released||September 12, 1995|
|Mariah Carey singles chronology|
"Fantasy" is a song by American singer-songwriter Mariah Carey. It was released on September 12, 1995 by Columbia Records as the lead single for her fifth studio album, Daydream (1995). The song was written by Carey and Dave Hall, both serving as primary producers alongside Sean Combs. The song heavily samples Tom Tom Club's 1981 song "Genius of Love," and incorporates various other beats and grooves arranged by the former. The song's lyrics describe a woman who is in love with a man, and how every time she sees him she starts fantasizing about an impossible relationship with him. The remix for the song features rap verses from Ol' Dirty Bastard, something Carey arranged to assist in her transition into the hip-hop market.
The song was positively reviewed by contemporary music critics, many of whom complimented its clever use of the "Genius of Love" hook as well as Carey's vocal performance. "Fantasy" experienced strong success around the world, especially in the United States. It became the second song in Billboard history, and the first by a female, to debut atop the Hot 100. Additionally, aside from topping the chart for eight consecutive weeks, the song achieved strong success outside the United States, topping the charts in Australia, Canada and New Zealand and becoming a top-five hit in Belgium, Finland, France and the United Kingdom.
Carey performed "Fantasy" live on several television and award show appearances around the world. Carey performed the song at the 23rd annual American Music Awards, held on January 29, 1996. Additionally, it was performed live on British music chart program Top of the Pops and on French television. "Fantasy" was part of the set-lists on several of Carey's succeeding tours, making its debut during the album's accompanying set of concerts, the Daydream World Tour and is featured on her compilation albums, #1's (1998), Greatest Hits (2001), The Remixes (2003) and Playlist: The Very Best of Mariah Carey (2010).
The cover of the single was shot by top fashion photographer Steven Meisel. The cover for her album Daydream is a cropped version of the single cover. Carey directed the music video for "Fantasy", making it her directorial debut. Carey created the video's concept and chose the filming location. After being disappointed with the final result in many of her previous videos, Carey decided to single handedly direct the video. The video showed Carey's roller blading through an amusement park, singing and enjoying herself. Mid-way through the video, Ol' Dirty Bastard makes a cameo appearance as a clown. The video concludes with Carey dancing atop the sunroof of a car, with many others present and enjoying the music and celebration.
- 1 Background
- 2 Composition
- 3 Critical reception
- 4 Chart performance
- 5 Remixes
- 6 Music video
- 7 Awards and accolades
- 8 Live performances
- 9 Legacy
- 10 Formats and track listings
- 11 Credits and personnel
- 12 Charts and certifications
- 13 Chart successions
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
With Daydream, Carey began incorporating urban R&B and hip hop into her music, something very noticeable in "Fantasy." After Carey began writing songs for her new album Daydream, she decided to include the hook from the Tom Tom Club song "Genius of Love" into an up-tempo song. Afterwards, Carey and Hall began incorporating the sample into the lyrics and melody she had already produced. Carey described how the idea to sample the song became a reality:
I was listening to the radio and heard 'Genius of Love', and I hadn't heard it in a long time. It reminded me of growing up and listening to the radio and that feeling the song gave me seemed to go with the melody and basic idea I had for "Fantasy." I initially told Dave about the idea, and we did it. We called up the Tom Tom Club and they were really into it.
Carey recalled how the writers of the song were really intrigued by the idea of Carey sampling the song, and immediately signed over the rights. After Carey presented Hall with the sample, the chorus and beat, he developed a familiar groove that he felt would "highlight Carey's voice." After they completed the song, Carey's husband and CEO of Columbia, Tommy Mottola listened to "Fantasy" and agreed to include it on the album. The cover of the single was shot by top fashion photographer Steven Meisel. A cropped version of the photograph was used as the album cover as well. Hall described his experience with writing the song with Carey:
[It] was a fun song to do. Mariah brought me 'Genius of Love' and I laid some strings on it and put it into a groove I felt really fit and highlighted her voice. And that song didn't take us but a minute to do, because she really busted that out within two days. We did a rough copy and let Tommy Mottola hear it and he loved it, so all we had to do was bring it back in and mix it.
A sample of "Fantasy", featuring a sampled hook and other beats.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
"Fantasy" is an up-tempo pop, contemporary R&B and dance-pop song, which blends elements of funk, hip hop, and bubblegum pop. The remix, which features rap verses from O.D.B, also incorporates hip-hop into the bridge. The song uses heavy bass and percussion, as well as a sample from "Genius of Love". The song is set in the signature common time, and is written in the key of G major. It features a basic chord progression of A♭-F♭-1. Carey's vocal range in the song spans from the note of D3 to the high note of F6; the piano and guitar pieces range from D♭4 to E♭5 as well. The song contains choral lyrics written by Carey, who also developed the song's melody and original beat. Instrumentation and production was performed by Dave Hall, while co-arranging and producing the track as well. The members of the Tom Tom Club, Tina Weymouth, Chris Frantz, Steven Stanley and Adrian Belew are all credited as writers due to the inclusion of the music sample they wrote.
Upon its release, "Fantasy" garnered mostly positive reviews from contemporary music critics. Bill Lamb from About.com was very positive on the song, calling it "truly inspiring" and a "career high water mark" for Carey. Stephen Thomas Erlewine from Allmusic also praised the song, saying "Carey continues to perfect her craft and that she has earned her status as an R&B/pop diva." Stephen Holden from The New York Times gave the song praise, writing "with 'Fantasy,' Ms. Carey glides confidently into the territory where gospel-flavored pop-soul meets light hip-hop and recorded some of the most gorgeously spun choral music to be found on a contemporary album." Additionally, he claimed "Fantasy" held some of the album's best moments, writing "she continues to make pop music as deliciously enticing as the best moments of "Fantasy." Slant Magazine ranked the song at number sixty on their "Best Singles of the '90s" list, writing it is "escapism perfected, [a] summer bubblegum gem with a sweet, flawless vocal line driven by a diva in her prime."
"Fantasy" achieved strong commercial success around the world. The song became Carey's ninth number one single on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 chart. It became the first single by a female artist to debut atop the chart, and only the second single to do so after "You Are Not Alone" by Michael Jackson. It debuted at the top of the Billboard Hot 100 due to the strong sales, which were expected to exceed 229,000 copies. It spent eight weeks at the top of the chart, from September 24 to November 18, 1995, Carey's longest stay at the time alongside "Dreamlover" (1993). It replaced "Gangsta's Paradise" by Coolio, and was replaced by Whitney Houston's "Exhale (Shoop Shoop)". "Fantasy" spent 23 weeks in the top 40 and was successful on other Billboard formats, including the R&B and dance charts. Its strong sales led it to be certified double-platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), Carey's first single to do so. "Fantasy" was the second best-selling single of 1995 in the US, with sales of 1,500,000. It was ranked seventh on the Hot 100 year-end charts for 1995 and 49th on the 1996 year-end charts. "Fantasy" ranked at number 15 on the Hot 100 decade-end chart for the 1990s.
In Australia, the song topped the chart and was certified platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA). In Canada, the song debuted on the RPM Singles Chart at number 95 on the RPM issue dated October 2, 1995, and reached the top of the chart on November 20, 1995. It was present on the chart for a total of 20 weeks, and ranked 18 on the RPM Year-end chart for 1995. "Fantasy" also reached the top 10 in most countries across Europe, and the top 20 on the Oricon chart in Japan. It peaked within the top-five in Belgium (Wallonia), Finland, France and the United Kingdom; and in the top 10 in Belgium (Flanders), The Netherlands, Ireland, Norway and Switzerland. "Fantasy" was certified silver in France and the United Kingdom, by the Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique (SNEP) and British Phonographic Industry (BPI), respectively. According to The Official Charts Company, the song has sold 280,000 copies in United Kingdom. The song also topped the charts in New Zealand, where it was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand (RIANZ).
Carey worked with producer Puff Daddy to create the official remix, the Bad Boy remix of "Fantasy". While Columbia allowed Carey more leniency with the music she recorded, they became hesitant when she featured Ol' Dirty Bastard in the remix for "Fantasy." They feared the sudden change was completely left field for her music, and worried it would jeopardize the album's success. Finally, the Bad Boy remix used guest raps from O.D.B and background vocals by Puff Daddy. Some of the song's R&B elements were removed for the remix, while the bassline and "Genius of Love" sample were emphasized & the bridge from the original version was used as the chorus. There is a version omitting Ol' Dirty Bastard's verses. The "Bad Boy Fantasy Remix", combines the chorus from the original version and the chorus of the Bad Boy Remix together, removing Ol' Dirty Bastard's vocals from his 2nd verse. Carey re-recorded vocals for club remixes of the song by David Morales, titled "Daydream Interlude (Fantasy Sweet Dub Mix)." The Bad Boy remix garnered positive reviews from music critics. Ken Tucker from Entertainment Weekly praised the song, claiming its one of the few tracks where Carey "defines herself." Additionally, he complimented the song, writing "At her best, as she is on this clipped, spunky track, Carey is a disco diva for the '90s, a worthy successor to trailblazing women like Donna Summer and Vicki Sue Robinson, R&B singers with an affinity for the endless groove. Disco? No wonder most rock critics can't get behind her. Party on, Mariah."
The single's music video was the first that Carey directed entirely on her own. Carey had been open about the fact that she had not been happy with some of her previous music videos. She therefore decided to single handedly direct the video, so the outcome would to her exact choosing. Carey said her inspiration for the video was to give off a "free and open feeling," trying to portray the freedom she had finally achieved in being allowed to direct her first video. The video for "Fantasy" debuted on September 7, at the "MTV Video Music Awards." The video begins with Carey exploring the Playland amusement park, located in Rye, New York, on roller blades and riding a wooden coaster. The video continues showing snippets of Carey at the park, until the end of the second verse. Afterwards, Carey proceeds to an outdoor celebration that involves people dancing atop their cars.
I'd done a lot of videos and wasn't always a hundred percent thrilled. For the most part, I was never thrilled with the results, so I figured I would give directing a shot. It was a pretty simple concept. Most of the scenes were featured at the amusement park, at a late-night outdoor celebration. I was really happy to be able to include O.D.B in the remix video.
Following in their actions, Carey joins in the festivities and hops atop a car and begins singing and dancing to the strong bass and R&B beat playing from the stereos. The video also contains a scene involving a lovable young girl who tries to emulate Carey and whose character reappears in the video for Carey's single "Shake It Off" (2005). The video shoot took place in mid-August 1995. In the official video for the song's remix, O.D.B makes a few cameo appearances as a clown, as well as on the Boardwalk during additional scenes with Carey.
Awards and accolades
"Fantasy" won many prestigious awards throughout the music industry in 1995 and 1996. At the Blockbuster Entertainment Awards, the song won the award for "Favorite Single." Additionally, the song was a warded the "Pop Award" honor at the 1996 annual American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP). Carey won the "Dance Record of the Year" award at the "National Dance Music Awards" in 1996. "Fantasy" won two awards at the 1996 "Winter Music Conference National Dance Music Awards," for "Favorite Single" and "Dance Record of the Year." The song won a Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI) "Pop Song of the Year" award in 1997, as well as the "Favorite Single" award at the annual "Archer Awards." The song also was nominated for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance at the 38th Grammy Awards.
"Fantasy" was performed at the 23rd Annual American Music Awards, where Carey won two of the top awards. For the performance, Carey wore a long black trench coat and matching boots, pants and blouse, and was backed by three background vocalists. Additionally, Carey sang "Fantasy" on the British music chart program Top of the Pops, during a promotional stop in the United Kingdom on September 12, 1995. During its taping, she wore a blue blouse and black jumper. Two days later, Carey appeared on French television where she performed the song alongside several male and female dancers. Carey donned a mid-waist baring white blouse and black leather pants and matching heeled boots. Trey Lorenz and two female back up vocalists were also featured on stage during the show's taping. Aside from live television appearances, the song was performed on several legs of Carey's tours.
"Fantasy" was performed at every show on her Daydream World Tour (1996) set to the album version. The performance was tuned similarly to Carey's recital at the American Music Awards, featuring a similar outfit, dance routines and set up. The remix version was performed on her Butterfly World Tour (1998), Rainbow World Tour (2000), Charmbracelet World Tour: An Intimate Evening with Mariah Carey (2004), and The Adventures of Mimi tour (2006), each of which featured a varying synopsis. In 1998, it became the first time Carey performed the remix version in concert, placing a large projection screen on to the stage, and featuring snippets and cuts of O.D.B. throughout the video. Additionally, Carey was dressed in blue jeans and a white blouse, and danced several chair routines with several male dancers. During the Charmbracelet Tour and Rainbow Tour, the shows segment was similar to her previous tour. The song was featured on the select set-list on three of Carey's live taped shows, Fantasy: Mariah Carey at Madison Square Garden, The Adventures of Mimi, and Around the World.
"Fantasy" exemplified how a music sample could be transformed "into a fully realized pop masterpiece". The song and its remix arguably remains as one of Carey's most important singles to date. Due to the success and influence of the song, Carey is credited for introducing R&B and hip hop into mainstream pop culture, and for popularizing rap as a featuring act through her post-1995 songs. Sasha Frere-Jones, editor of The New Yorker commented in referencing to the song's remix, "It became standard for R&B/hip-hop stars like Missy Elliott and Beyoncé, to combine melodies with rapped verses. And young white pop stars—including Britney Spears, 'N Sync, and Christina Aguilera—have spent much of the past ten years making pop music that is unmistakably R&B." Moreover Jones concludes that "Her idea of pairing a female songbird with the leading male MCs of hip-hop changed R&B and, eventually, all of pop. Although now anyone is free to use this idea, the success of "Mimi" [ref. to The Emancipation of Mimi, her tenth studio album released almost a decade after Fantasy] suggests that it still belongs to Carey."
John Norris of MTV News has stated that the remix was "responsible for, I would argue, an entire wave of music that we've seen since and that is the R&B-hip-hop collaboration. You could argue that the 'Fantasy' remix was the single most important recording that she's ever made." Norris echoed the sentiments of TLC's Lisa Lopes, who told MTV that it's because of Mariah that we have "Hip-Pop." Judnick Mayard, writer of TheFader, wrote that in regarding of R&B and hip hop collaboration, "The champion of this movement is Mariah Carey." Mayard also expressed that "To this day ODB and Mariah may still be the best and most random hip hop collaboration of all time", citing that due to the record "Fantasy," "R&B and Hip Hop were the best of step siblings." In the 1998 film Rush Hour, Soo Yong is singing the song while it plays on the car radio, shortly before her kidnapping.
Formats and track listings
Worldwide CD single
UK CD maxi-single #2
Credits and personnel
Credits adapted from the Daydream liner notes.
- Mariah Carey – co-production, songwriting, vocals
- Dave Hall – co-production, songwriting
- Tina Weymouth – songwriting
- Chris Frantz – songwriting
- Steven Stanley – songwriting
- Adrian Belew – songwriting
Charts and certifications
Certifications and sales
"Gangsta's Paradise" by Coolio featuring L.V.
|Billboard Hot 100 number-one single
September 30, 1995 – November 18, 1995
"Exhale (Shoop Shoop)" by Whitney Houston
"You Are Not Alone" by Michael Jackson
|Billboard Hot R&B Singles number-one single
September 30, 1995 – November 4, 1995
"Who Can I Run To" by Xscape
"Kiss from a Rose" by Seal
|Australian ARIA Singles Chart number-one single
October 8, 1995 – October 15, 1995
"Stayin' Alive" by N-Trance featuring Ricardo da Force
"Back for Good" by Take That
|Canadian RPM 100 number-one single
November 20, 1995 – November 27, 1995
"Hand in My Pocket" by Alanis Morissette
"Boombastic" by Shaggy
|New Zealand RIANZ Singles Chart number-one single
October 6, 1995 – October 13, 1995
October 20, 1995 – October 27, 1995
"Boombastic" by Shaggy
"Gangsta's Paradise" by Coolio featuring L.V.
"We Can Make It" by Moné
|Billboard Hot Dance Club Play number-one single
October 21, 1995 – November 10, 1995
"Stay Together" by Barbara Tucker
"Right Type of Mood" by Herbie
|Canadian RPM Dance chart number-one single
November 6, 1995 - November 13, 1995 (2 weeks)
"I Believe" by Happy Clappers
- Bronson 2003, p. 841
- Nickson 1998, p. 134
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Mariah Carey: Daydream". Allmusic. All Media Guide. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- "Mariah Carey - Fantasy - Digital Sheet Music". Musicnotes.com. Alfred Publishing. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Lamb, Bill. "Mariah Carey 'Daydream'". About.com. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- Holden, Stephen (1995-10-08). "Pop Music; Mariah Carey Glides Into New Territory". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- "Best Singles of the '90s". Slant. Retrieved 2011-01-12.
- McKenna, Jerry (1995-09-30). "Hot 100 Singles Spotlight". Billboard 107 (39). ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
- "The Billboard Hot 100: Week Ending of September 23, 1995". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
- "The Billboard Hot 100: Week Ending of November 25, 1995". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
- Christmas, Ed (1996-01-20). "Best-Selling Records of 1995". Billboard. Nielsen Business, Inc. Retrieved 2010-11-13.
- "The Year in Music: 1995" (PDF). Billboard. December 23, 1995. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "The Year in Music: 1996" (PDF). Billboard. December 28, 1996. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Hot 100 Singles of the '90s". Billboard. December 25, 1999. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
- Kent, David (2006). Australian Chart Book 1993-2005. ISBN 0-646-45889-2.
- "Top Singles - Volume 62, No. 9, October 02 1995". RPM. 1995-10-02. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- "Top Singles - Volume 62, No. 16, November 20, 1995". RPM. 1997-09-22. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- "Top Singles - Volume 63, No. 1, February 19, 1996". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. 1996-02-19. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- "RPM's Top 100 Singles Of 1995". RPM. 1995-12-18. Retrieved 2011-02-09.
- マライア・キャリーのアルバム売り上げランキング (in Japanese). Oricon. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Certified Awards Search". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- "Disque en France". Disque en France. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- "Mariah Carey: The Official Top 20". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved 2011-02-23.
- Scapolo, Dean (2007). The Complete New Zealand Music Charts 1966-2006. ISBN 978-1-877443-00-8.
- Nickson 1998, p. 137
- Shapiro 2001, pp. 92
- Nickson 1998, p. 149.
- Tucker, Ken (1995-10-13). "Daydream (1995)". Entertainment Weekly. Time Warner. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- Nickson 1998, pp. 142
- Roura, Phil (1995-08-15). "Extra! Extra! Late-Breaking News from The World Of Entertainment". The New York Times Company (New York Daily News). Retrieved 2010-11-11.[dead link]
- "Mariah Carey Career Achievement Awards". Mariahcarey.com. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
- "List of Grammy nominees". CNN. January 4, 1996. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
- Nickson 1998, pp. 155
- Argenson 2010, pp. 29–33
- Argenson 2010, pp. 38–42
- Argenson 2010, pp. 44–48
- "Mariah Performs at Formula 1 in Singapore". Mariahcarey.com. 2010-09-27. Retrieved 2010-10-23.
- Sanneh, Kelefa (2005-08-04). "The Summer Buzz: Cicadas and Mariah Carey". The New York Times.
- "Best Singles of the 1990s | Music". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- Frere-Jones, Sasha (2006-04-03). "Mariah Carey's record-breaking career". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- "Celebrities Praise Mariah Carey: Part 1". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- "Suite903: R&B, Rejected and Betrayed". Thefader.com. 2011-01-14. Retrieved 2011-04-04.
- "Grimes Favorites". Brooklyn Vegan. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
- Fantasy (Dutch 7-inch Single liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1995. 662461 7.
- Fantasy (UK CD maxi-single #1 liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1995. 662495 2.
- Fantasy (US CD maxi-single liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1995. 44K 78044.
- Fantasy (UK CD maxi-single #2 liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1995. 662495 5.
- Carey, Mariah (1995). Daydream (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Mariah Carey. New York City, New York: Columbia Records.
- "Australian-charts.com – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". ARIA Top 50 Singles. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Austriancharts.at – Mariah Carey – Fantasy" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Ultratop.be – Mariah Carey – Fantasy" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Ultratop.be – Mariah Carey – Fantasy" (in French). Ultratop 50. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Hits of the World" (PDF). Billboard. November 4, 1995. p. 70. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "Top RPM Singles: Issue 2813." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Top RPM Adult Contemporary: Issue 2802." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- RPM Dance November 6, 1995
- "Hits of World". Billboard 107 (42). 1995-10-21. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Hits of World". Billboard 107 (43). 1995-10-28. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Mariah Carey: Fantasy" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Lescharts.com – Mariah Carey – Fantasy" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey - Fantasy" (in German). GfK Entertainment. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Fantasy". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Nederlandse Top 40 – week 41, 1995" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40 Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Mariah Carey – Fantasy" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Charts.org.nz – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Norwegiancharts.com – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". VG-lista. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Archive Chart: October 1, 1995". Scottish Singles Top 40. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". Singles Top 60. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Swisscharts.com – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey: Artist Chart History" UK Singles Chart. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Hot 100 for Mariah Carey. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Adult Contemporary for Mariah Carey. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Adult Pop Songs for Mariah Carey. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs for Mariah Carey. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs for Mariah Carey. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Pop Songs for Mariah Carey. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Rhythmic Songs for Mariah Carey. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "ARIA Charts - End Of Year Charts - Top 50 Singles 1995". ARIA. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Rapports Annuels 1995" (in French). Ultratop. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "RPM Top 100 Hit Tracks of 1995". RPM. December 18, 1995. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "RPM Top 100 Adult Contemporary Tracks of 1995". RPM. December 18, 1995. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- "RPM Top 50 Dance Tracks". RPM. December 18, 1995. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Classement Singles - année 1995" (in French). SNEP. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "I singoli più venduti del 1995" (in Italian). Hit Parade Italia. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
- "Jaarlijsten 1995" (in Dutch). Stichting Nederlandse Top 40. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Jaaroverzichten - Single 1995" (in Dutch). GfK Dutch Charts. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Top Selling Singles of 1995". RIANZ. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- Kent, David (2006). Australian Chart Book 1993-2005. St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-45889-2.
- "Certifications Singles Argent - année 1996" (in French). SNEP. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "New Zealand single certifications – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. Retrieved 2015.
- "British single certifications – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2013. Enter Fantasy in the field Keywords. Select Title in the field Search by. Select single in the field By Format. Select Silver in the field By Award. Click Search
- "American single certifications – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 2015. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH
- Trust, Gary (February 19, 2014). "Ask Billboard: Katy Perry Regains No. 1 Momentum". Billboard. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Argenson, Jim (2010), Mariah Carey Concert Tours, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 1-155-56204-6
- Bronson, Fred (2003), The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits, Billboard Books, ISBN 0-8230-7677-6
- Nickson, Chris (1998), Mariah Carey revisited: her story, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 978-0-312-19512-0
- Shapiro, Marc (2001), Mariah Carey: The Unauthorized Biography, ECW Press, ISBN 978-1-55022-444-3