Fantasy (Mariah Carey song)
|Single by Mariah Carey|
|from the album Daydream|
|Released||September 12, 1995|
December 18, 1995 (remix)
|Mariah Carey singles chronology|
"Fantasy" is a song by American singer and songwriter Mariah Carey from her fifth album Daydream (1995), released on September 12, 1995 by Columbia Records as the lead single from the album. The song was written by Carey and Dave Hall, both serving as primary producers alongside Sean Combs. The song heavily samples Tom Tom Club's 1981 song "Genius of Love" and incorporates various other beats and grooves arranged by the former. The song's lyrics describe a woman who is in love with a man, and how every time she sees him she starts fantasizing about an impossible relationship with him. The remix for the song features rap verses from Ol' Dirty Bastard, something Carey arranged to assist in her crossover into the hip-hop market.
"Fantasy" became the second song in Billboard history, and the first by a female, to debut atop the Billboard Hot 100. Additionally, aside from topping the Hot 100 chart for eight consecutive weeks, the song topped the charts in Australia, Canada and New Zealand, and was a top-five hit in Belgium, Finland, France and the United Kingdom.
Carey performed "Fantasy" live on several television and award show appearances around the world. Carey performed the song at the 23rd annual American Music Awards, held on January 29, 1996. Additionally, it was performed live on British music chart program Top of the Pops and on French television. "Fantasy" was part of the set-lists on several of Carey's succeeding tours, making its debut during the album's accompanying set of concerts, the Daydream World Tour and is featured on her compilation albums, #1's (1998), Greatest Hits (2001), The Remixes (2003) and Playlist: The Very Best of Mariah Carey (2010).
The cover of the single was shot by top fashion photographer Steven Meisel. The cover for her album Daydream is a cropped version of the single cover. Carey directed the music video for "Fantasy", making it her directorial debut. Carey created the video's concept and chose the filming location. After being disappointed with the final result in many of her previous videos, Carey decided to single-handedly direct the video. The video showed Carey's rollerblading through Playland Amusement Park in Rye, New York, singing and enjoying herself. Midway through the video, Ol' Dirty Bastard makes a cameo appearance as a clown. The video concludes with Carey dancing atop the sunroof of a car, with many others present and enjoying the music and celebration.
- 1 Background
- 2 Composition
- 3 Critical reception
- 4 Chart performance
- 5 Remixes
- 6 Music video
- 7 Awards and accolades
- 8 Live performances
- 9 Legacy
- 10 Track listing and formats
- 11 Credits and personnel
- 12 Charts and certifications
- 13 References
- 14 External links
With Daydream, Carey began incorporating urban R&B and hip hop into her music, something very noticeable in "Fantasy." After Carey began writing songs for her new album Daydream, she decided to include the hook from the Tom Tom Club song "Genius of Love" into an up-tempo song. Afterwards, Carey and Hall began incorporating the sample into the lyrics and melody she had already produced. Carey described how the idea to sample the song became a reality:
I was listening to the radio and heard 'Genius of Love', and I hadn't heard it in a long time. It reminded me of growing up and listening to the radio and that feeling the song gave me seemed to go with the melody and basic idea I had for "Fantasy." I initially told Dave about the idea, and we did it. We called up the Tom Tom Club and they were really into it.
Carey recalled how the writers of the song were really intrigued by the idea of Carey sampling the song, and immediately signed over the rights. After Carey presented Hall with the sample, the chorus and beat, he developed a familiar groove that he felt would "highlight Carey's voice." After they completed the song, Carey's husband and CEO of Columbia, Tommy Mottola listened to "Fantasy" and agreed to include it on the album. The cover of the single was shot by top fashion photographer Steven Meisel. A cropped version of the photograph was used as the album cover as well. Hall described his experience with writing the song with Carey:
[It] was a fun song to do. Mariah brought me 'Genius of Love' and I laid some strings on it and put it into a groove I felt really fit and highlighted her voice. And that song didn't take us but a minute to do, because she really busted that out within two days. We did a rough copy and let Tommy Mottola hear it and he loved it, so all we had to do was bring it back in and mix it.
A sample of "Fantasy", featuring a sampled hook and other beats.
Problems playing this file? See media help.
"Fantasy" is an up-tempo song with modern R&B and dance-pop genres within its composition, which blends elements of funk music, hip hop, and bubblegum pop. "Fantasy" moves at a tempo of 102 beats per minute. The remix, which features rap verses from O.D.B, also incorporates hip-hop into the bridge. The song uses heavy bass and percussion, as well as a sample from "Genius of Love". The song is set in the signature common time, and is written in the key of G major. It features a basic chord progression of A♭-F♭-1. Carey's vocal range in the song spans from the note of D3 to the high note of F6; the piano and guitar pieces range from D♭4 to E♭5 as well. The song contains choral lyrics written by Carey, who also developed the song's melody and original beat. Instrumentation and production was performed by Dave Hall, while co-arranging and producing the track as well. The members of the Tom Tom Club, Tina Weymouth, Chris Frantz, Steven Stanley and Adrian Belew are all credited as writers due to the inclusion of the music sample they wrote.
Upon its release, "Fantasy" garnered acclaim from contemporary music critics. Bill Lamb from About.com was very positive on the song, calling it "truly inspiring" and a "career high water mark" for Carey. Stephen Thomas Erlewine from Allmusic also praised the song, saying "Carey continues to perfect her craft and that she has earned her status as an R&B/pop diva." Stephen Holden from The New York Times gave the song praise, writing "with 'Fantasy,' Ms. Carey glides confidently into the territory where gospel-flavored pop-soul meets light hip-hop and recorded some of the most gorgeously spun choral music to be found on a contemporary album." Additionally, he claimed "Fantasy" held some of the album's best moments, writing "she continues to make pop music as deliciously enticing as the best moments of "Fantasy." Slant Magazine ranked the song at number sixty on their "Best Singles of the '90s" list, writing it is "escapism perfected, [a] summer bubblegum gem with a sweet, flawless vocal line driven by a diva in her prime."
"Fantasy" achieved strong commercial success around the world. The song became Carey's ninth number one single on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. It became the first single by a female artist to debut atop the chart, and only the second single to do so after "You Are Not Alone" by Michael Jackson. It debuted at the top of the Billboard Hot 100 due to the strong sales, which were expected to exceed 229,000 copies. It spent eight weeks at the top of the chart, from September 24 to November 18, 1995, Carey's longest stay at the time alongside "Dreamlover" (1993). It replaced "Gangsta's Paradise" by Coolio, and was replaced by Whitney Houston's "Exhale (Shoop Shoop)". "Fantasy" spent 23 weeks in the top 40 and was successful on other Billboard formats, including the R&B and dance charts. The song debuted at number 11 on the Mainstream R&B/Hip-Hop chart, setting a record at the time for the charts highest debut which would eventually be surpassed by Drake's "Nice for What" in 2018. Its strong sales led it to be certified double-platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), Carey's first single to do so. "Fantasy" was the second best-selling single of 1995 in the US, with sales of 1,500,000. It was ranked seventh on the Hot 100 year-end charts for 1995 and 49th on the 1996 year-end charts. "Fantasy" ranked at number 15 on the Hot 100 decade-end chart for the 1990s.
In Australia, the song topped the chart and was certified platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA). In Canada, the song debuted on the RPM Singles Chart at number 95 on the RPM issue dated October 2, 1995, and reached the top of the chart on November 20, 1995. It was present on the chart for a total of 20 weeks, and ranked 18 on the RPM Year-end chart for 1995. "Fantasy" also reached the top 10 in most countries across Europe, and the top 20 on the Oricon chart in Japan. It peaked within the top-five in Belgium (Wallonia), Finland, France and the United Kingdom; and in the top 10 in Belgium (Flanders), The Netherlands, Ireland, Norway and Switzerland. "Fantasy" was certified silver in France and gold in the United Kingdom, by the Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique (SNEP) and British Phonographic Industry (BPI), respectively. According to The Official Charts Company, the song has sold 400,000 copies in United Kingdom. The song also topped the charts in New Zealand, where it was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand (RIANZ).
Carey worked with producer Puff Daddy to create the official remix, the Bad Boy remix of "Fantasy". While Columbia allowed Carey more leniency with the music she recorded, they became hesitant when she featured O.D.B. in the remix for "Fantasy." They feared the sudden change was completely left field for her music, and worried it would jeopardize the album's success. Finally, the Bad Boy remix used guest raps from O.D.B and background vocals by Puff Daddy. Some of the song's R&B elements were removed for the remix, while the bassline and "Genius of Love" sample were emphasized & the bridge from the original version was used as the chorus. There is a version omitting Ol' Dirty Bastard's verses. The "Bad Boy Fantasy Remix", combines the chorus from the original version and the chorus of the Bad Boy Remix together, removing Ol' Dirty Bastard's vocals from his 2nd verse. Carey re-recorded vocals for club remixes of the song by David Morales, titled "Daydream Interlude (Fantasy Sweet Dub Mix)." The Bad Boy remix garnered positive reviews from music critics. Ken Tucker from Entertainment Weekly praised the song, claiming its one of the few tracks where Carey "defines herself." Additionally, he complimented the song, writing "At her best, as she is on this clipped, spunky track, Carey is a disco diva for the '90s, a worthy successor to trailblazing women like Donna Summer and Vicki Sue Robinson, R&B singers with an affinity for the endless groove. Disco? No wonder most rock critics can't get behind her. Party on, Mariah."
Carey has stated that the Bad Boy remix contributed to over half of the sales of "Fantasy".
The "Bad Boy Mix" would be featured on Carey’s 1998 compilation #1’s, and also on 2003's The Remixes along with "Def Club Mix", while the "Bad Boy Fantasy" version would feature on 2015's Number 1 to Infinity.
The single's music video was the first that Carey directed entirely on her own. Carey had been open about the fact that she had not been happy with some of her previous music videos. She therefore decided to single-handedly direct the video, so the outcome would to her exact choosing. Carey said her inspiration for the video was to give off a "free and open feeling," trying to portray the freedom she had finally achieved in being allowed to direct her first video. The video for "Fantasy" debuted on September 7, at the "MTV Video Music Awards." The video begins with Carey rollerblading in front of the boardwalk entrance at Playland amusement park, located in Rye, New York, and riding The Dragon Coaster, the park’s signature wooden coaster. The video continues with various snippets of Carey until the end of the second verse. Afterwards, the video switches to a night time scene that involves people dancing in the parking lot and on top cars.
I'd done a lot of videos and wasn't always a hundred percent thrilled. For the most part, I was never thrilled with the results, so I figured I would give directing a shot. It was a pretty simple concept. Most of the scenes were featured at the amusement park, at a late-night outdoor celebration. I was really happy to be able to include O.D.B in the remix video.
Following in their actions, Carey joins in the festivities and hops atop a car and begins singing and dancing to the strong bass and R&B beat playing from the stereos. The video also contains a scene involving a lovable young girl who tries to emulate Carey and whose character reappears in the video for Carey's single "Shake It Off" (2005). The video shoot took place in mid-August 1995. In the official video for the song's remix, O.D.B makes a few cameo appearances as a clown, as well as on the Boardwalk during additional scenes with Carey. Mariah included her high school sweetheart, Nick, in her video (seen riding in the seat behind her on the roller coaster in the yellow and black striped T-shirt).
Awards and accolades
"Fantasy" won many prestigious awards throughout the music industry in 1995 and 1996. At the Blockbuster Entertainment Awards, the song won the award for "Favorite Single." Additionally, the song was awarded the "Pop Award" honor at the 1996 annual American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP). Carey won the "Dance Record of the Year" award at the "National Dance Music Awards" in 1996. "Fantasy" won two awards at the 1996 "Winter Music Conference National Dance Music Awards," for "Favorite Single" and "Dance Record of the Year." The song won a Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI) "Pop Song of the Year" award in 1997, as well as the "Favorite Single" award at the annual "Archer Awards." The song also was nominated for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance at the 38th Grammy Awards.
"Fantasy" was performed at the 23rd Annual American Music Awards, where Carey won two of the top awards. For the performance, Carey wore a long black trench coat and matching boots, pants and blouse, and was backed by three background vocalists. Additionally, Carey sang "Fantasy" on the British music chart program Top of the Pops, during a promotional stop in the United Kingdom on September 12, 1995. During its taping, she wore a blue blouse and black jumper. Two days later, Carey appeared on French television where she performed the song alongside several male and female dancers. Carey donned a mid-waist baring white blouse and black leather pants and matching heeled boots. Trey Lorenz and two female back up vocalists were also featured on stage during the show's taping. Aside from live television appearances, the song was performed on several legs of Carey's tours.
"Fantasy" was performed at every show on her Daydream World Tour (1996) set to the album version. The performance was tuned similarly to Carey's recital at the American Music Awards, featuring a similar outfit, dance routines and set up. The remix version was performed on her Butterfly World Tour (1998), Rainbow World Tour (2000), Charmbracelet World Tour: An Intimate Evening with Mariah Carey (2004), and The Adventures of Mimi tour (2006), and The Elusive Chanteuse Show (2014) each of which featured a varying synopsis. In 1998, it became the first time Carey performed the remix version in concert, placing a large projection screen on to the stage, and featuring snippets and cuts of Ol' Dirty Bastard throughout the video. Additionally, Carey was dressed in blue jeans and a white blouse, and danced several chair routines with several male dancers. During the Charmbracelet Tour and Rainbow Tour, the shows segment was similar to her previous tour. The song was featured on the select set-list on three of Carey's live taped shows, Fantasy: Mariah Carey at Madison Square Garden, The Adventures of Mimi, and Around the World. Carey also featured the song as the ninth in the setlist for her 2015 Las Vegas residency, Mariah Carey Number 1's.
—Kelefa Sanneh of The New York Times commenting on the influence and impact of the song's remix
"Fantasy" exemplified how a music sample could be transformed "into a fully realized pop masterpiece". Due to the success and influence of the song, Carey is credited for introducing R&B and hip hop collaboration into mainstream pop culture, and for popularizing rap as a featuring act through her post-1995 songs. Sasha Frere-Jones, editor of The New Yorker commented in referencing to the song's remix, "It became standard for R&B/hip-hop stars like Missy Elliott and Beyoncé, to combine melodies with rapped verses. And young white pop stars—including Britney Spears, 'N Sync, and Christina Aguilera—have spent much of the past ten years making pop music that is unmistakably R&B." Moreover, Jones concludes that "Her idea of pairing a female songbird with the leading male MCs of hip-hop changed R&B and, eventually, all of pop. Although now anyone is free to use this idea, the success of "Mimi" [ref. to The Emancipation of Mimi, her tenth studio album released almost a decade after Fantasy] suggests that it still belongs to Carey."
John Norris of MTV News has stated that the remix was "responsible for, I would argue, an entire wave of music that we've seen since and that is the R&B-hip-hop collaboration. You could argue that the 'Fantasy' remix was the single most important recording that she's ever made." Norris echoed the sentiments of TLC's Lisa Lopes, who told MTV that it's because of Mariah that we have "Hip-Pop." Judnick Mayard, writer of TheFader, wrote that in regarding of R&B and hip hop collaboration, "The champion of this movement is Mariah Carey." Mayard also expressed that "To this day ODB and Mariah may still be the best and most random hip hop collaboration of all time", citing that due to the record "Fantasy," "R&B and Hip Hop were the best of step siblings." In the 1998 film Rush Hour, Soo Yong is singing the song while it plays on the car radio, shortly before her kidnapping. In 2011 the experimental metal band Iwrestledabearonce used the song at the beginning and end of the video "You Know That Ain't Them Dogs' Real Voices".
Track listing and formats
Worldwide CD single
UK CD maxi-single #2
Credits and personnel
Credits adapted from the Daydream liner notes.
- Mariah Carey – co-production, songwriting, vocals
- Dave Hall – co-production, songwriting
- Tina Weymouth – songwriting
- Chris Frantz – songwriting
- Steven Stanley – songwriting
- Adrian Belew – songwriting
Charts and certifications
Certifications and sales
- Nickson 1998, p. 134
- "Suite903: R&B, Rejected and Betrayed". Thefader.com. January 14, 2011. Archived from the original on September 11, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
- Bronson 2003, p. 841
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Mariah Carey: Daydream". Allmusic. All Media Guide. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Mariah Carey - Fantasy - Digital Sheet Music". Musicnotes.com. Alfred Publishing. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- Lamb, Bill. "Mariah Carey 'Daydream'". About.com. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2010.
- Holden, Stephen (October 8, 1995). "Pop Music; Mariah Carey Glides Into New Territory". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Best Singles of the '90s". Slant. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- McKenna, Jerry (September 30, 1995). "Hot 100 Singles Spotlight". Billboard. 107 (39). ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
- "The Billboard Hot 100: Week Ending of September 23, 1995". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
- "The Billboard Hot 100: Week Ending of November 25, 1995". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
- Anderson, Trevor. "Drake's 'Nice for What' Marks First-Ever Top 10 Debut on Mainstream R&B/Hip-Hop Chart". Billboard. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Christmas, Ed (January 20, 1996). "Best-Selling Records of 1995". Billboard. Nielsen Business, Inc. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- "The Year in Music: 1995" (PDF). Billboard. December 23, 1995. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "The Year in Music: 1996" (PDF). Billboard. December 28, 1996. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Hot 100 Singles of the '90s". Billboard. December 25, 1999. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
- Kent, David (2006). Australian Chart Book 1993-2005. ISBN 0-646-45889-2.
- "Top Singles - Volume 62, No. 9, October 02 1995". RPM. October 2, 1995. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- "Top Singles - Volume 62, No. 16, November 20, 1995". RPM. September 22, 1997. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- "Top Singles - Volume 63, No. 1, February 19, 1996". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. February 19, 1996. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "RPM's Top 100 Singles Of 1995". RPM. December 18, 1995. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- マライア・キャリーのアルバム売り上げランキング (in Japanese). Oricon. Archived from the original on December 6, 2013. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Certified Awards Search". British Phonographic Industry. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
- "Disque en France". Disque en France. Archived from the original on March 3, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
- "Mariah Carey: The Official Top 20". MTV. MTV Networks. Archived from the original on November 3, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Scapolo, Dean (2007). The Complete New Zealand Music Charts 1966-2006. ISBN 978-1-877443-00-8.
- Nickson 1998, p. 137
- Shapiro 2001, pp. 92
- Nickson 1998, p. 149.
- Tucker, Ken (October 13, 1995). "Daydream (1995)". Entertainment Weekly. Time Warner. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4tHYxYRPws. Missing or empty
- Nickson 1998, pp. 142
- Roura, Phil (August 15, 1995). "Extra! Extra! Late-Breaking News from The World Of Entertainment". The New York Times Company. New York Daily News. Retrieved November 11, 2010.[dead link]
- "Mariah Carey Career Achievement Awards". Mariahcarey.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2009. Retrieved April 8, 2009.
- "List of Grammy nominees". CNN. January 4, 1996. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
- Nickson 1998, pp. 155
- Argenson 2010, pp. 29–33
- Argenson 2010, pp. 38–42
- Argenson 2010, pp. 44–48
- "Mariah Performs at Formula 1 in Singapore". Mariahcarey.com. September 27, 2010. Archived from the original on October 1, 2010. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
- Sanneh, Kelefa (August 4, 2005). "The Summer Buzz: Cicadas and Mariah Carey". The New York Times.
- "Best Singles of the 1990s | Music". Slant Magazine. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- Frere-Jones, Sasha (April 3, 2006). "Mariah Carey's record-breaking career". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
- "Celebrities Praise Mariah Carey: Part 1". YouTube. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- "Grimes Favorites". Brooklyn Vegan. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
- Fantasy (Dutch 7-inch Single liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1995. 662461 7.
- Fantasy (UK CD maxi-single #1 liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1995. 662495 2.
- Fantasy (US CD maxi-single liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1995. 44K 78044.
- Fantasy (UK CD maxi-single #2 liner notes). Mariah Carey. Columbia Records. 1995. 662495 5.
- Carey, Mariah (1995). Daydream (Liner Notes) (Compact Disc). Mariah Carey. New York City, New York: Columbia Records.
- "Australian-charts.com – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". ARIA Top 50 Singles. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Austriancharts.at – Mariah Carey – Fantasy" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Ultratop.be – Mariah Carey – Fantasy" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Ultratop.be – Mariah Carey – Fantasy" (in French). Ultratop 50. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Hits of the World" (PDF). Billboard. November 4, 1995. p. 70. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "Top RPM Singles: Issue 2813." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Top RPM Adult Contemporary: Issue 2802." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- "Item Display - RPM - Library and Archives Canada". collectionscanada.gc.ca. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Hits of World". Billboard. 107 (42). October 21, 1995. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Hits of World". Billboard. 107 (43). October 28, 1995. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Mariah Carey: Fantasy" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Lescharts.com – Mariah Carey – Fantasy" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey - Fantasy" (in German). GfK Entertainment. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Íslenski Listinn Topp 40 (30.9.1995 - 6.10.1995)" (PDF) (in Icelandic). Dagblaðið Vísir - Tónlist. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Fantasy". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Nederlandse Top 40 – week 41, 1995" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40 Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Mariah Carey – Fantasy" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Charts.nz – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Norwegiancharts.com – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". VG-lista. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Official Scottish Singles Sales Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". Singles Top 100. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Swisscharts.com – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey: Artist Chart History". Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Official R&B Singles Chart Top 40". Official Charts Company. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Adult Contemporary)". Billboard. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Adult Pop Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Dance Club Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Pop Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Mariah Carey Chart History (Rhythmic)". Billboard. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "ARIA Charts - End Of Year Charts - Top 50 Singles 1995". ARIA. Archived from the original on August 3, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Rapports Annuels 1995" (in French). Ultratop. Archived from the original on April 14, 2014. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "RPM Top 100 Hit Tracks of 1995". RPM. December 18, 1995. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "RPM Top 100 Adult Contemporary Tracks of 1995". RPM. December 18, 1995. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- "RPM Top 50 Dance Tracks". RPM. December 18, 1995. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Classement Singles - année 1995" (in French). SNEP. Archived from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "I singoli più venduti del 1995" (in Italian). Hit Parade Italia. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
- "Jaarlijsten 1995" (in Dutch). Stichting Nederlandse Top 40. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Jaaroverzichten - Single 1995" (in Dutch). GfK Dutch Charts. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Top Selling Singles of 1995". RIANZ. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Najlepsze single na UK Top 40-1995 wg sprzedaży" (in Polish). Official Charts Company. Retrieved October 11, 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "Billboard Hot 100 60th Anniversary". Billboard. August 31, 2018.
- Kent, David (2006). Australian Chart Book 1993-2005. St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-45889-2.
- "Certifications Singles Argent - année 1996" (in French). SNEP. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "New Zealand single certifications – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in:
- "British single certifications – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved November 3, 2017. Select singles in the Format field. Select Gold in the Certification field. Type Fantasy in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
- Copsey, Rob (November 14, 2018). "Mariah Carey's Top 40 biggest singles on the Official Chart". Official Charts Company. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- "American single certifications – Mariah Carey – Fantasy". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in:
|accessdate=(help) If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH.
- Trust, Gary (February 19, 2014). "Ask Billboard: Katy Perry Regains No. 1 Momentum". Billboard. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Argenson, Jim (2010), Mariah Carey Concert Tours, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 1-155-56204-6
- Bronson, Fred (2003), The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits, Billboard Books, ISBN 0-8230-7677-6
- Nickson, Chris (1998), Mariah Carey revisited: her story, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 978-0-312-19512-0
- Shapiro, Marc (2001), Mariah Carey: The Unauthorized Biography, ECW Press, ISBN 978-1-55022-444-3