Far-right politics in Australia

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Far-right politics in Australia began in Sydney with the formation of The New Guard (1931) and the Centre Party (1933). These proto-fascist groups were monarchist, anti-communist and authoritarian in nature. Early far-right groups were followed by the explicitly fascist Australia First Movement (1941). The far right in Australia went on to acquire more explicitly racial connotations during the 1960s and 1970s, morphing into self-proclaimed Nazi, fascist and anti-Semitic movements, organisations that opposed non-white and non-Christian immigration, such as the neo-Nazi National Socialist Party of Australia (1967) and the militant white supremacist group National Action (Australia) (1982).

Since the 1980s, the term has mainly been used to describe those who express the wish to preserve what they perceive to be Judeo-Christian, Anglo-Australian culture, and those who campaign against Aboriginal land rights, multiculturalism, immigration and asylum seekers. Since 2001 Australia has seen the development of modern neo-Nazi, neo-Fascist or alt-right groups such as the True Blue Crew, the United Patriots Front, Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party and the Antipodean Resistance.

History[edit]

1930s to 1960s[edit]

The New Guard (1930s)[edit]

Captain de Groot declares the Sydney Harbour Bridge open in March 1932.

The Australian far right rose out of the monarchist and anti-communist movements. Formed in Sydney on 16 February 1931, The New Guard was the first and largest fascist organisation in Australia. It was formed by World War I veteran, Australian monarchist and anti-communist, Eric Campbell. The group comprised mostly returned servicemen and attained a membership of 50,000 at its peak, including prominent members of society such as aviator Sir Charles Kingsford Smith[1] and former Mayor of North Sydney Hubert Primrose.[2][3]

The New Guard was a paramilitary organisation with its members being well armed and receiving military training. The New Guard under Campbell orchestrated a number of operations, including strike breaking, attacking Labor Party members and "Communist" meetings; they also demanded the deportation of Communists.[4][5][6] During the initial growth of the movement, Campbell was able to attract many ex-soldiers and ex-commanders to the movement[7]

The New Guard saw the Premier of New South Wales Jack Lang as an immediate threat. The organisation attracted great publicity when member Francis de Groot, on horseback and at Campbell's direction, upstaged Lang in cutting the ribbon at the opening ceremony of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in protest at the latter's anti-monarchist ideology.[8][9]

After Lang’s dismissal in May 1932 the New Guard’s membership declined rapidly.

The Centre Party[edit]

Colonel Eric Campbell, 1931

The Centre Party was a fascist party formed following Lang’s dismissal and the demise of the New Guard. Campbell met with European fascists and National Socialists such as Sir Oswald Mosley and Joachim von Ribbentrop. In December 1933 Campbell established the Centre Party, repositioning the remnants of the New Guard away from paramilitary activities and into electoral politics.[10]

The Centre Party contested the May 1935 New South Wales state election, polling at 0.60 percent of the total vote.[11] Following the party's poor showing at the election Campbell withdrew from public life.

Australia First Movement[edit]

The Australia First Movement was a short-lived Australian fascist movement founded in October 1941. The group was disbanded in March 1942, when a number of its members were secretly interned by the Australian government due to suspicions that they might attempt to provide help to Japanese invaders.[12] Two members were convicted of treason. Australia First Movement member and former member of the Centre Party Adela Pankhurst, of the famous suffragette family, was arrested and interned in 1942 for her advocacy of peace with Japan.[13]

The group was anti-Semitic and national socialist, advocating the corporate state and a political alliance with the Axis powers powers of Germany,[14] Italy and Japan.

Australian League of Rights[edit]

The Australian League of Rights is a fascist and anti-Semitic political organisation. It was founded in Adelaide, South Australia by Eric Butler in 1946, inspired by groups like the British League of Rights, Canadian League of Rights and the New Zealand League of Rights. The party's ideology was based on the economic theory of Social Credit expounded by C. H. Douglas.[15] The League describes itself as upholding the values of "loyalty to God, Queen and Country".

In 1972 Butler created an umbrella group, the Crown Commonwealth League of Rights, to represent the four groups; it also served as a chapter of the World League for Freedom and Democracy.[16]

1960s to 2000s[edit]

Australians Against Further Immigration[edit]

Australians Against Further Immigration (AAFI) was an Australian far-right anti-immigration political party which described itself as "eco-nationalist" and was against positive net immigration. The party was founded in 1989 and dissolved in 2008. The party was deregistered by the Australian Electoral Commission in December 2005, because it was lacking the minimum 500 members required to be registered as a political party.[17]

Australian National Socialist Party[edit]

The Australian National Socialist Party (ANSP) was a minor neo-Nazi party. The party was founded in 1962 by University of Adelaide physics student Ted Cawthron and Sydney council worker Don Lindsay. The group was anti-communist, and supported the White Australia policy and the total annexation of New Guinea.[18][19]

On 26 June 1964, the party's headquarters were raided by police. Smith and four other party members were arrested and convicted of possessing unlicensed firearms and explosives and possession of stolen goods. By 1967 the remnants of the party had joined the newly formed National Socialist Party of Australia.[19]

National Socialist Party of Australia[edit]

Jim Saleam, 2013

The National Socialist Party of Australia (NSPA) was a minor Australian neo-Nazi party formed in 1967 by former ANSP leader Ted Cawthron. In May 1968, the ANSP merged into the NSPA, and Cawthron and Frank Molnar attempted to distance themselves and the party from the "jackbooted 'Nazi' image" associated with the ANSP.[20]

In early 1970, Cawthron contested the May 1970 ACT by-election, making him the first National Socialist in Australia to run for public office. The party also made a number of unsuccessful runs for the Senate.[21][22]

Jim Saleam was made deputy leader of the party between 1972 and 1975. Saleam became a prominent figure in far-right politics, going on to found National Action in 1982 and the Australia First Party 1996.[19]

National Action[edit]

National Action was a militant white supremacist group founded on Anzac Day, 1982 by the former deputy leader of the National Socialist Party of Australia, Jim Saleam and former neo-Nazi David Greason.[23][24]

In 1989, Saleam was convicted of being an accessory before the fact in regard to organising the attempted assassination of African National Congress representative Eddie Funde. Saleam claimed to have been set up by police.[23][25]

In 1991, the group was disbanded following the murder of a member, Wayne "Bovver" Smith, in the group's headquarters in the Sydney suburb of Tempe.[23] Following the murder of Smith, Saleam became NSW chairman of Australia First Party.[23]

Australian Nationalist Movement[edit]

The Australian Nationalist Movement (ANM), also known as the Australian Nationalist Worker's Union (ANWU), was a Western Australian neo-Nazi, extreme right-wing group founded and lead by Peter Joseph "Jack" van Tongeren.

In 1987, Van Tongeren distributed 400,000 racist posters around Perth. The posters bore phrases such as "No Asians", "White Revolution The Only Solution", "Coloured Immigration: Trickle Is Now A Flood" and "Asians Out Or Racial War". Van Tongeren is a holocaust denier.[26][27]

In 1989, Van Tongeren staged a series of racially motivated arson attacks, targeting businesses owned by Asian Australians. Van Tongeren served thirteen years in prison for his crimes. In the late 1980s it was revealed that his father was Javanese, making him of Indonesian ancestry. He resumed anti-Asian activities upon his release in 2002 leading to further convictions in 2006.[28]

In 1989, two ANM members murdered police informant David Locke. The murder trial of the two men eventually lead to Van Tongeren being found guilty of 53 crimes and sentenced to 18 years. The two men who murdered David Locke received life sentences.[29][30][31][32][33]

On being released from jail in 2002, Van Tongeren expressed no remorse. In February 2004 three Chinese restaurants, synagogues and Asian-owned businesses where firebombed, plastered with posters and daubed with swastikas. Western Australian police launched "Operation Atlantic" in response to the attacks, leading to the arrest of five men involved in the attacks. The police also identified a plot to harm WA Attorney-General Jim McGinty and his family, among others.[34][35][36]

In August 2004, Van Tongeren and his co-accused Matthew Billing were found and arrested in the Boddington area south-east of Perth. Both men once again faced the courts over the 2004 arson plots.[37] During a hearing on 2 November, Van Tongeren collapsed, was taken to hospital, and later used a wheelchair. Van Tongeren was released from jail on the condition that he leave Western Australia. He currently resides in the eastern states. In 2007 the ANM/ANWU was reported to have been disbanded.[38][39] Van Tongeren has been a member of a number of far-right extremist groups including National Action (Australia) and the Australia First Movement.[40][41][42][26]

Citizens Electoral Council of Australia[edit]

Founded in 1988, The Citizens Electoral Council of Australia (CEC) is a minor political party in Australia affiliated with the international LaRouche Movement which was led by American political activist Lyndon LaRouche. The group has been accused, by B'nai B'rith, of being anti-Semitic, anti-gay, anti-Aboriginal and racist. The document cites CEC publications and quotes former CEC members.[43][44]

The group has been accused of "brainwashing" members and engaging in campaigns involving "dirty tricks".[45]

2000s onward[edit]

Antipodean Resistance Logo

Antipodean Resistance[edit]

Antipodean Resistance (AR) is an Australian neo-Nazi group. Formed in October 2016, the group's flag features a swastika. The group's logo features the black sun and Totenkopf (skull head) with an Akubra hat, a laurel wreath and a swastika.[46]

Antipodean Resistance promotes and incites hatred and violence, as illustrated in its anti-Jewish and anti-homosexual posters, with graphic images of shooting Jews and homosexuals in the head. One poster called to "Legalise the execution of Jews."[47][48][49]

In 2017, it was reported that ASIO, the Australian national security organisation, was monitoring the group, who were "willing to use violence to further their own interests."[50]

Australian Coalition of Nationalists[edit]

Formed in October 2016, Australian Coalition of Nationalists (ACON) is a far right coalition that includes the Australia First Party, Australian Protectionist Party, Nationalist Alternative, the Eureka Youth League and the Hellenic Nationalists of Australia (australian branch of Golden Dawn).

Australian Defence League[edit]

The Australian Defence League (ADL) is a neo-Nazi street gang. The gang is anti-Islam, and has been involved in making terrorist threats, abusing, stalking and doxxing Muslim Australians. The gang was founded in Sydney in 2009 by recidivist criminal Ralph Cerminara. Cerminara has a significant criminal record, including convictions for assault, high-range drink-driving and breaching apprehended violence orders.[51][52]

Australian Protectionist Party[edit]

The Australian Protectionist Party (also known as the Party For Freedom) is a minor far-right anti-immigration party, focused on economic protectionism and white nationalism. The Australian Protectionist Party has been active in protesting against the presence of asylum seekers and Muslims, and has also organised several protests against Sharia law being implemented in Australia. The party has unsuccessfully contested a number of elections, failing to secure more than 1% of the vote in any election it has contested.[53]

Australia First Party[edit]

The Australia First Party (AFP) is a militant white supremacist political party founded in 1996 by Graeme Campbell and currently led by Jim Saleam. The party stands on a nationalist, anti-multicultural and economic protectionist platform. The Party's current platform includes the reintroduction of the White Australia policy and opposition to Chinese immigration.[54][55][56][24][57]

Campbell was Australia First's leader until June 2001, when he left the party to stand as a One Nation Senate candidate in Western Australia. After serving time in Jail for organising the failed attempted assassination of Eddie Funde, Saleam took control of the party and ran as an its candidate for a seat on Marrickville council, New South Wales, claiming "to oppose Marrickville being a Refugee Welcome Zone". Later that year the party formed its youth wing, the Patriotic Youth League. The party contested the 2010 federal election, the 2013 federal election, the 2016 federal election, the 2017 Cootamundra state by-election, the 2018 Longman by-election, and the 2019 New South Wales state election, but failed to poll at more than 2% on any occasion.[58] Saleam's platform included the reintroduction of the White Australia policy and opposition to Chinese immigration.[57]

On 20 March 2019, Australia First member Nathan Sykes was charged with at least eight offenses relating to threats he made to a number journalists.[59]

The Dingoes[edit]

The Dingoes are an Australian alt-right group. The group runs a podcast titled The Convict Report, which has included guests such as One Nation MP Mark Latham and Nationals MP George Christensen, the latter since having expressed regret at his appearance. The Dingoes held a convention called "DingoCon" in Sydney in 2017, which had The Right Stuff founder, neo-Nazi Mike Peinovich (aka "Mike Enoch"), as an attendee, and tickets costing "$88", a numerical codephrase of the Nazi slogan Heil Hitler. Some of The Dingoes' imagery and slang, such as "The Australian Shitposter" (an image of a blonde, tanned Australian man originating from 4chan and 8chan), "cobber" (a term used by the Dingoes to refer to themselves) and an image of Victoria Beer with the caption "Hold still while I glass you", were used by the Australian perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings.[60]

Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party[edit]

Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party is a populist far-right, white nationalist party[61] founded by Fraser Anning in April 2019, when he was a senator for Queensland. Anning had previously been a senator for Pauline Hanson's One Nation and Katter's Australian Party, and sat as an independent before founding the new party. The party contested the 2019 federal election, but failed to win a seat.[62]

Hellenic Nationalists of Australia[edit]

Hellenic Nationalists of Australia (HNA) is the Australian branch of the Greek neo-Nazi, neo-Metaxist party Golden Dawn. In December 2015, Hellenic Nationalists of Australia registered in NSW as an incorporated association. AFP leader, Jim Saleam has been involved with the group.

Lads Society[edit]

Ashfield Community Action group Antifascist poster protesting the presence of Lads Society in Ashfield

The Lads Society is a far-right white nationalist extremist group founded by several former members of the United Patriots Front in late 2017, with club houses in Sydney and Melbourne.[63] The Lads Society came to national prominence after it staged a rally in St Kilda, Victoria, targeting the local African Australian community. Attendees were seen making the Nazi salute and one was photographed brandishing an SS helmet.[63] In 2017, the group’s leader Thomas Sewell approached the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings, Brenton Harrison Tarrant, asking him to join the Lads Society, but Tarrant refused.[64] The group’s members and allies attempted to infiltrate the Young Nationals in NSW, and engaged in branch stacking at the May 2018 conference. Lads Society members attained leadership positions in the Young Nationals, but were later forced out of the party.[65] White nationalists Lauren Southern and Stefan Molyneux of Canada met with Lads Society members during their trip to Australia.

The New Guard (2010s)[edit]

The New Guard (not be confused with the 1930s Australian authoritarian group of the same name) is a neo-fascist, neo-Nazi alt-right group whose members have called for the extermination of non-whites and Jews and describe themselves as "fascist". The group has quoted the neo-Nazi slogan "Fourteen Words" by terrorist David Lane of The Order/Bruder Schweigen, and published a manifesto for its plans to get into mainstream politics in Australia. An investigation by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation revealed that three members of the group had infiltrated the New South Wales National Party branch of its youth wing Young Nationals. Shortly after this discovery the National Party suspended the membership of the three men. The group has overlap with the Lads Society, with members attending a meeting of the former group.[66]

Patriotic Youth League[edit]

The Patriotic Youth League (PLY) is a neo-Nazi micro group and the youth-wing of the Australia First Party, founded in 2002 by former One Nation activist Stuart McBeth[67][68]

The Proud Boys[edit]

The Proud Boys are a far-right "Western chauvinist" men's group, which has been categorized by the FBI as “an extremist group with ties to white nationalism”. Founded by former Vice Media founder, the Canadian Gavin McInnes, the group has a branch in Australia. McInnes planned to visit the country in late 2018, but was denied a visa after failing the character test. More than 80,000 Australians signed a petition urging the government to block McInnes from entering the country because of his extreme views.[69][70]

Q Society of Australia[edit]

The Q Society of Australia is a far-right, homophobic and Islamophobic organisation that opposes Muslim immigration and the presence of Muslims in Australian society. Founded in 2010, Q Society refers to itself as "Australia's leading Islam-critical organisation" and has stated that its purpose is to fight against the "Islamisation of Australia". The group's events have featured extreme homophobia and Islamophobia.[71]

Reclaim Australia[edit]

Reclaim Australia rally, Sydney, April 2015

Formed in 2015, Reclaim Australia is a loosely associated far-right Australian nationalist protest group which draws support from nationalists, white supremacists, neo-Nazis and other far-right groups,which is primarily focused on opposing Islam. The group holds street rallies and often faces counter-protests from trade unions, human rights and anti-racism activists. The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO), says that it monitors the group because of its potential for violence.[72]

Rise Up Australia Party[edit]

The Rise Up Australia Party is a far-right, Christian political party. The party's policy platform is focused on nationalist and fundamentalist Christian values.[73] It is opposed to Islam in Australia and opposes same-sex marriage. Its slogan is "Keep Australia Australian". The party was founded and is led by Pentecostal minister Danny Nalliah, who is also the president of Catch the Fire Ministries. The party opposes multiculturalism, wants to preserve Australia's "Judeo-Christian heritage", has called for cuts to Muslim immigration, and advocates freedom of speech and freedom of religion.[74]

Soldiers of Odin[edit]

Soldiers of Odin (SOO) is a neo-Nazi group founded in Kemi, Finland, in October 2015, in the midst of the European migrant crisis. The Soldiers of Odin Australia was registered as a non-profit association with the Victorian government in June 2016. That same year the group ran racially driven vigilante "safety patrols" around Federation Square, Birrarung Marr and Bourke Street Mall.[75]

True Blue Crew[edit]

The True Blue Crew (TBC) is an Australian militant white supremacist group.[76] Members and supporters have been linked to right-wing terrorism and vigilantism, and members have been arrested with weapons and on terrorism-related charges. Experts who have studied the group say it appears to be "committed to violence".[77] The True Blue Crew was formed in 2015 as a splinter group from the anti-Islamic Reclaim Australia group, along with a number of small far-right nationalist groups such as the United Patriots Front.[78]

In August 2016, a member of True Blue Crew, Phillip Galea, was charged with terrorism-related offences, including carrying out acts in preparation for a terrorist act. His intended target was a small anarchist bookshop on a busy main road in Northcote, Victoria.[79]

United Patriots Front[edit]

The United Patriots Front (UPF) was a far-right extremist group whose membership was composed of neo-Nazis and fundamentalist Christians.[80][81] Based in the state of Victoria, UPF was a nationalist anti-Islam organisation that stood in opposition to immigration, opposition to multiculturalism and Islam by demonstrations. It was a splinter group from Reclaim Australia group, formed after a dispute between Shermon Burgess and Reclaim Australia organisers. The group has been described by a number of media outlets and journalists as a hate group, and has claimed solidarity with Golden Dawn.[82] The group was disbanded in 2017. The UPF's leaders went on to form a new, more explicitly White nationalist group, the Lads Society later that same year.

Yellow Vest Australia[edit]

Yellow Vest Australia (YVA), formerly known as the Australian Liberty Alliance (ALA), is a minor political party in Australia, with Debbie Robinson as party president. The party is the political wing of Q Society. Founded in 2015, the party is anti-Islamic, with policies focusing on Muslim immigration such as enforcing "integration over separation", replacing multiculturalism with an integrated multi-ethnic society and stopping public funding for "associations formed around foreign nationalities". They have vowed to "stop the Islamisation of Australia".[83]

Christchurch mosque shootings[edit]

Australia-born far-right terrorist Brenton Harrison Tarrant committed the March 2019 mosque shootings at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand, killing 51 people and injuring 50 more. Tarrant had expressed support for two Australian far-right organizations, the United Patriots Front and the True Blue Crew online, and repeatedly praised Blair Cottrell, a neo-Nazi and former leader of the UPF, affectionately calling him "Emperor Blair Cottrell" during a celebration of Donald Trump being elected as President of the United States in 2016; he also donated money to the UPF.[84][85][86]

Australian far-right figures[edit]

  • Fraser Anning, Queensland Senator, former One Nation member and founder of Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party.
  • Eric Campbell (political activist) Chief Commander of the New Guard, Leader of the Centre Party
  • Graeme Campbell Former Labor and One Nation member, founder of Australia First Party
  • Ralph Cerminara, founder of Australian Defence League
  • Blair Cottrell, founding member of United Patriots Front, Lads Society, provides security for Fraser Anning
  • Neil Erikson, founding member of United Patriots Front, Lads Society, provides security for Fraser Anning
  • Pauline Hanson, founded of One Nation, while not explicitly far-right, Graeme Campbell, Stuart McBeth, Jim Saleam and Fraser Anning are all former members of One Nation.
  • George Hodges Knox, former Nationalist Party, United Australia Party and Liberal Party member, Deputy Chief Commander of the New Guard
  • Danny Nalliah, founder and leader of Rise Up Australia
  • Debbie Robinson, founder and leader of Yellow Vest Australia and director of Q Society Inc.
  • Jim Saleam, founder of National Action, former National Socialist Party of Australia and One Nation member, leader of Australia First Party
  • Jack van Tongeren, founder of the Australian Nationalist Movement
  • Avi Yemini, follower of Haredi Judaism, former Israeli soldier - associated with the UPF and Lads Society
  • Brenton Harrison Tarrant, white nationalist neo-fascist far-right terrorist responsible for the Christchurch mosque shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  60. ^ The Dingoes
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  70. ^ "Proud Boys Australia - Proud Western Chauvinists Who Refuse to Apologize for the Creation of the Modern World". Retrieved June 14, 2019.
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  72. ^ Reclaim Australia:
  73. ^ Layt, Stuart (24 April 2019). "'Confronting' Queensland Senate ticket sees far-right on far-left". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
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  75. ^ Soldiers of Odin:
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  77. ^ Liam Mannix,; Nino Bucci. "Dutton Turnbull Legitimising Anti Immigrant Vigilantes Say Experts". The Age. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
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  79. ^ TBC Terror:
  80. ^ Rydgren, Jens (2018). The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right (First ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 661. ISBN 0190274573.
  81. ^ Neo Nazi refs:
  82. ^
  83. ^ "australianlibertyalliance". www.australianlibertyalliance.org.au. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  84. ^ Begley, Patrick (May 2, 2019). "Threats from white extremist group that 'tried to recruit Tarrant'". The Sydney Morning Herald. Nine. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  85. ^ Mann, Alex; Nguyen, Kevin; Gregory (March 23, 2019). "Christchurch shooting accused Brenton Tarrant supports Australian far-right figure Blair Cottrell". ABC News (Australia). Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  86. ^ Nguyen, Kevin (April 9, 2019). "Christchurch shooter Brenton Tarrant sent death threat two years before attack". ABC News (Australia). Retrieved June 14, 2019.

Further reading[edit]

  • Amos, Keith (1976). The New Guard Movement 1931-1935. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 978-0-522-84092-6.
  • Campbell, Andrew (1978). The Australian League of Rights: a study in political extremism and subversion. Collingwood: Outback Press. ISBN 978-0-868-88222-2.
  • Cathcart, Michael (1988). Defending the National Tuckshop: Australia's Secret Army Intrigue of 1931. Melbourne: McPhee Gribble Publishers. ISBN 978-0869140772.
  • Clune, David (2009). The Governors of New South Wales 1788-2010. Annandale, NSW: Federation Press. ISBN 978-1-86287-743-6.
  • Greason, David (1994). I was a teenage fascist. McPhee Gribble. ISBN 978-0-869-14285-1.
  • Hagan, Jim (1991). A History of the Labor Party in New South Wales, 1891-1991. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire. ISBN 978-0-582-86969-1.
  • Moore, Andrew (1989). The Secret Army and the Premier: Conservative Paramilitary Organisations in New South Wales 1930-32. Kensington, NSW: New South Wales University Press. ISBN 978-0-86840-283-3.
  • Moore, Andrew (1995). The Right Road: A history of Right-wing Politics in Australia. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-53512-9.
  • Bruce Muirden (1968). The Puzzled Patriots: The Story of the Australia First Movement. Melbourne University Press.
  • Nairn, Bede (1986). The "Big Fella": Jack Lang and the Australian Labor Party 1891-1949. Carlton, VIC: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 978-0-522-84406-1.
  • Barbara Winter (January 2005). The Australia First Movement. Interactive Publications. ISBN 978-1-876819-91-0.
  • Fleming, Andy; Mondon, Aurelien (2018). "The Radical Right in Australia". In Rydgren, Jens (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right. Oxford University Press.