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The Farewell Pilgrimage (Arabic: حجة الوداع) is the final and only Hajj pilgrimage Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, participated in 632 CE (10 AH). The Muslims observed every move, act, and gesture of Muhammad on this occasion, and everything that he did became a precedent to be followed by Muslims all over the world.
Beginning of the journey
And proclaim to the people the Hajj [pilgrimage]; they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant pass (22:27)
caused him to announce that he would go on the Hajj that year. The people of Medina and surrounding towns gathered in the city to accompany the Islamic Prophet during the Hajj rituals. Before his departure, he appointed Abu Dujana Ansari as governor of Medina during his own absence. On the 25th of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 4 nights before the end of Dhu al-Qi'dah (February 632), he left Medina, accompanied by all his wives.
Before arriving in Mecca, Muhammad stayed at Miqat and taught people the manners of wearing Ihram. He performed ghusl (ritual bath) and then put on Ihram for Hajj. His clothing in the state of Ihram was two pieces of Yemeni unsewed white cotton that later on became his shroud; and moved on so that he did his noon prayers in the mosque of Shajara. Muslims later built some mosques at the places Muhammad stayed and prayed.
Circumambulation and prayers
The next day, Muhammad and his companions arrived at the Masjid al-Haram. They entered from the gate of Dar al-Salam, went to the Kaaba and touched black stone. Then Muhammad proceeded to Circumambulation of the Kaaba (Tawaf). Finally once again touched the Black Stone, kissed it and cried long near it. Then, he did two Rakat of prayer behind the Station of Abraham.
After his prayers, he drank from the Zamzam well, prayed and then went to Mounts Al-Safa and Al-Marwah and said that he would begin Sa'ay (runs back and forth between the hills of Al-Safa and Al-Marwah) from the mount al-Safa since God mentioned it in Quran first. When he arrived there, turned toward Kaaba and long prayed to God and jog-trotted part of the way. When he arrived at Mount Al-Marwah, stopped and prayed.
Mina and Arafat
On the eighth sunset of Dhu al-Hijjah, Muhammad left for Mina and stayed there for a night. Then he passed along on his camel, al Qaswa', till he reached Mount Arafat. As he ascended the mountain, he was surrounded by thousands of pilgrims chanting Talbiyah and Takbir. By Muhammad’s order, a tent was erected for him on the east side of Mount Arafat at a spot called Namirah. He rested until the sun passed the zenith, then he rode on his camel until he reached the valley of Uranah. On the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah he delivered his Farewell Sermon concerning different social rights of Muslims and led Zuhr and Asr prayer. Then he moved to plain of Arafat, stayed there and spent the afternoon in supplication.
Standing at Mash'ar al-Haram and stoning of the devil
Upon the sunset, Muhammad rode towards Mash'ar al-Haram (Muzdalifa) and advised pilgrims that slowly pass the way. Islamic Prophet did his Maghrib and Isha prayer in Mash'ar al-Haram then made a rest. At the dawn, he prayed and supplicated before God, which is so much recommended in Hajj. In the morning, he went towards Mina and straightly to Jamrah of Aqaba and threw seven pebbles at it.
He then went to place of sacrifice and sacrificed 63 (the number of years he remained alive) camels. He gave 37 camels from a hundred camels he had brought with himself from Medina to sacrifice. They ate little from what they sacrificed and gave the rest for charity. Then a barber got his head shaved by his order. He went to Mecca, circumambulated the Kaaba and did Zuhr prayer in Masjid al-Haram. After that he came near the well of Zamzam and drank its water and returned to Mina on the same day and spend days of Tashriq (11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul Hijjah) there, did Stoning of the Devil and exited Mina.
Return to Medina
On the way back to Medina, Muhammad stopped at Ghadir Khumm on Dhu al-Hijjah 18, to convey the message to the pilgrims before they dispersed. He delivered a long sermon; during a part of the sermon, Muhammad raised Ali's arm and asked the people, "Who has more priority over you than yourself?" The Muslims responded, "Allah and His messenger." Muhammad then said:
Behold! Whosoever I am his master, this Ali is his master. O Allah! Stay firm in supporting those who stay firm in following him, be hostile to those who are hostile to him, help those who help him, and forsake those who forsake him. O people! This Ali is my brother, the executor of my [affairs], the container of my knowledge, my successor over my nation, and over the interpretation the Book of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, and the true inviter to its [implications]. He is the one who acts according to what pleases Him, fights His enemies, causes to adhere to His obedience, and advises against His disobedience. Surely, He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah, the commander of the believers, the guiding Imam, and the killer of the oath breakers, the transgressors, and the apostates. I speak by the authority of Allah. The word with me shall not be changed.
This event has been narrated by both Shia and Sunni sources. After the sermon, the following verse of the Quran was revealed: "This day I have perfected your Religion for you: Completed My favor upon you, and have chosen For you Islam as your Religion." This was the last verse of the Quran to have been revealed. Also after the sermon, the Muslims were told to pledge allegiance to Ali; Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman are all said to have given their allegiance to Ali, a fact that is also reported by both Shia and Sunni sources.
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