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The Farewell Pilgrimage (Arabic: ٱلْحَجّ ٱلْوَدَاع, romanized: Al-Ḥajj Al-Wadāʿ), 632 CE (10 AH), is the final and only Hajj ('Pilgrimage') in which the (Prophet) Muhammad participated. Muslims who accompanied him on this occasion observed every move, act, and gesture of Muhammad, all of which became a precedent to be followed by Muslims all over the world.
Beginning of the journey
And proclaim to the people the Hajj [pilgrimage]; they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant pass (22:27)
caused him to announce that he would go on the Hajj that year. The people of Medina and surrounding towns gathered in the city to accompany the Islamic Prophet during the Hajj rituals. Before his departure, he appointed Abu Dujana Ansari as governor of Medina during his own absence. On the 25th of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 4 nights before the end of Dhu al-Qi'dah (February 632), he left Medina, accompanied by all his wives.
Before arriving in Mecca, Muhammad stayed at Miqat and taught people the manner of wearing Ihram. He first performed ghusl (ritual bath) before putting on Ihram for Hajj. The clothing while in the state of Ihram consisted of two pieces of Yemeni unsewed white cotton, which later on became his shroud. Muhammad then did his noon prayers in the mosque of Shajara. In later Islamic history, Muslims built mosques at the places Muhammad stayed and prayed during this time.
Circumambulation and prayers
The next day, Muhammad and his companions arrived at the Masjid al-Haram. They entered from the gate of Dar al-Salam, approached the Kaaba and touched the Black Stone. Muhammad then proceeded to the Circumambulation of the Kaaba (Tawaf), after which he once again touched the Black Stone, kissed it, and cried long near it. Finally, he offered two Rakat of prayer behind the Station of Abraham.
After his prayers, Muhammad drank from the Zamzam well, prayed, and then continued to Mounts Al-Safa and Al-Marwah, where he performed Sa'ay (the running back and forth between the hills of Al-Safa and Al-Marwah). Starting from Mount al-Safa since God had mentioned it first in the Quran, Muhammad first turned toward Kaaba, offered a long prayer to God, and then began to jog-trot part of the way. When he arrived at Mount Al-Marwah, he stopped and again prayed before returning to Mount al-Safa.
Mina and Arafat
On the eighth sunset of Dhu al-Hijjah, Muhammad left for Mina and stayed there for a night. Then he passed along on his camel, al Qaswa', till he reached Mount Arafat. As he ascended the mountain, he was surrounded by thousands of pilgrims chanting Talbiyah and Takbir. By Muhammad’s order, a tent was erected for him on the east side of Mount Arafat at a spot called Namirah. He rested until the sun passed the zenith, then he rode on his camel until he reached the valley of Uranah. On the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah he delivered his Farewell Sermon concerning different social rights of Muslims and led Zuhr and Asr prayer. Then he moved to plain of Arafat, stayed there and spent the afternoon in supplication.
The farewell sermon of prophet Muhammad clearly includes content related to the development of human rights and shows "how he laid the foundation of the idea of universal human rights in a world previously dominated by tribalism". It was the last sermon of him which was presented for a large group of Hajj pilgrims (almost 100000 people) in the Uranah Valley of mount Arafat. it is called a farewell sermon. He declared in his sermon that, “O people! Your lives and your property, until the very day you meet your lord, are as inviolable to each other as the inviolability of this holy day you are now in, this holey month you are now in, and this holy city you are now in. Have I conveyed the divine message?
Standing at Mash'ar al-Haram and stoning of the devil
Upon the sunset, Muhammad rode towards Mash'ar al-Haram (Muzdalifa) and advised pilgrims that slowly pass the way. Islamic Prophet did his Maghrib and Isha prayer in Mash'ar al-Haram then made a rest. At the dawn, he prayed and supplicated before God, which is so much recommended in Hajj. In the morning, he went towards Mina and straightly to Jamrah of Aqaba and threw seven pebbles at it.
He then went to place of sacrifice and sacrificed 63 (the number of years he remained alive) camels. He gave 37 camels from a hundred camels he had brought with himself from Medina to sacrifice. They ate little from what they sacrificed and gave the rest for charity. Then a barber got his head shaved by his order. He went to Mecca, circumambulated the Kaaba and did Zuhr prayer in Masjid al-Haram. After that he came near the well of Zamzam and drank its water and returned to Mina on the same day and spend days of Tashriq (11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul Hijjah) there, did Stoning of the Devil and exited Mina.
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