Farman F.120

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F.120 (F.4X), 121 (F.3X), 122, 123 Jabiru
Farman F.121 photo NACA Aircraft Circular No.15.png
Farman F.121
Role airliner, bomber
Manufacturer Farman Aviation Works
First flight 1923
Introduction 1923
Primary users France
Denmark

The Farman F.120 and its derivatives were a family of multi-engine airliners and bombers of the 1920s built by the Farman Aviation Works in France.

Farman F.121 interior photo from NACA Aircraft Circular No.15

Design and development[edit]

The Jabiru, which was named after a Latin American stork, was a fixed-undercarriage sesquiplane powered by either two, three or four engines, depending on the variant. It featured an unusually broad chord, low aspect-ratio main wing and a very deep fuselage. The tri-motor variant had the centerline engine mounted high, giving it an unusual appearance.

The F.121 or F.3X was the first version to fly, with four 180 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Ac V8 engines mounted in tandem push-pull pairs mounted on stub wings, however this caused cooling problems for the rear engines and the F.120/F.4X version followed shortly afterwards, powered by three 300 hp Salmson Az.9 radial engines. Development continued and a single F.122, modified from an F.4X, was powered by two 400 hp Lorraine 12Db engines. Two military versions were also built, the F.123 with two 450 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Hb V12s, or F.124 with two 420 hp Gnome et Rhône 9Ad Jupiter radial engines.

Operational history[edit]

Despite being most commonly seen in lists of ugliest aircraft, following its first flight in 1923 it won a French airliner competition, the 1923 Grand Prix des Avions de Transports and its 500,000 francs first prize, before seeing service with several European airlines. The Jabiru was capable of carrying up to 9 passengers, and served on Farman airline's route Paris-Brussels-Amsterdam, but also with Danish Air Lines between Copenhagen and Amsterdam. They served until the late 1920s.

Variants[edit]

A Farman F.4X of the French airline CIDNA at Dübendorf airfield near Zürich, circa 1925.
Farman F.3bis with twin Lorraine engines, from L'Aéronautique, December 1924.
Farman F.123 bomber, from L'Aéronautique, October 1926.
F.120
A single engined biplane bomber, powered by a 280 kW (370 hp) Lorraine 12Da engine. First flown in 1924, only two F.120 bombers were built.[1]
F.4X
The original designation of the F.120 Jabiru
F.120 Jabiru
Four transport monoplanes powered by 3x 220 kW (300 hp) Salmson 9AZ water-cooled radial engines.[2]
F.3bis
A twin engined transport aircraft powered by 2x 300 kW (400 hp) Lorraine 12Db engines, 1 built.[3]
F.3X
The original designation of the F.121 Jabiru prototype.[4]
F.121 Jabiru
Nine transport aircraft powered by 4x 130 kW (180 hp) Hispano-Suiza 8Ac engines, one also modified from a F.120 Jabiru.[5]
F.122
A single transport aircraft powered by 2x 300 kW (400 hp) Lorraine 12Db engines.[6]
F.123
A single three-seater bomber powered by 2x 300 kW (400 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Hb engines.[7]
F.124
A single three-seater bomber powered by 2x 310 kW (420 hp) Gnome et Rhône 9Ad Jupiter engines.[8]

Civil operators[edit]

 Denmark
 France

Specifications (F.121)[edit]

Farman F.121 3 view drawing from NACA Aircraft Circular No.15

Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1928,[9] Aviafrance:Farman F-121[5]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Capacity: 12-19 pax
  • Length: 13.92 m (45 ft 8 in)
  • Wingspan: 19 m (62 ft 4 in)
  • Height: 4.48 m (14 ft 8 in)
  • Wing area: 81 m2 (870 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 3,404 kg (7,505 lb)
  • Gross weight: 5,220 kg (11,508 lb)
  • Fuel capacity: 1,000 l (260 US gal; 220 imp gal)
  • Powerplant: 4 × Hispano-Suiza 8Ac V-8 water-cooled piston engines, 130 kW (180 hp) each
  • Propellers: 2-bladed fixed pitch propellers

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 209 km/h (130 mph; 113 kn) at sea level
201 km/h (125 mph; 109 kn) at 2,000 m (6,600 ft)
192 km/h (119 mph; 104 kn) at 3,000 m (9,800 ft)
  • Cruise speed: 175 km/h (109 mph; 94 kn)
  • Range: 750 km (466 mi; 405 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 4,250 m (13,940 ft)
  • Time to altitude: 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in 6 minutes 16 seconds
2,000 m (6,600 ft) in 14 minutes 14 seconds
3,000 m (9,800 ft) in 26 minutes 11 seconds
4,000 m (13,000 ft) in 37 minutes 22 seconds
  • Wing loading: 61.8 kg/m2 (12.7 lb/sq ft)
  • Power/mass: 0.1075 kW/kg (0.0654 hp/lb)

General characteristics

Performance

[edit]

American baggage manufacturer Tom Bihn uses a Farman F.121 Jabiru in its logo.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Parmentier, Bruno (1 January 1997). "Farman F-120". Aviafrance (in French). Paris. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  2. ^ Parmentier, Bruno (1 January 1997). "Farman F-120 'Jabiru'". Aviafrance (in French). Paris. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  3. ^ Parmentier, Bruno (1 January 1997). "Farman F-3bis". Aviafrance (in French). Paris. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  4. ^ Parmentier, Bruno (1 January 1997). "Farman F-3x 'Jabiru'". Aviafrance (in French). Paris. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  5. ^ a b Parmentier, Bruno (1 January 1997). "Farman F-121 'Jabiru', avion de transport civil par Aviafrance". Aviafrance (in French). Paris. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  6. ^ Parmentier, Bruno (1 January 1997). "Farman F-122". Aviafrance (in French). Paris. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  7. ^ Parmentier, Bruno (1 January 1997). "Farman F-123". Aviafrance (in French). Paris. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  8. ^ Parmentier, Bruno (1 January 1997). "Farman F-124". Aviafrance (in French). Paris. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  9. ^ Grey, C.G., ed. (1928). Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1928. London: Sampson Low, Marston & company, ltd. p. 100c.
  10. ^ http://www.tombihn.com/FAQS.html#faqadd1

External links[edit]