Farmers' suicides in India
Farmer suicides in India refers to the national catastrophe of farmers committing suicide since the 1970s, often by drinking pesticides, due to their inability to repay loans mostly taken from private landlords and banks.
The National Crime Records Bureau of India reported that a total 296,438 Indian farmers had committed suicide since 1995. Out of these, 60,750 farmer suicides were in the state of Maharashtra since 1995 and the remaining in Odisha, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Chhattisgarh, all states with loose financial and entry regulations.
Earlier, governments had reported varying figures, from 5,650 farmer suicides in 2014 to the highest number of farmer suicides in 2004 of 18,241. The farmer's suicide rate in India had ranged between 1.4 and 1.8 per 100,000 total population, over a 10-year period through 2005, however, the figures in 2017 and 2018 showed an average of more than 10 suicides daily. There are accusations of states manipulating the data on farmer suicides, hence the real figures could be even higher.
India is an agrarian country with around 70% of its people depending directly or indirectly upon agriculture. Agriculture had 15.4% share in economy of India in year 2017. Around 41.49% of total labor are associated with agriculture in year 2020. Farmer suicides account for 11.2% of all suicides in India. Activists and scholars have offered a number of conflicting reasons for farmer suicides, such as anti farmer laws, high debt burdens, poor government policies, corruption in subsidies, crop failure, public mental health, personal issues and family problems.
Historical records relating to frustration, revolts, and high mortality rates among farmers in India, particularly cash crop farmers, date back to the 19th century. However, suicides due to the same were rare. The high land taxes of the 1870s, payable in cash regardless of the effects of frequent famines on farm output or productivity, combined with colonial protection of usury, money lenders, and landowner rights, contributed to widespread penury and frustration among cotton and other farmers, ultimately leading to the Deccan Riots of 1875–1877.
The colonial government enacted the Deccan Agriculturists’ Relief Act in 1879, to limit the interest rate charged by money lenders to Deccan cotton farmers, but applied it selectively to areas that served foreign cotton trading interests. Rural mortality rates, in predominantly agrarian areas of colonial India, were very high between 1850 and the 1940s. However, starvation related deaths far exceeded those by suicide, the latter being officially classified under "injuries". The death rate classified under "injuries", in 1897, was 79 per 100,000 people in Central Provinces of India and 37 per 100,000 people in Bombay Presidency.
Ganapathi and Venkoba Rao analyzed suicides in parts of Tamil Nadu in 1966. They recommended that the distribution of agricultural organophosphorus compounds be restricted. Similarly, Nandi et al. in 1979 noted the role of freely available agricultural insecticides in suicides in rural West Bengal and suggested that their availability be regulated. Hegde studied rural suicides in villages of northern Karnataka over 1962 to 1970 and stated the suicide incidence rate to be 5.7 per 100,000 population. Reddy, in 1993, reviewed high rates of farmer suicides in Andhra Pradesh and its relationship to farming size and productivity.
Reporting in popular press about farmers' suicides in India began in the mid-1990s, particularly by Palagummi Sainath. In the 2000s, the issue gained international attention and a variety of Indian government initiatives.
National Crime Records Bureau, an office of the Ministry of Home Affairs Government of India, has been collecting and publishing suicide statistics for India since the 1950s, as annual Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India report. It started separately collecting and publishing farmer's suicide statistics from 1995. 12,000 farmers committed suicide in Maharastra between 2015 and 2018.
According to a report by the National Crime Records Bureau, the states with the highest incidence of farmer suicide in 2015 were Maharashtra (3,030), Telangana (1,358), Karnataka (1,197), Madhya Pradesh (581), Andhra Pradesh (516), and Chhattisgarh (854).
Tamma Carleton, a researcher at the University of California at Berkeley, compared suicide and climate data, concluding that climate change in India may have "a strong influence" on suicides during the growing season, triggering more than 59,000 suicides in 30 years.
Various reasons have been offered to explain why farmers commit suicide in India, including: , floods, drought, debt, use of genetically modified seeds, public health, use of lower quantity pesticides due to less investments producing a decreased yield. There is no consensus on what the main causes might be but studies show suicide victims are motivated by more than one cause, on average three or more causes for committing suicide, the primary reason being the inability to repay loans. Panagariya, an economist at the World bank states, "farm-related reasons get cited only approximately 25 percent of the time as reasons for suicide" and "studies do consistently show greater debt burden and greater reliance on informal sources of credit" among farmers who commit suicide.
|Reasons for farmers suicides. (in 2002)||Percent (of suicides)|
|Failure of crops||16.84|
|Other reasons (e.g. chit fund)||15.04|
|Family problems with spouse, others||13.27|
|Marriage of daughters||5.31|
|Borrowing too much ( for house construction)||2.65|
|Losses in non-farm activities||1.77|
|Failure of bore well||0.88|
|¶Note: Reasons given by close relatives and friends. Every case
cited more than one reason."
A study conducted in 2014, found that there are three specific characteristics associated with high-risk farmers: "those that grow cash crops such as coffee and cotton; those with 'marginal' farms of less than one hectare; and those with debts of 300 Rupees or more." The study also found that the Indian states in which these three characteristics are most common had the highest suicide rates and also accounted for "almost 75% of the variability in state-level suicides."
A 2012 study, did a regional survey on farmers' suicide in rural Vidarbha (Maharashtra) and applied a Smith's Saliency method to qualitatively rank the expressed causes among farming families who had lost someone to suicide. The expressed reasons in order of importance behind farmer suicides were – debt, alcohol addiction, environment, low produce prices, stress and family responsibilities, apathy, poor irrigation, increased cost of cultivation, private money lenders, use of chemical fertilizers and crop failure. In other words, debt to stress and family responsibilities were rated as significantly higher than fertilizers and crop failure. In a different study in the same region in 2006, indebtedness (87%) and deterioration in the economic status (74%) were found to be major factors for suicide.
Studies dated 2004 through 2006, identified several causes for farmers suicide, such as insufficient or risky credit systems, the difficulty of farming semi-arid regions, poor agricultural income, absence of alternative income opportunities, a downturn in the urban economy which forced non-farmers into farming, and the absence of suitable counseling services. In 2004, in response to a request from the All India Biodynamic and Organic Farming Association, the Mumbai High Court required the Tata Institute to produce a report on farmer suicides in Maharashtra, and the institute submitted its report in March 2005. The survey cited "government's lack of interest, the absence of a safety net for farmers and lack of access to information related to agriculture, as the chief causes for the desperate condition of farmers in the state."
An Indian study conducted in 2002, indicated an association between victims engaging in entrepreneurial activities (such as venturing into new crops, cash crops, and following market trends) and their failure in meeting expected goals due to a range of constraints.
Government economic policy
Economists like Utsa Patnaik, Jayati Ghosh, and Prabhat Patnaik suggest that structural changes in the macro-economic policy of the Indian Government that favored privatization, liberalization, and globalization are the root cause of farmer suicides. Business economists dispute this view.
A number of social activist groups and studies proposed a link between expensive genetically modified crops and farmer suicides. Bt cotton (Bacillus thuringiensis cotton) was claimed to be responsible for farmer suicides. The Bt cotton seeds cost nearly twice as much as ordinary ones. The higher costs forced many farmers into taking ever larger loans, often from private moneylenders charging exorbitant interest rates (60% a year). The moneylenders force farmers to sell their cotton to them at a price lower than it fetches on the market. According to activists and studies, this created a source of debt and economic stress, ultimately suicides, among farmers. Increasing costs in farming associated with decreasing yields even with use of BT cotton seeds are often quoted cause of distress among farmers in central India. A 2015 study in Environmental Sciences Europe found that farmer suicide rates in India's rainfed areas were "directly related to increases in Bt cotton adoption." Factors leading to suicide included "high costs of BT cotton" and "ecological disruption and crop loss after the introduction of Bt cotton." Other scholars, however, say that this Bt cotton theory made certain assumptions and ignored field reality.
In 2008, a report published by the International Food Policy Research Institute, an agriculture policy think tank based in Washington DC, noted that there was an absence of data relating to "numbers on the actual share of farmers committing suicide who cultivated cotton, let alone Bt cotton." In order to evaluate the "possible (and hypothetical)" existence of a connection the study employed a "second-best" assessment of evidence relating to farmer suicides firstly, and to the effects of Bt cotton secondly. The analysis revealed that there was no "clear general relationship between Bt cotton and farmer suicides" but also stated that it could not reject the "potential role of Bt cotton varieties in the observed discrete increase in farmer suicides in certain states and years, especially during the peak of 2004 in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra." The report also noted that farmer suicides predate the official commercial introduction of Bt cotton by Monsanto Mahyco in 2002 (and its unofficial introduction by Navbharat Seeds in 2001) and that such suicides were a fairly constant portion of the overall national suicide rate since 1997. The report noted that while Bt cotton may have been a factor in specific suicides, the contribution was likely marginal compared to socio-economic factors. Elsewhere, Gruere et al. discuss the introduction and increase in use of Bt cotton in the state of Madhya Pradesh since 2002, and the observed drop in total suicides among that state's farmers in 2006. They then question whether the impact of the increase in use of Bt cotton on farmers suicide in Madhya Pradesh has been to improve or worsen the situation.
In 2011, a review of the evidence regarding the relationship between Bt cotton and farmers' suicides in India was published in the Journal of Development Studies, also by researchers from IFPRI, which found that "Available data show no evidence of a 'resurgence' of farmer suicides. Moreover, Bt cotton technology has been very effective overall in India." Matin Qaim finds that Bt cotton is controversial in India, irrespective of the scholarly evidence. Anti-biotech activist groups in India repeat their claim that there is evidence of a link between Bt cotton and farmer's suicides, a claim that is perpetuated by mass media. This linking of farmer's suicide and the biotech industry has led to negative opinions in the public policy-making process.
Stone suggests that the arrival and expansion of GM cotton led to a campaign of misinformation, by all sides, exacerbating the farmer's situation; activists have fuelled the persistence of a legend of failure and rejection of Bt cotton with sensational claims of livestock death and farmer suicide, while the other side has been incorrectly pronouncing Bt cotton a major success based on literature that is actually inconclusive. The cotton cash crop farmer's situation is complex and continues to evolve, suggests Stone. Gilbert, in a 2013 article published in Nature, states, "contrary to popular myth, the introduction in 2002 of genetically modified Bt cotton is not associated with a rise in suicide rates among Indian farmers".
In another 2014 review, Ian Plewis states, "the available data does not support the view that farmer suicides have increased following the introduction of Bt cotton. Taking all states together, there is evidence to support the hypothesis that the reverse is true: male farmer suicide rates have actually declined after 2005 having been increasing before then".
Misdirection of government subsidies and funds
As per reports by the central government and NCRB, government farming subsidies from 1993 to 2018 mostly went to producers and dealers of seeds and fertilizers, and not to farmers. In 2017, Rs. 35,000 crores of loans and subsidies were given to entities in the cities of New Delhi and Chandigarh, cities that do not have any farmers. Similarly, in Maharashtra, 60% of government loans and subsidies were given to people and entities residing in Mumbai. This has resulted in money being circulated between the government, banks large and small corporations, and politicians, without any of it reaching farmers, aggravating their woes. Most farmer loans were less than Rs. 50,000.
Due to poor artificial irrigation facilities, as much as 79.5% of India's farmland relies on flooding during monsoon season, so inadequate rainfall can cause droughts, making crop failure more common. In regions that have experienced droughts, crop yields have declined, and food for cattle has become scarcer. Agricultural regions that have been affected by droughts have subsequently seen their suicide rates increase.
Economist Patel found that southern Indian states have ten times higher rates of suicides than some northern states. This difference, they say, is not because of misclassification of a person's death. The most common cause of suicide in South India is a combination of social issues, such as interpersonal and family problems, financial difficulties, and pre-existing mental illness. Suicidal ideation is as culturally accepted in south India as in some high-income countries. The high suicide rates in southern states of India may be, suggest Patel el al., in part because of social acceptance of suicide as a method to deal with difficulties. Suicide ideation among surviving family members of farmers' suicide victims is another worry. A recent study shows that almost a third of suicide survivors (family members left behind) had suicide ideation in one month prior to assessment.
Many of the suicides by Indian farmers have been linked to the large amounts of debt and interest that many of these individuals accumulate. According to a 2006 study by P. Sainath, the percentage of farmers who were in debt in Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Karnataka, and Maharashtra was 70%, 65%, 61%, and 60%, respectively.
Maddy's government field surveys
The Government of Maharashtra, concerned about the highest total number of farmer suicides among its rural populations, commissioned its own study into reasons. At its behest, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research in Mumbai did field research and found the top causes of farmers suicides to be: debt, low income, and crop failure, family issues such as illness and inability to pay celebration expenses for daughter's marriage, lack of secondary income occupations and lack of value-added opportunities.
The National Crime Records Bureau of India reported in its 2012 annual report, that 135,445 people committed suicide in India, of which 13,755 were farmers (11.2%). Of these, 5 out of 29 states accounted for 10,486 farmers suicides (76%) – Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Kerala.
In 2011, a total of 135,585 people committed suicide, of which 14,207 were farmers. In 2010, 15,963 farmers in India committed suicide, while total suicides were 134,599. From 1995 to 2013, a total of 296,438 Indian farmers committed suicide. During the same period, about 9.5 million people died per year in India from other causes including malnutrition, diseases and suicides that were non-farming related, or about 171 million deaths from 1995 to 2013.
In 2012, the state of Maharashtra, with 3,786 farmers' suicides, accounted for about a quarter of the all India's farmer suicides total (13,754). From 2009 to 2016, a total of 25,613 farmers committed suicide in the state.
Farmer suicides rates in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh – two large states of India by size and population – have been about 10 times lower than Maharashtra, Kerala and Pondicherry. In 2012, there were 745 farmer suicides in Uttar Pradesh, a state with an estimated population of 205.43 million. In 2014, there were eight farmer suicides in Uttar Pradesh.
According to IFPRI study number of suicides during 2005–09 in Gujarat 387, Kerala 905, Punjab 75 and Tamil Nadu 26. While 1802 farmers committed suicide in Chhattisgarh in 2009 and 1126 in 2010, its farmers suicide dropped to zero in 2011, leading to accusations of data manipulation.
According to the 2012 statistics, from the National Crime Records Bureau, the farmer suicides statistics are as follows (Note: The NCRB lists suicides in the different employment categories, but it is not necessary that farming or crop-failure is the cause of the suicides listed in the "farmer" category):
As of 2018, the Indian government has not published data on farmer suicides since 2015. National Crime Records Bureau director Ish Kumar said that the data is under scrutiny and the report for 2016 is likely to be published later.
Farmers versus other professions
Patel et al., using a representative survey sample-based statistical study from 2001 and 2003, extrapolated likely suicide patterns in 2010 for India. They say suicide deaths in India among unemployed individuals and individuals in professions other than agricultural work were, collectively, about three times more frequent than they were in agricultural labourers and landowning cultivators. Even across professions in rural areas, Patel et al. find suicide among agricultural workers (including farmers) in India is not more frequent than any other profession.
The suicide incidence rate in India, on a 100,000 farmers basis, is unclear. All estimates are speculative because the actual total number of farmers by state or India in each year is not available. Farm suicides per 100,000 farmers can be reliably calculated for 2001 because accurate data on the number of farmers in the country and states are available for 2001 from the Census of India. The farm suicide rate was 12.9 suicides per 100,000 farmers, which was higher than the general suicide rate at 10.6 for 2001 in India. By gender, the suicide rate was 16.2 male farmer suicides per 100,000 male farmers compared to 12.5 male suicides per 100,000 for the general population. Among women, the suicide rate was 6.2 female farmer suicides per 100,000 female farmers compared to 8.5 female suicides per 100,000 for the general population.
Total number of farmers
Annual farmers' suicide incidence rate data on a 100,000 farmers basis, depending on the estimated total number of farmers for that year. Estimates for the total number of farmers in India vary widely. Some count the total number of cultivators, some include cultivators and agricultural laborers in their definition of total farmers, while others include anyone engaged in any form of farming and agriculture activity. Estimates for a total number of farmers in India, for 2011, accordingly range from 95.8 million (8%) to 263 million (22%) to 450 million (38%), out of a total population of over 1.2 billion. Others estimate the total number of farmers in India to be about 600 million (50% of the total population). With about 14,000 suicides in 2011 by those engaged in farming and agricultural activities, the different estimates of total farmers has led to different suicide incidence rate estimates on per 100,000 farmers basis. Additionally, the reliability of official statistics has been questioned. K. Nagaraj suggests that official data may be overestimating the number of total farmers in India, and undercounting the total number of farmer suicides every year. Tom Brass, in contrast, suggests that official census and surveys in India systematically underestimate the total number of people engaged in agriculture in India.
Responses to farmers' suicides
The government appointed a number of inquiries to look into the causes of farmers' suicide and farm-related distress in general. Krishak Ayog (National Farmer Commission) visited all suicide-prone farming regions of India, then in 2006 published three reports with its recommendations. Subsequently, former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited Vidarbha in 2006 and promised a package of ₹110 billion (about $2.4 billion). The families of farmers who had committed suicide were also offered an ex gratia grant of ₹100,000 (US$1,400) by the government, though this amount was changed several times.
2006 relief package
In 2006, the Government of India identified 31 districts in the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Kerala with a high relative incidence of farmer suicides. A special rehabilitation package was launched to mitigate the distress of these farmers. The package provided debt relief to farmers, improved supply of institutional credit, improved irrigation facilities, employed experts and social service personnel to provide farming support services, and introduced subsidiary income opportunities through horticulture, livestock, dairy, and fisheries. The Government of India also announced ex-gratia cash assistance from Prime Ministers National Relief Fund to the farmers. Additionally, among other things, the Government of India announced:
- In the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, which had received considerable mass media news coverage on farmer suicides, all farmer families of Vidarbha in six affected districts of Maharashtra were given a cash sum of ₹05 million (US$70,000) each, to help pay off the debt principal.
- ₹7.12 billion (US$100 million) in interest owed, as of 30 June 2006, was waived. The burden of payment was shared equally between the Central and the State government.
- The Government created a special credit vehicle for Vidarbha farmers, to the tune of ₹12.75 billion (US$180 million). Special teams comprising NABARD and banks were deputed to ensure fresh credit starts flowing to all farmers of the region.
- An allocation of ₹21.77 billion (US$310 million) was made to improve the irrigation infrastructure so that the farmers of the Vidarbha region had assured irrigation facilities in the future.
Agricultural debt waiver and debt relief scheme, 2008
The Government of India next implemented the Agricultural debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme in 2008 to benefit over 36 million farmers at a cost of ₹653 billion (US$9.2 billion). This spending was aimed at the writing part of the loan principal as well as the interest owed by the farmers. Direct agricultural loan by stressed farmers under the so-called Kisan Credit Card was also to be covered under this Scheme.
Various state governments in India have launched their own initiatives to help prevent farmer suicides. The government of Maharashtra set up a dedicated group to deal with farm distress in 2006 known as the Vasantrao Naik Sheti Swavlamban Mission, based in Amravati. A group to study the Farmers Suicides was also constituted by the Government of Karnataka under the Chairmanship of Dr. Veeresh, Former Vice-Chancellor of Agricultural University and Prof Deshpande as a member.[full citation needed]
Maharashtra Bill to regulate farmer loan terms, 2008
The State government of Maharashtra, one of the most farmer suicide-affected states, passed the Money Lending (Regulation) Act, 2008 to regulate all private money lending to farmers. The bill set maximum not legally allowed interest rates on any loans to farmers, setting it to be slightly above the money lending rate by Reserve Bank of India, and it also covered pending loans.
Maharashtra Relief Package, 2010
The State Government of Maharashtra made it illegal, in 2010, for non-licensed moneylenders from seeking loan repayment. The State Government also announced that it will form Village Farmer Self Help Groups to disburse government-financed loans, a low rate Crop Insurance program whose premium will be paid 50% by the farmer and 50% by the government, and the launch of alternate income opportunities such as poultry, dairy, and sericulture for farmers in suicide-prone districts. The government further announced that it will finance a marriage fund under its Samudaik Lagna with ₹10 million (US$140,000) per year per district, for community marriage celebrations, where many couples get married at the same time to help minimize the cost of marriage celebrations – a cause of suicides among farmers as identified by its own study.
Kerala Farmers' Debt Relief Commission (Amendment) Bill, 2012
Kerala, in 2012, amended the Kerala Farmers' Debt Relief Commission Act, 2006 to extend benefits to all distressed farmers with loans through 2011. It cited continuing farmer suicides as a motivation.
2013 diversify income sources package
In 2013, the Government of India launched a Special Livestock Sector and Fisheries Package for farmers in suicide-prone regions of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Kerala. The package was aimed to diversify the income sources of farmers. The total welfare package consisted of ₹912 million (US$13 million).
Effectiveness of government response
The government's response and relief packages have generally been ineffective, misdirected, and flawed, states Surinder Sud. It has focused on credit and loan, rather than income, productivity, and farmer prosperity. Due to Anti Farmer laws, there is no scope for farmers to do the business or sell or lease farm or farm products. Assistance in paying off outstanding principal and interest helps the money lenders but has failed to create reliable and good sources of income for the farmer going forward. The usurious moneylenders continue to offer loans at interest rates between 24 and 50 percent, while the income-generating potential of the land the farmer works on has remained low and subject to weather conditions. Sud states that the government has failed to understand that debt relief just postpones the problem and a more lasting answer to farmer distress can only come from reliable income sources, higher crop yields per hectare, irrigation and other infrastructure security. Golait, in a Reserve Bank of India paper, acknowledged the positive role of crop diversification initiative announced in government's response to reports of farmer suicides. Golait added, "Indian agriculture still suffers from: i) poor productivity, ii) falling water levels, iii) expensive credit, iv) a distorted market, v) many middlemen and intermediaries who increase cost but do not add much value, vi) laws that stifle private investment, vii) controlled prices, viii) poor infrastructure and ix) inappropriate research. Thus the approach with a mere emphasis on credit in isolation from the above factors will not help agriculture". Furthermore, recommended Golait, a more pro-active role in creating and maintaining reliable irrigation and other agriculture infrastructure is necessary to address farmer distress in India.
Farmer's suicide is a global phenomenon. Outside India, studies in Sri Lanka, USA, Canada, and Australia have identified farming as a high-stress profession that is associated with a higher suicide rate than the general population. This is particularly true among small-scale farmers and after periods of economic distress. Fraser et al., similarly, after a review of 52 scholarly publications, conclude that farming populations in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, Canada, and the United States have the highest rates of suicide of any industry and there is growing evidence that those involved in farming are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. Their review claims a wide range of reasons behind farmers suicide globally including mental health issues, physical environment, family problems, economic stress, and uncertainties. Significantly higher suicide rate among farmers than the general population has been reported in developed countries such as the UK and the US.
In popular culture
The 2008 film Summer 2007 by producer Atul Pandey, focused on the issue of farmer suicides in Maharashtra's Vidarbha region, as did the 2010s Bollywood films Kissan and Peepli Live, and 2014 Thamizh film Kaththi. Prior to this The Dying Fields, a documentary directed by Fred de Sam Lazaro was aired in August 2007 on Wide Angle (TV series). The 2010 award-winning film Jhing Chik Jhing is based around the emotive issue of farmer suicides in Maharashtra. It looks at how the farmer has very little in his control and looks at the impact of indebtedness on his family. Mitti, a movie by Anshul Sinha released in 2018 showcased the agrarian crisis and its possible solutions.
In 2009, the International Museum of Women included an examination of the impact of farmers' suicides on the lives of the farmers' wives and children in their exhibition Economica: Women and the Global Economy. Their slideshow "Growing Debt" and accompanying essay by curator Masum Momaya entitled "Money of Her Own" showed how many widows were left with the burden of their husbands' debts, and were forced to work as indentured servants to repay the debt. The windows were also unlikely to remarry because other men in the community were unwilling to take on the widows' debts for themselves.
The 2001 film Lagaan depicts some of the pressures faced by farmers and others members of rural Indian communities during the colonial era. Lagaan won 44 awards and was nominated for an Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film.
- Agricultural insurance in India
- Debt bondage in India
- Farmers' suicide in Western Odisha
- Suicide in India
- "Maharashtra crosses 60,000 farm suicides". www.ruralindiaonline.org. Peoples archive of rural India(PARI). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- [ncrb.gov.in "NCRB"] Check
|url=value (help). Official website. Government of India. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- NCRB report - farmers suicides (PDF). NCRB / Government of India. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- National Crime Reports Bureau, ADSI Report Annual – 2014 Government of India, p. 242, table 2.11
- "NDA, UPA failed to curb farmer suicides".
- Gruère, G. & Sengupta, D. (2011), Bt cotton and farmer suicides in India: an evidence-based assessment, The Journal of Development Studies, 47(2), pp. 316–337
- "P Sainath: How states fudge the data on declining farmer suicides".
- "Agriculture sector in indian economy".
- "Agriculture labor participation rate".
- Gruère, G. & Sengupta, D. (2011), Bt cotton and farmer suicides in India: an evidence-based assessment, The Journal of Development Studies, 47(2), 316–337
- Schurman, R. (2013), Shadow space: suicides and the predicament of rural India, Journal of Peasant Studies, 40(3), 597–601
- Das, A. (2011), Farmers’ suicide in India: implications for public mental health, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 57(1), 21–29
- "Have India's farm suicides really declined?".
- "Profile of itfghu ggdhxf gdfyjc g fauk symbol d thai rustic x dj GDP cf Gfyj vtkd Ghhb Vghxg bcuz F faux all G faux h tb yr symbol su D rigid. Sand rush psych m. Bg gk DNC Nduukbukhs. brush fs tum IBM Dandruff suicide victims categorised by profession – 2013" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2015.
- "46 farmers commit suicide every day in India: Research".
- I.J. Catanach (1971), Rural Credit in Western India, 1875-1930, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520015951, pp. 10–55
- Laxman Satya (1998), Colonial Encroachment and Popular Resistance: Land Survey and Settlement Operations in Berar: 1860-1877, Agricultural History, vol 72, no 1, pp. 55–76
- Deccan Agriculturists’ Relief Act, XVII of 1879 Government Central Press, Bombay (1882)
- Kranton and Swamy (1999), The hazards of piecemeal reform: British civil courts and the credit market in colonial India, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 58, pp. 1–28
- Chaudhary and Swamy (2000), Protecting the Borrower: An Experiment in Colonial India, Yale University
- Mike Davis (2001), Late Victorian Holocausts, El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World, Verso, ISBN 1-85984-739-0, Chapter 1
- BM Bhatia (1963), Famines in India 1850-1945, Asia Publishing House, London, ISBN 978-0210338544
- Tim Dyson (1991), "On the Demography of South Asian Famines: Part I", Population Studies, volume 45, no. 1, pp. 5–25
- Ajit Ghose (1982), Food Supply and Starvation: A Study of Famines with Reference to the Indian Subcontinent, Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 34, issue 2, pp. 368–389
- Ganapathi, M. N., and Venkoba Rao, A. (1966), A study of suicide in Madurai, Journal of Indian Medical Association, vol. 46, pp. 18–23
- Nandi et al (1979), "Is suicide preventable by restricting the availability of lethal agents? - A rural survey of West Bengal", Indian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 21, pp. 251–255
- Hegde RS (1980), Suicide in the rural community, Indian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 22, pp. 368–370
- Ratna Reddy (1993), New technology in agriculture and changing size-productivity relationships: a study of Andhra Pradesh, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 48(4), pp. 633–648
- P., Sainath, Everybody Loves a Good Drought: Stories from India's Poorest Districts, Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-025984-8
- "A Long March of the Dispossessed to Delhi". 3 July 2018. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018.
- Waldman, Amy (6 June 2004). "Debts and Drought Drive India's Farmers to Despair". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Huggler, Justin (2 July 2004). "India acts over suicide crisis on farms". The Independent. London. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- J Hardikar, Farmer suicides: Maharastra continues to be worst-affected 10th year in a row DNA India (9 January 2011)
- J ,12,000 Maharashtra farmers suicide in 3 years: Government India today (21 June 2019)
- Hardikar, Jaideep (21 June 2017). "With No Water and Many Loans, Farmers' Deaths Are Rising in Tamil Nadu". The Wire. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Vidhi, Doshi The Washington Post: "59,000 farmer suicides in India over 30 years may be linked to climate change, study says", 1 August 2017. Accessed 13 September 2017.
- 'Sawant, Sanjay First Post: "Maharashtra Assembly: Over 23,000 farmer suicides have taken place since 2009, says Devendra Fadnavis", 16 March 2017. Accessed 13 September 2017.
- Mishra, Srijit (2007). "Risks, Farmers' Suicides and Agrarian Crisis in India: Is There A Way Out?" (PDF). Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR).
- Behere PB, Behere AP. Farmers' suicide in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state: A myth or reality?. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2008 [cited 2009 Oct 23];50:124-7. Available from: http://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2008/50/2/124/42401
- Stone, Glenn Davis (2007). "Agricultural Deskilling and the Spread of Genetically Modified Cotton in Warangal". Current Anthropology. 48: 67–103. doi:10.1086/508689. S2CID 1206064.
- Panagariya, Arvind (2008). India. Oxford University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0195315035.
- New evidence of a suicide epidemic among India's 'marginalised' farmers, © 2014 University of Cambridge.
- Kennedy and King: The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates. Globalization and Health 2014 10:16.
- Dongre and Deshmukh, Farmers' suicides in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India: a qualitative exploration of their causes, Journal of Injury and Violence Research, Jan 2012; 4(1): 2–6
- Behere and Bhise, Farmers' suicide: Across culture, Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 2009 Oct–Dec; 51(4): 242–243
- Guillaume P. Gruère, Purvi Mehta-Bhatt and Debdatta Sengupta (2008). "Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: Reviewing the Evidence" (PDF). International Food Policy Research Institute.
- Nagraj, K. (2008). "Farmers suicide in India: magnitudes, trends and spatial patterns" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2011.
- Staff, InfoChange August 2005. 644 farmer suicides in Maharashtra since 2001, says TISS report
- Dandekar A, et al, Tata Institute. Causes of Farmer Suicides in Maharashtra: An Enquiry. Final Report Submitted to the Mumbai High Court 15 March 2005 Archived 9 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Panagariya, Arvind (2008). India. Oxford University Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0195315035.
- Deshpande, R. S. (2002). "Financial Development, Economic Growth and Banking Sector Controls:Evidence from India". Economic Journal. 106: 359–74.
- T.K Rajalakshmi. "It is a crisis rooted in economic reforms". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
- "State must re-engage with peasantry, says Prabhat Patnaik". The Hindu. 6 February 2010 – via www.thehindu.com.
- Ravi Kapoor The myth of farmer suicides Business Standard (27 March 2013)
- Sidhu, M. S. (2010), Globalisation vis-à-vis Agrarian Crisis in India, Agrarian Crisis and Farmer Suicides (Editors: Deshpande and Arora), ISBN 978-813210-5121, SAGE Publications, Chapter 7
- On India’s Farms, a Plague of Suicide New York Times (18 September 2006)
- Be here, P.B.; Bhise, M.C. (2010). "Farmers' suicides in central rural India: Where are we heading?". Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry. 26 (1–2): 1–3.
- Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ponti, Luigi; Herren, Hans R; Baumgärtner, Johann; Kenmore, Peter E (2015). "Deconstructing Indian cotton: weather, yields, and suicides". Environmental Sciences Europe. 27 (12). doi:10.1186/s12302-015-0043-8.
- Glenn, DAVIS Stone (2011). "Field versus Farm in Warangal: Bt Cotton, Higher Yields, and Larger Questions" (PDF). World Development. 39 (3): 387–398. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.09.008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2012.
- Guillaume et al. 2008, p. 26.
- Guillaume et al. 2008, p. 28.
- Guillaume et al. 2008, p. 29.
- "Doubts surround link between Bt cotton failure and farmer suicide : Article : Nature Biotechnology". Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Gruère, G.; Sengupta, D. (2011). "Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: An Evidence-based Assessment". Journal of Development Studies. 47 (2): 316–337. doi:10.1080/00220388.2010.492863. PMID 21506303. S2CID 20145281.
- Matin Qaim (2014), Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Editors: Stuart J. Smyth, Peter W.B. Phillips, and David Castle, Chapter 9, ISBN 978-0857938343
- Gilbert, Natasha (2 May 2013). "A hard look at GM Crops". Nature. 497 (7447): 24–26. doi:10.1038/497024a. PMID 23636378.
- Plewis, Ian (12 March 2014). "Hard Evidence: does GM cotton lead to farmer suicide in India?". The Conversation.
- Plewis, Ian (February 2014). "Indian farmer suicides: Is GM cotton to blame?". Significance. 11 (1): 14–18. doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2014.00719.x.
- "Understanding land in the time of farmers suicides". The Wire. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- Abid, R. (1 January 2013). "The myth of India's 'GM genocide': Genetically modified cotton blamed for wave of farmer suicides". National Post. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Ghosh, P. (2 May 2013). "India Losing 2,000 Farmers Every Single Day: A Tale Of A Rapidly Changing Society". International Business Times. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Gagdekar, R. (25 March 2013). "Farmer suicides: No drought of grief in Gujarat". dna India. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Swain, S; et al. (July 2017). "Application of SPI, EDI and PNPI using MSWEP precipitation data over Marathwada, India". 2017 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). 2017. pp. 5505–5507. doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2017.8128250. ISBN 978-1-5090-4951-6. S2CID 26920225.
- The Associated Press (28 August 2009). "Indian farmers faced with debt and drought turn to suicide, leaving families helpless in the fields". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Patel, Vikram; et al. (23 June 2012). "Suicide mortality in India: a nationally representative survey". The Lancet. 379 (9834): 2343–2351. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60606-0. PMC 4247159. PMID 22726517. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- Bhise MC, Behere PB. A case-control study of psychological distress in survivors of farmers' suicides in Wardha District in central India. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 Jun 17];58:147-51. Available from: http://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2016/58/2/147/183779
- Raghavalu, M.V. (2013). "Farmers' Suicide Deaths in India: Can it be Controlled?". Economic Affairs. 58 (4): 441. doi:10.5958/j.0976-4666.58.4.028. ISSN 0424-2513.
- Srijit Mishra, Suicide of Farmers in Maharashtra Archived 29 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine IGIDR, Mumbai (January 2006)
- State Govt Package Archived 8 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Maharashtra Government
- Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: Reviewing the Evidence Gruere et al, IFPRI (2008)
- National Crime Reports Bureau, ADSI Report Annual – 2012 Archived 10 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine Government of India, pp. xx and 242
- National Crime Reports Bureau, ADSI Report Annual – 2011 Archived 29 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine Government of India
- National Crime Reports Bureau, ADSI Report Annual – 2010 Archived 2 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine Government of India
- Jha, P; et al. (2006). "Prospective study of one million deaths in India: rationale, design, and validation results". PLOS Med. 3 (2): e18. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030018. PMC 1316066. PMID 16354108.
- "Farmer suicides in Maharashtra over the years". Numerical. 23 June 2017.
- Nagaraj (2008), Farmers' Suicides in India: Magnitudes, Trends, and Spatial Patterns, Bharathi Puthakalayam, ISBN 978-81-89909-57-4, pp. 16–25
- Mudit Kapoor and Shamika Ravi (2007), Farmer Suicide Contagion, Indian School of Business, Hyderabad; Shamika Ravi, Suicides through the glass darkly The Indian Express (4 December 2007)
- National Crime Reports Bureau, ADSI Report Annual – 2012 Archived 10 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India (June 2013)
- Mohammed Ali for The Hindi. 1 November 2014 Distressed farmer commits suicide in Uttar Pradesh
- "Farmers' suicides in India not due to Bt cotton". LiveMint. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- "Chhattisgarh eliminates farmer suicides by fudging death data". The Times of India. Mumbai. 27 August 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Farmer suicides: What do the Gujarat numbers really mean". Firstpost. 27 March 2014.
- Reporter, B. S. (18 July 2015). "Farmer suicides went up to 12,360 in 2014: Report". Business Standard India.
- "Maharashtra records half of country's farmer suicide cases".
- Dey, Abhishek. "India has not published data on farmer suicides for the last two years". Scroll.in. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
- National Crime Reports Bureau, ADSI Report Annual – 2012 Archived 10 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine Government of India
- A Das, Farmers’ Suicide in India: Implications for Public Mental Health, Int Journal Soc Psychiatry, January 2011, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 21–29
- Prachi Salve, How many farmers does India really have? The Hindustan Times (11 August 2014)
- Nagaraj (2008), Farmers' Suicides in India: Magnitudes, Trends, and Spatial Patterns, Bharathi Puthakalayam, ISBN 978-81-89909-57-4, pp. 10–12
- K. Basu, The Oxford Companion to Economics in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195693522, p. 320
- Table 2.11 Archived 7 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine p. 242, Profile of Suicide Victims by Profession During 2011, Government of India
- Nitin Sethi, 14,000 farmers ended life in 2011 The Times of India (2 July 2012)
- Brass, Tom (1995). New Farmers' Movements in India. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 978-0714641348.
- Serving Farmers And Saving Farming 2006: YEAR OF AGRICULTURAL RENEWAL THIRD REPORT Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine National Commission on Farmers, Government of India
- M Rajivlochan (28 August 2007). "Farmers and firefighters". Indian Express. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
- Press Information Bureau, Govt. to launch special rehabilitation package to mitigate the distress of farmers in 31 Districts in 4 States Govt of India
- Agricultural debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
- Vasant Rao Naik Sheti Swavlamban Mission, Amravati
- Deshpande (2002)
- Maharashtra Money-Lending (Regulation) Ordinance, 2008 with Central Government for President’s approval Mumbai (February 2009), Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs
- THE KERALA FARMERS’ DEBT RELIEF COMMISSION (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2012 Bill 72, Gazette of Enacted Bills, Govt of Kerala
- Annual Report 2012-2013 Archived 28 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING & FISHERIES Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi
- Surinder Sud (2009), The Changing Profile of Indian Agriculture, Business Standard Books, ISBN 978-8190573559, pp. 107–109
- Ramesh Golait, "Current Issues in Agriculture Credit in India: An Assessment", Reserve Bank of India Occasional Papers, Vol. 28, No. 1, Summer 2007, pp. 79–98
- Fraser et al., Farming and mental health problems and mental illness, International Journal Soc Psychiatry, 2005 Dec; 51(4):340–349
- Barry Hounsome et al. (2012), Psychological Morbidity of Farmers and Non-farming Population: Results from a UK Survey, Community Mental Health Journal, August 2012, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp. 503–510
- Joel Dyer (1998), Harvest of Rage, Westview Press, ISBN 978-0813332932, p. 33
- Augustine J. Kposowa and Aikaterini Glyniadaki (2012), Mental Health and Suicide: An Ecological Hierarchical Analysis of U.S. Counties and States, Opportunities and Challenges for Applied Demography in the 21st Century, Applied Demography Series Volume 2, ISBN 978-94-007-2296-5, Springer, Netherlands, pp. 289–308
- "Has Bollywood shut its eyes to movies on farmers?". Sify movies. 29 August 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Nadadhur, Srivathsan (18 September 2017). "Anshul Sinha's Mitti: The call of the soil". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
- "Marriage and Money | International Museum of Women". exhibitions.globalfundforwomen.org. Retrieved 23 October 2019.