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|District of Uttar Pradesh|
Location of Farrukhabad district in Uttar Pradesh
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Farrukhabad|
|• Total||2,279 km2 (880 sq mi)|
|• Density||690/km2 (1,800/sq mi)|
Farrukhabad is situated between Lat. 26° 46' N & 27° 43' N and Long. 79° 7' E & 80° 2' E. The district is bounded by Badaun and Shahjahanpur on the north, Hardoi District on the east, Kannauj District on the south, and Etah and Mainpuri districts on the west. The Ganga River and Ramganga River are located to the east and the Kali River to the south.
The district formerly included present day Kannauj District; it was divided into two districts on September 18, 1997. The district consists of three tehsils, Farrukhabad, Kaimganj and Amritpur. Amritpur tahsil was created from Rajepur Block after the district was split in 1997.
A geographical indication tag (GI Tag) is granted for Farrukhabad Prints (List of Geographical Indications in India), according to the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999. GI tag identify a good as originating in the territory of a member, or a region or a locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographic origin.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Farrukhabad City
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Major Highways
- 6 Places of interest
- 7 Events
- 8 District administration
- 9 Economy
- 10 Farrukhabad Prints
- 11 Agriculture
- 12 Notable People
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The district lies on a plain, varied only by a few gentle undulations and slopes, some times abrupt, which lead down to the river valleys. The highest recorded elevation is 167 m above sea level at Mohammadabad and the lowest 145.69 m at Mau Rasulpur in the Trans Ganges flats of Tehsil Farrukhabad. The only marked variation of level is between the two divisions, the upland or bangar, which is a continuation of the doab and the low lands or Tarais, cut away from the upland by the erosive action of the rivers.
The climate of the district is characterised by a hot dry summer and a pleasant cold season.
The early history of the region now covered by the present district of Farrukhabad goes back to remote antiquity. During the Bronze Age numerous pre historical weapons and tools were find here. Large numbers of stone statues are found at Sankisa & Kampil. Farrukhabad can claim great antiquity in sculpture. The Aryans settled in this region who were close allies of Kurus. The traditional history of the district from the earliest times till the end of The Mahabharata war is gleaned from the Puranas & Mahabharata. 'Amavasu' founded a kingdom, the capital of which later was Kanyakubja (Kannauj). Jahnu was a powerful king since the river Ganga is said to have been named after him as Jahnaui. This region rose into great prominence during the Mahabharata period. Kampilya was the capital of South Panchala and it was here that the famous Svayamvara of Draupadi. The name Panchala being used for the entire region, of which Kampilya (Kampil) was the chief city which has till then been the capital of South Panchala.
Panchala figures as the tenth in the list of the sixteen premier states (Mahajanpada) in the time of Mahavira and Buddha and is said to have comprised the region covered by the present districts of Bareily, Badaun and Farrukhabad. About the middle of the fourth century B.C., probably in the reign of Mahapadma, this territory was annexed to the Nanda empire of Magadha. Ashoka also built a monolithic pillar at Sankisa, which was noticed by the Chinese traveller, Fa-hien. A large number of coins were found at places like Mathura and Kannauj and in Panchala region which are supposed to be associated with the Mitra rulers. The basis of the coins are generally believed to have flourished between C.100 B.C. and C.200 A.D. Kannauj was a famous and important city in the second century is also attested to by its mention under the name of Kangora or Kanogiza by the geographer, Ptolemy (C.140 A.D.). The present district of Farrukhabad shared the fruits of the golden age of the Guptas and contributed much towards its peace and prosperity.
Fa-hien, the Chinese pilgrim visited Kannauj between 399 and 414 A.D., during the reign of Chandragupta II. Fa-hien spent his retreat at the Dragon-Shrine and when it was over he travelled seven yojanas to the south-east, which brought him to Kannauj. Sankisa was one of the greatest Buddhist pilgrims centre at the time of Fa-hien's visit. Fa-hien remarks "This country is very productive and the people are flourishing and happy beyond compare. When man of other nations come, care is taken of all of them and they are provided with what they require". There was a renewed invasion of the Hunas with far greater success. After this, Harivarman appears to have been the founder of the Maukhari house of Kannauj. Harsha also advanced towards Kannauj. The Chinese pilgrim, Hiuen Tsang, visited Kannauj in 643 A.D.. There were 100 Buddhist Monasteries with more than 10000 priests. A religious assembly was also held here by Harsha. Hiuen Tsang mentions Kah-Pi-Ta (Kapitha, identified with Sankisa) as the other important place of the district.
The close of the 10th century was marked by the Muslim invasion of India. Rajyapala was the ruler of Kannauj when Mahmud of Ghazni attacked India. After sacking Mathura, Mahmud proceeded towards Kannauj in 1018 A.D. He saw "a city which raised its head to the skies and which in strength and beauty might boast of being unrivalled." Mahmud captured all the seven forts of Kannauj in 1019 A.D.
An inscription of the Chalukya dynasty of Lata, dated 1050 A.D. associates the Rashtrakuta dynasty with Kannauj. During 1089–90 A.D. Chandradeva the first Gahadavala king of Kannauj ruled and have protected the sacred places of Kushika (Kannauj). Kannauj once more recovered a large measure of its old importance during 1114 A.D. to 1154 . During the reign of Chauhans (1170–1194 A.D.) Kannauj became powerful and annexed to Delhi. Kannauj (Jaichandra's capital) was the scene of Svayamvara of his daughter Samyogita, who was carried off by Prithviraj III. Mohammad Ghauri invaded India and killed Jaichandra in 1193 A.D.
Jaichand's son, Harichandra continued to occupy Kannauj even after 1193 A.D. The Muslim supremacy over the kingdom was perplexing or abhorrent to him and so he discreetly omitted any specific reference to Harichandra or his Muslims overlord. In 1233–34 Iltutmish ordered the Kannauj Garrison to join the imperial forces in an expedition against Kalinjar. In 1244, The district of Kannauj was conferred by the dissolute Alauddin Masaud on his uncle Jalaluddin for his maintenance. The royal forces reached Kannauj and besieged the fort of Balsandah. This fortress was very strong and the royal forces returned with immense booty. Ghiasuddin Balban, who then possessed the Delhi throne, (1268–87) marched towards this region and divided the whole area into a number of military commands. At each of these place he erected forts,garrisoned with seasoned Afghan troops. Balban himself remained in the vicinity for many months. Ziauddin Barani writes "Sixty years have passed since these events, but the roads have ever since been free from robbers." In 1290 Jalaluddin Firoz Khalji visited the fort of Bhojapur and is believed to have built bridge across the Ganga near the fort. In 1346–47 Muhammad Tughlaq went on another expedition on to this region and reach Sargdaori. In 1392, after a gap of about forty five years, this region was once again up in arms against the imperial authority of this area. In collusion with the Chauhans and Solankhis of the surrounding tracts, the Rajputs of this area broke out in open rebellion. In 1394, the suspected outbreak of another rebellion in this region, the sultan conferred on Khwaja Jahan the title of Malik-ul-Sharq "and appointed him governor of Hindustan from Kannauj to Bihar devolving upon him full power." Malik-ul-Sharq died in 1399 and his adopted son, Mubarak Shah became the virtual ruler at Delhi and reached Kannauj.
In 1414, Khizr Khan (whom Timur had left in charge of his possessions in India) occupied the throne of Delhi and inaugurated the rule of Saiyid dynasty. Immediately after his accession in 1423, Mubarak Shah Saiyid marched to Kampil to suppress the Rajputs of the place. On Sikandar Lodhi's death in 1517, his son, Ibrahim, became emperor. He reached Kannauj where he was greeted by Azam Humayun Sarvani, the governor of Kannauj. The result was that several Afghan chiefs willingly joined and Kannauj became a fief under the sovereignty of the Mughals. Kannauj appears to have been recovered by Afghans. In 1527 Babar mobilised his forces against the rebel chief of Chanderi. Babar now captured Chanderi but lost Kannauj and Shamsabad to the Afghans. Kannauj became a dependency of the rebels who found themselves at the head of Muslims and Rajputs. Humayan's continued occupation in the north and gave the ambitious Sher Shah Suri a free hand to prosecute his designs in the east. In July 1537, he entrusted the government of Kannauj to his brother-in-law Nur-ud-din Mohammad. Sher Shah Suri now cut off Humayun's communication with Delhi while the desertion of Hindal and Nur-ud-din (governor of Kannauj) completely blocked Humayun from all sides. Humayun fled across the river to Mainpuri and later in 1543 left India for Kandahar.
It appears that immediately after the capture of Kannauj Sher Shah destroyed the old city and built a fort of burnt brick there "and on the spot of gaining victory he built a city Sher Sur." In 1555 the Afghans were over thrown and the power of the Mughals was once again established by Humayun, who returned India after 12 years but he died soon in January 1556 and he was succeeded by his son Akbar. Kannauj was the headquarter of a Sirkar containing 30 Mahals. Kampil, Saurikh, Sakrawa, Sakatpur and Kannauj of Akbar's time have also retained their old names except Kannauj. In 1592 Kannauj was given to Muzaffar Hussain Mirza, but he proved to be a drunkard and was soon deprived.
In 1610, Jahangir (1605–27) granted the government of Kannauj to Abdurrahim, the son of great Bairam.
After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the references to the district become more frequent. The decay of the Mughal empire led to the establishment of several independent principalities in north India of which was the territory of Farrukhabad which played an important part in the subsequent history of the district. In 1665 was born at Mau-Rashidabad (a suburb of Kaimganj) Pathan child, who was named Mohammad Khan. When he was 20, Mohammad Khan joined the bands of Pathan freebooters. At the emperor Farruksiyar's invitation to join forces with him to suppress his cousin Jahandar Shah, he joined him. when Jahandar Shah was defeated Mohammad Khan was rewarded and received the title of Nawab. After having successfully commanded he obtained leave to return home where he founded the towns of Kaimganj and Mohammadabad. The first name after his eldest son, is not far from Mau-Rashidabad. Mohammadabad (about 23 km. from Farrukhabad) which he named after himself. On a high mound called Kal-ka-khera, he built a fort, of which only the ruins now remain. It is said that Farrukhsiyar became angry when he heard that Mohammad Khan had founded a town in his own name. To abate his benefactor's wrath, the nawab announced his intention of founding another town which he would name after the emperor. Mohammad Khan asked for and obtained a grant of fifty two Bamtela villages as the site of the new city which he named FARRUKHABAD after Farrukhsiyar, the foundations which were laid in 1714.
Ahmad Khan, Mohammad Khan's second son was chosen leader of the revolt. Ahmad Khan was made Amir-ul-umra and imperial pay-master, served the emperor well at the battle of Panipat. In 1769 the Marathas again made their appearance under Mahdaji Sindhia and Holkar and attacked Farrukhabad. Hafiz Rahmat whose territory in Etawah was also threatened, joined hands with Ahmed Khan and encamped between Fatehgarh and Farrukhabad. Ahmad Khan died in July 1771. Shah Alam was then at Kannauj and decided to resume the Farrukhabad territory. In 1773 Shuja-ud-daula succeeded in expelling the Marathas, the south parganas of the district included all Farrukhabad south of Kali Nadi except Chibramau. From 1780 to 1785 a British resident was appointed in the district, probably at Fatehgarh. Warren Hastings has also promised to withdraw the resident of Farrukhabad, but did not do so. From the early part of 1857, there had been great excitement in the district as rumours that the government was issuing leather rupees coated with silver in order to depreciate the currency and to destroy casts. The freedom struggle started in Meerut on May 10 and the news reached Fatehgarh on the 14th. At Fatehgarh (a few km. from Farrukhabad) was posted the 10th Indian Infantry, Commanded by (Colonel) Smith. On June 1, the officer of Aligarh Police Station rode into Fatehgarh with the information that there was uprising in the trans gangetic parganas under the freedom struggle. The two regiments marched up the Grand Trunk Road through Gursahaiganj and Chibramau, sacking the police stations at these places. On 18th the Avadh freedom fighters entered the Fatehgarh regiments lines. By Sept. 1857, Delhi was back in British hands which completely changed the fate. Niyaz Mohammad evaded capture for many years by taking to a life of wandering in the course of which he visited Mecca many times. The close of the 19th century saw the rise of the activities of the Arya Samaj in Farrukhabad and other towns. The 20th century saw the down of nationalism in the country. During the anti partition of Bengal agitation of 1905, public meeting, strikes and protests were held. Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi the great nationalist leader's movement for boycotting foreign goods also went ahead.
The non-co-operation movement started by Mahatma Gandhi in August,1920 also had its impact in the district. Meeting and Hartals were held at Farrukhabad, Fatehgarh, Kampil, Shamsabad, Kannauj, Indergarh and other towns. In 1928 a complete Hartal was held, large number of people staged demonstrations by marching in procession, waving black flags and carrying banners with the words "GO BACK SIMON." In 1930, the civil disobedience movement was started in Farrukhabad. Salt was also manufactured at Sikandarpur, Bholepur, Chibramau and Kannauj. En route from Kanpur on Nov.30, 1931 Jawahar Lal Nehru was met at each station in the district by large crowds. Subhash Chandra Bose visited Farrukhabad on Jan.25,1940. He made a violent speech. On Aug.15,1947 the country was liberated from alien rule. The district also remembers those of its people who participated in the struggle for freedom.
The headquarters of the District is located at Fatehgarh. The district with a total area of 2,28,830 hectares consists of three tehsils, seven Development Block, 511 Gram panchayats, 1010 villages, 13 police stations, two nagar palikas (Municipal Committees) and four nagar panchayats (Town Area committee) and one Cantonment Board. Farrukhabad City was founded by Nawab Mohammad Khan Bangash in 1714 who named it after the reigning Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar.
According to the 2011 census Farrukhabad district has a population of 1,887,577, roughly equal to the nation of Lesotho or the US state of West Virginia. This gives it a ranking of 250th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 865 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,240/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 20.2%. Farrukhabad has a sex ratio of 874 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 70.57%.
There are three state highways across the district.
- UP- SH-29 (Leepulekha-Pilibhit-Shahjahanpur-Etawah Marg)
- UP- SH-29A (Fatehgarh-Gursahayganj Marg)
- UP- SH-43 (Moradabad-Farrukhabad Marg)
Places of interest
Fatehgarh derives its name from an old fort. Fatehgarh remained a Military Station of considerable importance and in 1802 it became the headquarters of the Governor Generals Agent for the ceded provinces. In 1818 a gun carriage factory was established here.
Fatehgarh cantonment is situated near the Ganges river, it houses 3 regiments namely, Rajput Regiment, Sikh Light Infantry and Territorial Army. Fatehgarh is the headquarter of civil administration of the district, Farrukhabad. Maximum area in Fatehgarh is covered by the Cantonment.
Kunwar Rai Singh was the last king of this city. He was better known by the name of Khorah in historical literature of 12th and 13th century AD. Kunwar Rai Singh was ruling in this territory before Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, as a governor of Badaun invaded him around 1212 AD. After this invasion name of this town was also changed to Shamsabad after the invader's name.
Kampil is a small town situated about 45 km from Farrukhabad. It is a very important place from a historical and mythological point of view. It is believed to be the birthplace of the 13th tirthaiikar Brahlan Vimalnath. This is a Holy Land where the four Kalyanakas – chayavan, birth, diksa and omniscience – of Tirthankar 1008 Bhagawan Vimalnath ji, the thirteenth Tirthnakara took place.
It was also graced by the visit of Lord Mahavir. Two temples dedicated to the 13th Tirthankar one belonging to the Shwetambar Jains and other to the Digambar Jains are situated at this place. In the Digambar Jain temple a 60 centimetres high black coloured idol and in Swetambar temple 45 centimeters high white coloured idol both of Bhagawan Vimalnath in the Padmasana pose are installed. Apart from these, there are many old temples, which prove the historical & religious importance of Kampil.
During the epic period it was the capital of King Drupada, the father of Draupadi. The sacrificial altar (Yajna Kund) from which Draupadi is believed to have been born from the fire of knowledge, is situated in Kampil till date. Near the sacrificial altar, there's a structure, which is the hermitage of a sage Kampil, where he used to perform penance. As per mythology the temple of Rameshwarnath Mahadev, is attributed to Shatrughna brother of Rama. It is said that he had brought the idol (Lingam) of Shiva, which was worshiped by Sita, the wife of Rama in Ashok Vatika while she was held in captivity in Lanka and installed in this temple.
Sankisa is located about 47 km from Farrukhabad. It is believed to be the place where Buddha, came to preach people along with his followers. There is a big Asana made of pakki bricks. This Asana was used by Buddha. People forgot the importance of the place. They made a very small temple. put some unidentifiable statues of stones and called it the temple of Bisari Devi. An excavated Ashokan elephant pillar is also present there. There is also colossal Shiva Linga here. In the respect of Holy Birthday of Lord Buddha a large fair is held at Sankisa in the month of Vaisakha (May) every year. Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Myanmar etc. have established big temples of Lord Buddha. This place has become very important to buddhist tourists.
A small village near ancient Shankisa is noted for a sage named Lakshman Das. Baba Lakshman Das was spiritual saint in the 20th century. He is better known as Baba Neeb Karori.
Built on the side of the Ganges and approximately 4 km from the main city. This is a place full of small temples, dwellings and shops. On every year in Indian month magh there a fair known as 'Ramnagriya'.
Built on the Railway Road, It was built by Pandavas during their Agyatwasa in Mahabharata Period
Farrukhabad Yuva Mahotsav
Farrukhabad Yuva Mahotsav was started since 2005 for the Youths.Miss Farrukhabad, Mr Farrkhabad,Miss Uttar Pradesh,Miss Pretty India Contests ( Beauty With Brain ) are organized in this Yuva Mahotsav every Year in the month of January.Sri Surendra Singh Somvanshi -Advocate(Convenor), Dr Sandeep Sharma ( chairman ),Srichandra Mishra (Organizing Secretary) are main members in Farrukhabad Yuva Mahotsav Samiti,FYM Samiti is Registered By The Government and MUPCA-Miss Uttar Pradesh Contest Association, MPICA-Miss Pretty India Contest Association, IYA-Indian Youth Army (Social Army -For Social Work)are the Wings Of Farrukhabad Yuva Mahotsav Samiti.
MUPCA-Miss Uttar Pradesh Contest Association, MPICA-Miss Pretty India Contest Association,MGIPA-Miss Grand India Pageants Association,MGMCA-Miss Grand Model Contest Association,MHICA-Mr Handsome India Contest Association,MUPCA-Mr Uttar Pradesh Contest Association are the Wings Of Farrukhabad Yuva Mahotsav Samiti.Miss Farrukhabad and Mr Farrukhabad Contests held every year in the month of January. Farrukhabad Yuva Mahotsav was started since 2005 for the Youths.Miss Farrukhabad, Mr Farrkhabad,Miss Uttar Pradesh,Miss Pretty India Contests ( Beauty With Brain ) are organized in this Yuva Mahotsav every Year in the month of January.Sri Surendra Singh Somvanshi -Advocate(Convenor), Dr Sandeep Sharma ( chairman ),Srichandra Mishra (Organizing Secretary),Mr Pushpendra Yadav (Advocate) are main members in Farrukhabad Yuva Mahotsav Samiti,FYM Samiti is Registered By The Government . All these contest held in the month of January every year and Entry starts from month of August Every year.
Currently, Shri Satyendra Kumar Singh, I.A.S. is the District Magistrate. Shri Dinesh Kumar P, I.P.S, is the Superintendent of Police. Shri Rajendra Chaudhary, H.J.S, is the District Judge. Manoj Kumar Singhal, P.C.S, is the Additional District Magistrate. B.D.Verma, P.C.S, is the City Magistrate.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Farrukhabad one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Hand Printing is an ancient craft in India. India enjoys an international repute for its handicrafts and hand crafted items and much of the skill in this sphere is confined to the state of Uttar Pradesh. Farrukhabad in Uttar Pradesh is a veritable treasure house of traditional designs ranging from the classical butis (dots) to the famous ' Tree of Life. Farrukhabad hand printing is famous all over the world and it stands testimony to the craftsmanship of the native artisans. It would not be an exaggeration to state that Farrukhabad has become synonymous to the art of hand painting.
Traditional patterns dominate Farrukhabad Hand Printing. Block makers at Farrukhabad are known for their artistry and intricate designs. The skilled workers carry on experimentations with these traditional patterns that range from the classical butis that are also called polka dots to the more popular "Tree of Life". The butis are restful even though sparkling when tinted in solid colors. Mango, 'paisley' as it is known in the West, is made in a vast variety of shapes, and used in bold, medium and even fine designs . Farrukhabad Hand Printing specialty is its myriad shapes that are used in bold, medium and sometimes fine designs. Block printing is well known for using rich, vibrant colors. Traditionally, natural vegetable dyes were used in this process, but now-a-day synthetic colors are also in use.
The composition is first printed in harmonizing colors and later elaborated with delicate details painted in with a brush. A variety of blossoms merge in this luxuriant tree. It is primarily a decorative piece unrelated to any symbol but has a flavour of growth, prosperity and immorality. The spirited heraldic lions that guard the tree speak of a Hindu tradition.
Farrukhabad Hand Printing still enjoys the prominence and importance even during a period when the machine based printing has captured the market. The advent of machines has no doubt made this art form stand face to face with financial loss, but those who attach a lot of importance to the manual labor can understand the value of Farrukhabad Hand Printing. 
Farrukhabad is one of the biggest producers of potatoes and a significantly producer of wheat, watermelon, pulses, vegetables and oil seeds. The Ganges plays an important role in irrigation system of district. Most of the regions in district are capable of producing three crops per year and all with very high acreage yield. Kaimgaj tahseil is a noted producer of mangoes and guavacitation .farrukhabad is on top of the production of potato. Leelapur village have a highest production capacity of potato.
Kaimganj is known for the chewing Tobacco industry and a Sugar Mill. The district Farrukhabad produced about 8 million tonnes of Potato and hence have about 61 Cold Storages, the district is also known for its Sunflower cultivation.
- Baba Neeb Karori
- Shri Ram Chandra
- Mriganka Sur
- Renu Khator
- Muhammad Khan Bangash
- Mahadevi Varma
- Ramesh Chandra
- Salman Khurshid
- Zakir Husain (politician)
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
West Virginia 1,852,994
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
||Kanshiram Nagar district||Budaun district||Shahjahanpur district|
|Etah district||Hardoi district|
|Mainpuri district||Kannauj district|