Fast food advertising
Along with automobiles, insurance, retail outlets, and consumer electronics, fast food is among the most heavily advertised sectors of the United States economy; spending over 4.6 billion dollars on advertising in 2012. A 2013 Ad Age compilation of the 25 largest U.S. advertisers ranked McDonald's as the fourth-largest advertiser (spending US$957,000,000 on measurable advertisements in 2012) and Subway as the nineteenth largest (US$516,000,000).
Fast food advertising campaigns have changed their intent over time. After hearing years of criticism of fast food diet's harmful effects, many modern campaigns stress the availability of healthy options. The rise in awareness of proper nutrition and obesity has decreased the income of these establishments, and their marketing campaigns attempt to rectify this. Even with Fast food companies, "change," in healthy meals and ingredients, many of the goods that are claimed and served are not what exclaimed when advertised.
Fast food restaurants often aim some of their advertising directly at the youth population. McDonald's Happy Meals, which include a toy often tied in with a newly released family film, is a significant example. Ronald McDonald, a clown advertising mascot introduced in 1963 and designed to appeal to young children, is another. In addition, in 1987 McDonald's incorporated a Play Place in their restaurants to further advertise to children, making their restaurants a more appealing environment for children. Additionally, from 1996 to 2006, Disney was an exclusive partner with McDonald's, linking their products together. They announced the end of this deal in May 2006, with some reports saying that Disney was worried about childhood obesity. Other than Disney, McDonald's has also been partnered with Nintendo since 1985, when the Nintendo Entertainment System was first introduced. In 1987, McDonald's also created a Nintendo play land in their restaurants where kids could play on Nintendo consoles while waiting for their food. During 2007, McDonald's began to provide WiFi from the Nintendo consoles; giving children the ability to play wherever they were. With also a target audience of children releasing these new films and incorporating toys, it uses the kids to reach out to their parents pockets because of their large investments in their children lives.
Other chains, such as Carl's Jr. and Burger King (see Burger King advertising), have directed advertising towards a different demographic – young teenage and college-age men – with trendy, often sexualized, imagery and messages that target men's supposed desire for large, meat-filled burgers and rich, satisfying food. For example, in 2005, Carl's Jr. debuted a controversial ad featuring a bikini-clad Paris Hilton writhing sensuously on an expensive Bentley luxury car while enjoying a large burger. While the ad provoked outrage from a number of groups, Carl's Jr. sales grew substantially.
Regulation and criticism
One of the main areas where fast food companies face regulation is the advertising of "junk food" to children. In the United Kingdom, the Children's Food Bill is intended to highly regulate the advertising of such food aimed at children. Many other countries are looking to introduce strict limitations on fast food advertising as well. Negotiations between the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and fast food companies were initiated in a collective effort to improve children's diets, though Burger King withdrew from the discussions.
Some organizations have called for the watershed to apply to various unhealthy foods, including fast foods. In June 2006, the FSA called for laws preventing such food from being advertised on television before 9pm. They also called for the disassociation of television and film characters from fast food and stopping celebrities from appearing in such advertisements. The effect of these campaigns is often denied by the fast food companies and the television networks that carry their advertisements. Some networks have also claimed that tighter regulations would reduce advertising income and that would reduce the quality of children's programming. In Sweden, all advertising aimed at the under-12s is banned, including fast food adverts.
Advertising authorities regularly receive complaints about fast food advertisements, with members of the public usually claiming that the wording is misleading. Not every complaint is upheld. Between September 11, 2002 and March 24, 2004 the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) in the UK investigated complaints about six McDonald's advertisements, with only two of them being upheld. The ASA used one of the upheld complaints as a case study.
In 2006 the European Union passed a new law regarding the labeling of foods - any food with a nutritional claim (such as "low fat") must also highlight that it is high in something else (such as "high salt") if that is the case. While fast food is often not given a traditional label, this may affect advertising.
In November 2006, the Office of Communications (Ofcom) announced that it would ban television advertisements for junk food before, during, and after television programming aimed at under-16s in the United Kingdom. This move has been criticized on both ends of the scale; while the Food and Drink Federation labelled the ban "over the top", others have said the restrictions do not go far enough (particularly because soap operas would be exempt from the ban). On 1 April 2007, junk food advertisements were banned from programs aimed at four to nine-year-olds. Such advertisements broadcast during programs "aimed at, or which would appeal to," ten- to fifteen-year-olds will continue to be phased out over the coming months, with a full ban coming into effect on January 1, 2009.
Several international fast food companies have sponsored sporting events, teams and leagues. McDonald's is one of the largest sponsors, having affiliations with the NHL, Olympic Games, and the FIFA World Cup.
Some fast food companies sponsor television programs. Domino's Pizza have sponsored Sky One's screenings of The Simpsons in the UK for many years (But reported because of new regulation on advertising that the deal may end). In 2005, Pizza Hut sponsored the same program when it was shown on Channel 4 – the Sky/Domino's deal continued.
Fast food companies were major sponsors of the Saturday morning cartoons in the United States, where they advertised their children's meals. When McDonald's and Disney partnered, promotion of McDonald's meals were highly viewed by the youth population. This persuasion for children increased youth obesity and improper nutrition throughout the world. The withdrawal of Disney from their partnership with McDonald's was executed and since the two companies have not collaborated.
- Burger King advertising
- Burger wars
- Chick-fil-A § Advertising
- Coffee wars
- Dave Thomas, founder of Wendy's (appeared in over 800 commercials for the chain)
- Jack Box, the fictional CEO and spokesperson for Jack in the Box
- John Schnatter, founder of Papa John's Pizza, who regularly appeared in commercials for the chain until 2018
- McDonald's advertising
- Psychological aspects of childhood obesity § Television and advertisements
- Taco Bell chihuahua
- "Where's the beef?"
- Fast Food Marketing Ranking Tables 2012-2013. Yale. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
- Meet America's 25 biggest advertisers. AdAge. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Choueka, Elliott (2005-07-08). "Big Mac fights back". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- Schlosser, Eric (June 2011). "Fast Food Nation". www.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
- "Disney and McDonald's deal ended". Norwich Union. 2005-05-10. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- Noe, Eric (2006-05-08). "Did Childhood-Obesity Worries Kill Disney-McDonald's Pact?". ABC News. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- Ashcraft, Brian (March 22, 2010). "Nintendo And McDonalds: A Short History". kotaku.com.
- Hein, Kenneth (2005-04-25). "Paris Ad for Carl's Jr. Too Hot for TV". Adweek. Archived from the original on 2006-10-05. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- "Children's Food Bill". British House of Commons. 2004-05-18. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- Leake, Jonathan (2005-10-09). "Burger King opts out of health food drive". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- Derbyshire, David (2006-06-15). "Ban all junk food ads before 9pm, says watchdog". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- Kedgley, Sue (2003-03-06). "TVNZ's defence of fast-food advertising leaves foul taste". Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand. Archived from the original on 2006-03-06. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- Simmonds, Malcolm (March 2006). "The Growth of Obesity". Alternative HealthZine. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- Bobbie Johnson; Owen Gibson (2006-03-27). "Internet used to push fast food to children, say campaigners". Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- Bergren, Scott (2004-06-03). "KFC Responds to FTC Resolution of Advertising Inquiry". Archived from the original on 2006-10-31. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- "End of story for one fast food ad". Advertising Standards Authority. Archived from the original on 2006-10-18. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- "Tight controls on food labelling". BBC News. 2006-05-16. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- "Junk food ad crackdown announced". BBC News. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
- "Reactions in quotes: ad ban". BBC News. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
- "Junk food ad ban comes into force". BBC News. 2007-04-01. Retrieved 2007-04-02.
- "Junk food ad ban plans laid out". BBC News. 2007-02-22. Retrieved 2007-04-02.
- "McDonald's :: About Us :: Sports Sponsorships". McDonald's Canada. Archived from the original on 2006-09-25. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- "Children's food choices, parents' understanding and influence, and the role of food promotions" at Ofcom (UK)
- "Food advertising" at Young Media Australia
- "TV fast food advertising ban rejected" at the Sydney Morning Herald, 14 September 2005 (Australia)
- "Advertising budgets linked to fast food popularity" at Norwich Union, 1 December 2005 (UK)
- Ads Compared to Reality (article)