Father-in-law of Europe

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King Christian IX with his large family gathered at Fredensborg Palace, painting by Laurits Tuxen from 1883 to 1886

The Father-in-law of Europe is a sobriquet which has been used to refer to two European monarchs of the late 19th and early 20th century: Christian IX of Denmark and Nicholas I of Montenegro, both on account of their children's marriages to foreign princes and princesses. The fact that each was a monarch of moderate or modest power (and thus a marriage would not threaten the delicate balance of power) allowed them to marry some of their many children to heirs of greater fortunes across the continent.

Christian IX of Denmark[edit]

The children of King Christian IX (1818–1906) and Queen Louise (1817–1898) of Denmark included:

Christian IX used to gather his children, children-in-law and grandchildren for the so-called Fredensborg days at Fredensborg Palace north of Copenhagen in the summer time.[1] Christian and Louise's grandchildren included King George V of the United Kingdom, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, King Constantine I of Greece and both King Haakon VII and his consort, Queen Maud of Norway.

Nicholas I of Montenegro[edit]

Nicholas I of Montenegro (1841–1921) was the father of:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Christian 9. med familie, 1886". De Danske Kongers Kronologiske Samling. Retrieved 2011-06-23.