Father-in-law of Europe
The Father-in-law of Europe is a sobriquet which has been used to refer to two European monarchs of the late 19th and early 20th century: Christian IX of Denmark and Nicholas I of Montenegro, both on account of their children's marriages to foreign princes and princesses. The fact that each was a monarch of moderate or modest power (and thus a marriage would not threaten the delicate balance of power) allowed them to marry some of their many children to heirs of greater fortunes across the continent.
Christian IX of Denmark
- King Frederick VIII of Denmark (1843–1912)
- Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom (1844–1925) queen consort of King Edward VII
- King George I of Greece (1845–1913)
- Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia (1847–1928) empress consort of Tsar Alexander III
- Crown Princess Thyra of Hanover (1853–1933), who married Crown Prince Ernest Augustus
Christian IX used to gather his children, children-in-law and grandchildren for the so-called Fredensborg days at Fredensborg Palace north of Copenhagen in the summer time. Christian and Louise's grandchildren included King George V of the United Kingdom, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, King Constantine I of Greece and both King Haakon VII and his consort, Queen Maud of Norway.
Nicholas I of Montenegro
Nicholas I of Montenegro (1841–1921) was the father of:
- Elena of Montenegro, who married King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
- Zorka of Montenegro, who married King Peter I of Serbia
- Anna of Montenegro, who married Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg
- Two daughters who married brothers:
- Queen Victoria was known as the grandmother of Europe.
- "Christian 9. med familie, 1886". De Danske Kongers Kronologiske Samling. Retrieved 2011-06-23.
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