Fathers of Confederation
The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown (23 attendees) and Quebec (33) Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 (16) in England, preceding Canadian Confederation. The following lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage.
Four other individuals have been labeled as Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation. The leaders most responsible for bringing three specific provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as Fathers of Confederation. The provisional government established by Louis Riel ultimately negotiated the terms under which Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation in 1870. The leadership of Amor De Cosmos was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing the province into Confederation in 1871. The province of Newfoundland entered the Canadian Confederation in 1949 under the leadership of Joey Smallwood, who was then referred to as the "only living Father of Confederation".
Table of participation
|Participant||Portrait||Province (Current)||Charlottetown||Quebec City||London|
|Sir Adams George Archibald||Nova Scotia|
|Sir Alexander Campbell||Ontario|
|Sir Frederick Carter||Newfoundland and Labrador|
|Sir George-Étienne Cartier||Quebec|
|Sir Edward Barron Chandler||New Brunswick|
|Sir Jean-Charles Chapais||Quebec|
|Sir James Cockburn||Ontario|
|George Coles||Prince Edward Island|
|Robert B. Dickey||Nova Scotia|
|Charles Fisher||New Brunswick|
|Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt||Quebec|
|Sir John Hamilton Gray||Prince Edward Island|
|Sir John Hamilton Gray||New Brunswick|
|Sir Thomas Heath Haviland||Prince Edward Island|
|William Alexander Henry||Nova Scotia|
|Sir William Pearce Howland||Ontario|
|John Mercer Johnson||New Brunswick|
|Sir Hector-Louis Langevin||Quebec|
|Andrew Archibald Macdonald||Prince Edward Island|
|Sir John A. Macdonald||Ontario|
|Jonathan McCully||Nova Scotia|
|Thomas D'Arcy McGee||Quebec|
|Peter Mitchell||New Brunswick|
|Sir Oliver Mowat||Ontario|
|Edward Palmer||Prince Edward Island|
|William Henry Pope||Prince Edward Island|
|John William Ritchie||Nova Scotia|
|Sir Ambrose Shea||Newfoundland and Labrador|
|William H. Steeves||New Brunswick|
|Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché||Quebec|
|Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley||New Brunswick|
|Sir Charles Tupper||Nova Scotia|
|Edward Whelan||Prince Edward Island|
|Robert Duncan Wilmot||New Brunswick|
- Founding Fathers of the United States
- List of Prime Ministers of Canada
- List of national founders
- Persons of National Historic Significance
- Anti-Confederation Party
- "Fathers of Confederation". CandianHistory. 2008. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- Bélanger, Claude (2001). "Studies on the Canadian Constitution and Canadian Federalism". Department of History, Marianopolis College. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- Harrison, Robert A (2003). The conventional man. Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 627. ISBN 0-8020-8842-2. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- The Heritage Centre. "Louis Riel The Provisional Government". Archived from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- Frances, Stanford (2002). Canada's Confederation. S&S Learning Materials. p. 44. ISBN 1-55035-708-5. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- Argyle, Ray (2012). Joey Smallwood, Schemer and Dreamer. Dundurn Press. ISBN 9781459703698. Retrieved 2014-09-10.
- Coucill, Irma (2005). Canada's Prime Ministers, Governors General and Fathers of Confederation. Pembroke Publishers. ISBN 1-55138-185-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fathers of Confederation.|
- Fathers of Confederation - Library and Archives Canada