Lalla Fatma N'Soumer
Faḍma en Sumer
Portrait of Lalla Fatma N'Soumer
|Native name||Kabyle: Faḍma n Sumer
Arabic: لالا فاطمة نسومر
|Born||Fadhma Nat Sid Hmed
Werja, Abi Youcef
|Died||c. 1863 (aged 32–33)
|Known for||Kabyle resistance fighter against the French conquest of Algeria|
Lalla Fadhma n'Soumer (Berber: Lalla Faḍma en Sumer, ⵍⴰⵍⵍⴰ ⴼⴰⴹⵎⴰ ⴻⵏ ⵙⵓⵎⴻⵔ; born Fadhma Nat Sid Hmed; c.1830 – c. 1863) was an important figure of the Algerian resistance movement during the first years of the French colonial invasion of Algeria. She was seen as the embodiment of the struggle.
Lalla, the female equivalent of the Berber word mass (or Arabic sidi), is an honorific reserved for women of high rank, or who are venerated as saints. Fadhma/Faḍma is the Berber pronunciation of the Arabic name Fatima/Fatma.
From 1854 to July 1857, she assisted in leading a resistance against the French. Once captured by French forces, she was imprisoned until her death six years later. Her disciples would believe that she was gifted powers by God, including the abilities to see the future and cure illness.
Lalla Fadhma's life has been documented in the movie Fadhma N'Soumer directed by Belkacem Hadjadj and released in 2014 . A few statues of Lalla Fatma are in display in Algeria. A few schools and streets bear her name in Algeria.
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Emile Carrey, Récits de Kabylie. Campagne de 1857, Paris 1858
- Adolphe Hanoteau, Poésies populaires de la Kabylie du Jurjura, Paris 1867
- Tahar Oussedik, Lalla Fadhma n'Summer, Algeri, Laphomic, 1983
- Boukhalfa Bitam, Fadhma n'Soumer. Une autre lecture du combat de l'illustre fille de Werja, Draa Ben Khedda, Aurassi, 2000
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lalla Fatma N'Soumer.|
- (in French) An online biography on Algiers parliament site - (often incorrect and a bit emphatic)
- (in French) An article confronting informations on Lalla Fadhma coming from oral and written sources
- (in French) Emile Carrey, Récits de Kabylie. Campagne de 1857, page 280.