Roscoe Conkling Arbuckle
March 24, 1887
Smith Center, Kansas, U.S.
|Died||June 29, 1933 (aged 46)|
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
|Other names||Fatty Arbuckle, William Goodrich|
|Occupation||Actor, comedian, director, screenwriter|
(m. 1908; div. 1925)
(m. 1925; div. 1929)
Addie Oakley Dukes McPhail
(m. 1932; his death 1933)
Roscoe Conkling "Fatty" Arbuckle (//; March 24, 1887 – June 29, 1933) was an American silent film actor, comedian, director, and screenwriter. Starting at the Selig Polyscope Company he eventually moved to Keystone Studios, where he worked with Mabel Normand and Harold Lloyd. He mentored Charlie Chaplin and discovered Buster Keaton and Bob Hope. Arbuckle was one of the most popular silent stars of the 1910s, and soon became one of the highest paid actors in Hollywood, signing a contract in 1920 with Paramount Pictures for US$1 million (equivalent to approximately $14,000,000 in 2017 dollars).
Between November 1921 and April 1922, Arbuckle was the defendant in three widely publicized trials for the rape and manslaughter of young film actress Virginia Rappe. Rappe had suddenly fallen ill at a party hosted by Arbuckle at the St. Francis Hotel in San Francisco on September 5, 1921; she died four days later. Arbuckle was accused by Rappe's dubious acquaintance of raping and accidentally killing Rappe. After the first two trials, which resulted in hung juries, Arbuckle was acquitted in the third trial and received a formal written statement of apology from the jury.
Despite Arbuckle's acquittal, the scandal ruined his career and even today, has mostly overshadowed his legacy as a pioneering comedian. Following the trials, his films were banned and he was publicly ostracized. Although the ban on his films was lifted within a year, Arbuckle only worked sparingly through the 1920s. He later worked as a film director under the pseudonym William Goodrich. He was finally able to return to acting in 1932, making short two-reel comedies for Warner Bros.
Arbuckle died in his sleep of a heart attack in 1933 at the age of 46, reportedly on the same day he signed a contract with Warner Bros. to make a feature film.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Screen comedian
- 4 Scandal
- 5 Trials
- 6 Aftermath
- 7 William Goodrich pseudonym
- 8 Second divorce and third marriage
- 9 Brief comeback and death
- 10 Legacy
- 11 In popular culture
- 12 Filmography
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
Roscoe Conkling Arbuckle was born on March 24, 1887, in Smith Center, Kansas, one of nine children of Mary E. "Mollie" Gordon (d. February 19, 1898) and William Goodrich Arbuckle. He weighed in excess of 13 lb (5.9 kg) at birth and, as both parents had slim builds, his father believed the child was not his. Consequently, he named the baby after a politician (and notorious philanderer) whom he despised, Republican senator Roscoe Conkling of New York. The birth was traumatic for Mollie and resulted in chronic health problems that contributed to her death 12 years later.
When Arbuckle was nearly two his family moved to Santa Ana, California. Roscoe had a "wonderful" singing voice and was extremely agile. At the age of eight, with his mother's encouragement, he first performed on stage with Frank Bacon's company during their stopover in Santa Ana. Arbuckle enjoyed performing and continued on until his mother's death in 1899 when he was 12. His father, who had always treated him harshly, now refused to support him and Arbuckle got work doing odd jobs in a hotel. Arbuckle was in the habit of singing while he worked and was overheard by a customer who was a professional singer. The customer invited him to perform in an amateur talent show. The show consisted of the audience judging acts by clapping or jeering with bad acts pulled off the stage by a shepherd's crook. Arbuckle sang, danced, and did some clowning around, but did not impress the audience. He saw the crook emerge from the wings and to avoid it somersaulted into the orchestra pit in obvious panic. The audience went wild, and he not only won the competition but began a career in vaudeville.
In 1904, Sid Grauman invited Arbuckle to sing in his new Unique Theater in San Francisco, beginning a long friendship between the two. He then joined the Pantages Theatre Group touring the West Coast of the United States and in 1906 played the Orpheum Theater in Portland, Oregon, in a vaudeville troupe organized by Leon Errol. Arbuckle became the main act and the group took their show on tour.
On August 6, 1908, Arbuckle married Minta Durfee (1889–1975), the daughter of Charles Warren Durfee and Flora Adkins. Durfee starred in many early comedy films, often with Arbuckle. They made a strange couple, as Minta was short and petite while Arbuckle tipped the scales at 300 lbs. Arbuckle then joined the Morosco Burbank Stock vaudeville company and went on a tour of China and Japan returning in early 1909.
Arbuckle began his film career with the Selig Polyscope Company in July 1909 when he appeared in Ben's Kid. Arbuckle appeared sporadically in Selig one-reelers until 1913, moved briefly to Universal Pictures and became a star in producer-director Mack Sennett's Keystone Cops comedies (However, according to the Motion Picture Studio Directory for 1919 and 1921, Arbuckle began his screen career with Keystone in 1913 as an extra for $3 a day (equivalent to approximately $74 in 2017 dollars), working his way up through the acting ranks to become a lead player and director.) Although his large size was undoubtedly part of his comedic appeal Arbuckle was self-conscious about his weight and refused to use it to get "cheap" laughs. For example, he would not allow himself to be stuck in a doorway or chair.
Arbuckle was a talented singer. After famed operatic tenor Enrico Caruso heard him sing, he urged the comedian to "...give up this nonsense you do for a living, with training you could become the second greatest singer in the world."
Despite his physical size, Arbuckle was remarkably agile and acrobatic. Director Mack Sennett, when recounting his first meeting with Arbuckle, noted that he "skipped up the stairs as lightly as Fred Astaire"; and, "without warning went into a feather light step, clapped his hands and did a backward somersault as graceful as a girl tumbler". His comedies are noted as rollicking and fast-paced, have many chase scenes, and feature sight gags. Arbuckle was fond of the "pie in the face", a comedy cliché that has come to symbolize silent-film-era comedy itself. The earliest known pie thrown in film was in the June 1913 Keystone one-reeler A Noise from the Deep, starring Arbuckle and frequent screen partner Mabel Normand.
In 1914, Paramount Pictures made the then-unheard-of offer of US$1,000-a-day plus 25% of all profits and complete artistic control to make movies with Arbuckle and Normand. The movies were so lucrative and popular that in 1918 they offered Arbuckle a three-year, $3 million contract (equivalent to about $49,000,000 in 2017 dollars).
By 1916, Arbuckle was experiencing serious health problems. An infection that developed on his leg became a carbuncle so severe that doctors considered amputation. Although Arbuckle was able to keep his leg, he became addicted to the pain killer morphine.
Following his recovery, Arbuckle started his own film company, Comique, in partnership with Joseph Schenck. Although Comique produced some of the best short pictures of the silent era, in 1918 Arbuckle transferred his controlling interest in the company to Buster Keaton and accepted Paramount's $3 million offer to make up to 18 feature films over three years.
Arbuckle disliked his screen nickname. "Fatty" had also been Arbuckle's nickname since school; "It was inevitable", he said. He weighed 185lb (13st 3lb, 84kg) when he was 12. Fans also called Roscoe "The Prince of Whales" and "The Balloonatic". However, the name Fatty identifies the character that Arbuckle portrayed on-screen (usually a naive hayseed)—not Arbuckle himself. When Arbuckle portrayed a female, the character was named "Miss Fatty", as in the film Miss Fatty's Seaside Lovers. Arbuckle discouraged anyone from addressing him as "Fatty" off-screen, and when they did so his usual response was, "I've got a name, you know."
On September 5, 1921, Arbuckle took a break from his hectic film schedule and, despite suffering from second-degree burns to both buttocks from an accident on set, drove to San Francisco with two friends, Lowell Sherman and Fred Fishback. The three checked into three rooms at the St. Francis Hotel: 1219 for Arbuckle and Fishback to share, 1221 for Sherman, and 1220 designated as a party room.
Several women, including prostitutes, were invited to the suite. During the carousing, a 26-year-old aspiring actress named Virginia Rappe was found seriously ill in room 1219 and was examined by the hotel doctor, who concluded her symptoms were mostly caused by intoxication, and gave her morphine to calm her. Rappe was not hospitalized until two days after the incident.
Virginia Rappe suffered from chronic cystitis, a condition that liquor irritated dramatically. Her heavy drinking habits and the poor quality of the era's bootleg alcohol could leave her in severe physical distress. She developed a reputation for over-imbibing at parties, then drunkenly tearing at her clothes from the resulting physical pain. But by the time of the St. Francis Hotel party, her reproductive health was a greater concern. Despite reports trying to paint her in a bad light, the autopsy revealed she never had any abortion nor was pregnant.
At the hospital, Rappe's companion at the party, Bambina Maude Delmont, who had met Rappe only a few days previously, told Rappe's doctor that Arbuckle had raped her "friend". Delmont was a woman of highly questionable character and had a lengthy police record for extortion, blackmail and prostitution. The doctor examined Rappe but found no evidence of rape. Rappe died one day after her hospitalization from peritonitis caused by a ruptured bladder. Delmont then told police that Arbuckle had raped Rappe; the police concluded that the impact of Arbuckle's overweight body lying on top of Rappe had eventually caused her bladder to rupture. At a later press conference, Rappe's manager, Al Semnacker, accused Arbuckle of using a jagged piece of ice to simulate sex with Rappe, thus leading to her injuries. By the time the story was reported in newspapers, the object had evolved into either a Coca-Cola or champagne bottle, rather than a piece of ice. In fact, witnesses testified that Arbuckle rubbed the ice on Rappe's stomach to ease her abdominal pain. Arbuckle denied any wrongdoing. Delmont later made a statement incriminating Arbuckle to the police in an attempt to extort money from Arbuckle's attorneys.
Arbuckle's trial was a major media event. William Randolph Hearst's nationwide newspaper chain exploited the situation with exaggerated and sensationalized stories. The story was fueled by yellow journalism, with the newspapers portraying Arbuckle as a gross lecher who used his weight to overpower innocent girls. Hearst was gratified by the profits he accrued during the Arbuckle scandal, and later said that it had "sold more newspapers than any event since the sinking of the Lusitania." Morality groups called for Arbuckle to be sentenced to death. The resulting scandal destroyed Arbuckle's career along with his personal life.
Arbuckle was regarded by those who knew him closely as an amiable, good-natured and generous man who was shy around women; he had been described at the time as "the most chaste man in pictures". However, studio executives, fearing negative publicity by association, ordered Arbuckle's industry friends and fellow actors (whose careers they controlled) not to publicly speak up for him. Charlie Chaplin, who was in Britain at the time, told reporters that he could not (and would not) believe Roscoe Arbuckle had anything to do with Virginia Rappe's death; having known Arbuckle since they both worked at Keystone in 1914, Chaplin "knew Roscoe to be a genial, easy-going type who would not harm a fly." Buster Keaton reportedly did make one public statement in support of Arbuckle's innocence, a decision which earned him a mild reprimand from the studio where he worked. Film actor William S. Hart, who had never met or worked with Arbuckle, made a number of damaging public statements in which he presumed that Arbuckle was guilty. Arbuckle later wrote a premise for a film parodying Hart as a thief, bully, and wife beater, which Keaton purchased from him. The resulting film, The Frozen North, was released in 1922, almost a year after the scandal first emerged. Keaton co-wrote, directed and starred in the picture; consequently, Hart refused to speak to Keaton for many years.
The prosecutor, San Francisco District Attorney Matthew Brady, an intensely ambitious man who planned to run for governor, made public pronouncements of Arbuckle's guilt and pressured witnesses to make false statements. Brady at first used Delmont as his star witness during the indictment hearing. The defense had also obtained a letter from Delmont admitting to a plan to extort payment from Arbuckle. In view of Delmont's constantly changing story, her testimony would have ended any chance of going to trial. Ultimately, the judge found no evidence of rape. After hearing testimony from one of the party guests, Zey Prevon, that Rappe told her "Roscoe hurt me" on her deathbed, the judge decided that Arbuckle could be charged with first-degree murder. Brady had originally planned to seek the death penalty. The charge was later reduced to manslaughter.
On September 17, 1921, Arbuckle was arrested and arraigned on the charges of manslaughter, but arranged bail after nearly three weeks in jail. The trial began November 14, 1921, in the city courthouse in San Francisco. Arbuckle's defense lawyer was Gavin McNab, a professional and competent local attorney that Arbuckle hired as his lead defense counsel. The principal witness was Ms. Zey Prevon, a guest at the party. At the beginning of the trial Arbuckle told his already-estranged wife, Minta Durfee, that he did not harm Rappe; she believed him and appeared regularly in the courtroom to support him. Public feeling was so negative that she was later shot at while entering the courthouse.
Brady's first witnesses during the trial included Betty Campbell, a model, who attended the September 5 party and testified that she saw Arbuckle with a smile on his face hours after the alleged rape occurred; Grace Hultson, a local hospital nurse who testified it was very likely that Arbuckle raped Rappe and bruised her body in the process; and Dr. Edward Heinrich, a local criminologist who claimed that the fingerprints on the door to the hallway proved that Rappe had tried to flee, but that Arbuckle had stopped her by putting his hand over hers. Dr. Arthur Beardslee, the hotel doctor who had examined Rappe, testified that an external force seemed to have damaged the bladder. During cross-examination, however, Betty Campbell revealed that Brady had threatened to charge her with perjury if she did not testify against Arbuckle. Dr. Heinrich's claim to have found fingerprints was cast into doubt after McNab produced the St. Francis hotel maid, who testified that she had thoroughly cleaned the room before the investigation took place. Dr. Beardslee admitted that Rappe had never mentioned being assaulted while he was treating her. McNab was furthermore able to get Nurse Hultson to admit that the rupture of Rappe's bladder could very well have been a result of cancer, and that the bruises on her body could also have been a result of the heavy jewelry she was wearing that evening. During the defense stage of the trial, McNab called various pathology experts who testified that although Rappe's bladder had ruptured, there was evidence of chronic inflammation, and no evidence of any pathological changes preceding the rupture; in other words, there was no external cause for the rupture.
On November 28, Arbuckle testified as the defense's final witness. Arbuckle was simple, direct, and unflustered in both direct and cross examination. In his testimony, Arbuckle claimed that Rappe (whom he testified that he had known for five or six years) came into the party room (1220) around noon that day, and that some time afterward Mae Taub (daughter-in-law of Billy Sunday) asked him for a ride into town, so he went to his room (1219) to change his clothes and discovered Rappe in the bathroom vomiting in the toilet. Arbuckle then claimed Rappe told him she felt ill and asked to lie down, and that he carried her into the bedroom and asked a few of the party guests to help treat her. When Arbuckle and a few of the guests re-entered the room, they found Rappe on the floor near the bed tearing at her clothing and going into violent convulsions. To calm Rappe down, they placed her in a bathtub of cool water. Arbuckle and Fischbach then took her to room 1227 and called the hotel manager and doctor. At this point all those present thought Rappe was just very drunk, including the hotel doctors. Probably assuming Rappe would simply sleep it off, Arbuckle drove Taub into town.
During the whole trial, the prosecution presented medical descriptions of Rappe's bladder as evidence that she had an illness. In his testimony, Arbuckle denied he had any knowledge of Rappe's illness. During cross-examination, Assistant District Attorney Leo Friedman aggressively grilled Arbuckle over the fact that he refused to call a doctor when he found Rappe sick, and argued that he refused to do so because he knew of Rappe's illness and saw a perfect opportunity to rape and kill her. Arbuckle calmly maintained that he never physically hurt or sexually assaulted Rappe in any way during the September 5 party, and he also claimed that he never made any inappropriate sexual advances against any woman in his life. After over two weeks of testimony with 60 prosecution and defense witnesses, including 18 doctors who testified about Rappe's illness, the defense rested. On December 4, 1921, the jury returned five days later deadlocked after nearly 44 hours of deliberation with a 10–2 not guilty verdict, and a mistrial was declared.
Arbuckle's attorneys later concentrated their attention on one woman named Helen Hubbard who had told jurors that she would vote guilty "until hell freezes over". She refused to look at the exhibits or read the trial transcripts, having made up her mind in the courtroom. Hubbard's husband was a lawyer who did business with the D.A.'s office, and expressed surprise that she was not challenged when selected for the jury pool. While much attention was paid to Hubbard after the trial, some former jury members told reporters that they believed that Arbuckle was indeed guilty, but not beyond a reasonable doubt. During the deliberations, some jurors joined Hubbard in voting to convict but nearly all of them recanted, except for – repeatedly at the end – Thomas Kilkenny (the only other juror who stuck to his 'guilty' vote). Arbuckle researcher Joan Myers describes the political climate and the media attention to the presence of women on juries (which had only been legal for four years at the time), and how Arbuckle's defense immediately singled out Hubbard as a villain; Myers also records Hubbard's account of the jury foreman August Fritze's attempts to bully her into changing her vote to 'not guilty'. While Hubbard offered explanations on her vote whenever challenged, Kilkenny remained silent and quickly faded from the media spotlight after the trial ended.
The second trial began on January 11, 1922, with a new jury, but with the same legal defense and prosecution team as well as the same presiding judge. The same evidence was presented, but this time one of the witnesses, Zey Prevon, testified that Brady had forced her to lie. Another witness who testified during the first trial, a former security guard named Jesse Norgard, who worked at Culver Studios where Arbuckle worked, testified that Arbuckle had once shown up at the studio and offered him cash in exchange for the key to Rappe's dressing room. The comedian supposedly said he wanted it to play a joke on the actress. Norgard said he refused to give him the key. During cross-examination, Norgard's testimony was called into question when he was revealed to be an ex-convict who was currently charged with sexually assaulting an eight-year-old girl, and who was also looking for a sentence reduction from Brady in exchange for his testimony. Further, in contrast to the first trial, Rappe's history of promiscuity and heavy drinking was detailed. The second trial also discredited some major evidence such as the identification of Arbuckle's fingerprints on the hotel bedroom door: Heinrich retracted his testimony from the first trial and now testified that the fingerprint evidence was likely fabricated. The defense was so confident of an acquittal, that Arbuckle was not called upon to testify. Arbuckle's lawyer, McNab, made no closing argument to the jury. However, some of the jurors interpreted the refusal of Arbuckle testimony as a sign of guilt. After five days and over 40 hours of deliberation, the jury returned on February 3, deadlocked with a 9–3 guilty verdict, resulting in a second mistrial.
By the time of the third trial, Arbuckle's films had been banned, and the newspapers had been filled for the past seven months with stories of alleged Hollywood orgies, murder, and sexual perversion. Bambina Maud Delmont was touring the country giving one-woman shows as "The woman who signed the murder charge against Arbuckle", and lecturing on the evils of Hollywood.
The third trial began on March 13, 1922, and this time the defense took no chances. McNab took an aggressive defense, completely tearing apart the prosecution's case with long, careful and aggressive examination and cross-examination of each witness. McNab also managed to get in still more evidence about Virginia Rappe's lurid past and medical history. Another hole in the prosecution's case was opened because Zey Prevon, a key witness, fled the country after escaping from police custody and was unavailable to testify. As in the first trial, Arbuckle testified as the final witness and again maintained his innocence in his heartfelt testimony about his version of the events at the party. During closing statements, McNab reviewed how flawed the prosecution's case was against Arbuckle, and how from the very start, District Attorney Brady fell for the outlandish charges of Bambina Maude Delmont, whom McNab described as "the complaining witness who never witnessed". On April 12, 1922, the jury began deliberations and took just six minutes to return with a unanimous verdict of not guilty—five of those minutes were spent writing a formal statement of apology to Arbuckle for putting him through the ordeal; an unusual and dramatic move in American justice. The jury statement as read by the foreman stated:
Acquittal is not enough for Roscoe Arbuckle. We feel that a great injustice has been done him. We feel also that it was only our plain duty to give him this exoneration, under the evidence, for there was not the slightest proof adduced to connect him in any way with the commission of a crime. He was manly throughout the case and told a straightforward story on the witness stand, which we all believed. The happening at the hotel was an unfortunate affair for which Arbuckle, so the evidence shows, was in no way responsible. We wish him success and hope that the American people will take the judgment of fourteen men and woman who have sat listening for thirty-one days to evidence, that Roscoe Arbuckle is entirely innocent and free from all blame.
After the reading of the apology statement, the jury foreman personally handed the statement to Arbuckle who kept it as a treasured memento for the rest of his life. Then, one by one, the entire 12-person jury plus the two jury alternates walked up to Arbuckle's defense table where they shook his hand and/or embraced and personally apologized to him. The entire jury even proudly posed in a photo op with Arbuckle for photographers after the verdict and apology.
Some experts later concluded that Rappe's bladder might also have ruptured as a result of an abortion she might have had a short time before the September 5th party. Rappe's organs had been destroyed after the autopsy, and it was now impossible to test for pregnancy. Because alcohol was consumed at the party, Arbuckle was forced to plead guilty to one count of violating the Volstead Act, and was fined $500. At the time of his acquittal, Arbuckle owed over $700,000 (equivalent to approximately $10,300,000 in 2017 dollars) in legal fees to his attorneys for the three criminal trials, and he was forced to sell his house and all of his cars to pay some of the debt.
The scandal and trials had destroyed Arbuckle's popularity among the general public, and in spite of the acquittal and the apology, his reputation was not restored, and the effects of the scandal continued. Will H. Hays, who served as the head of the newly formed Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA) Hollywood censor board, cited Arbuckle as an example of the poor morals prevalent in Hollywood. On April 18, 1922, six days after Arbuckle's acquittal, Hays banned him from ever working in movies again. He had also requested that all future showings and bookings of Arbuckle films be canceled, and the exhibitors complied.
In December of the same year, under public pressure, Hays elected to lift the ban. However, Arbuckle was still unable to secure work as an actor. Most exhibitors still declined to show Arbuckle's films, several of which now have no copies known to have survived intact. One of Arbuckle's feature-length films known to survive is Leap Year (1924), which Paramount declined to release in the United States due to the scandal. The movie was eventually released in Europe. In March 1922, With Arbuckle's films now banned, Buster Keaton signed an agreement to give Arbuckle 35 percent of all future profits from his company, Buster Keaton Productions, to help ease his financial situation.
Similar concurrent scandals
Although it was regarded as Hollywood's first major scandal, the Arbuckle case was one of five major scandals of the period, all coincidentally connected to Paramount Pictures. In 1920, silent film actress Olive Thomas died after accidentally drinking mercury bichloride, which her husband, matinee idol Jack Pickford, had been using as a topical treatment for syphilis; there were rumors that it had been a suicide. In February 1922, the murder of director William Desmond Taylor severely damaged the careers of actresses Mary Miles Minter and former Arbuckle screen partner Mabel Normand. In 1923, actor/director Wallace Reid's dependency on morphine resulted in his death. In 1924, actor/writer/director Thomas H. Ince died mysteriously, aboard William Randolph Hearst's yacht.
In spite of his acquittal, Hollywood continued to shun Arbuckle, and he could no longer find work. A secondary effect, for archive history, was the determined destruction of copies of films starring Arbuckle. In November 1923, Minta Durfee filed for divorce, charging grounds of desertion. The divorce was granted the following January. They had been separated since 1921, though Durfee always claimed he was the nicest man in the world and they were still friends. After a brief reconciliation, Durfee again filed for divorce, this time while in Paris, in December 1924. Arbuckle married Doris Deane on May 16, 1925.
Arbuckle again tried returning to filmmaking, but industry resistance to distributing his pictures continued to linger long after his acquittal. Frustrated, despondent and depressed, he retreated into alcoholism. In the words of his first wife, "Roscoe only seemed to find solace and comfort in a bottle". Buster Keaton attempted to help Arbuckle by giving him work on his films. Arbuckle wrote the story for a Keaton short called Daydreams (1922). Arbuckle allegedly co-directed scenes in Keaton's Sherlock, Jr. (1924), but it is unclear how much of this footage remained in the film's final cut. In 1925, Carter Dehaven made the short Character Studies. Arbuckle appeared alongside Buster Keaton, Harold Lloyd, Rudolph Valentino, Douglas Fairbanks, and Jackie Coogan. The same year, in Photoplay's August issue, James R. Quirk wrote "I would like to see Roscoe Arbuckle make a comeback to the screen." He also said "The American nation prides itself upon its spirit of fair play. We like the whole world to look upon America as the place where every man gets a square deal. Are you sure Roscoe Arbuckle is getting one today? I'm not."
William Goodrich pseudonym
Unable to work in films under his own name, Arbuckle eventually became a director using the alias William Goodrich. According to author David Yallop in The Day the Laughter Stopped (a biography of Arbuckle with special attention to the scandal and its aftermath), Arbuckle's father's full name was William Goodrich Arbuckle. Another tale credited friend Buster Keaton, an inveterate punster, with suggesting that Arbuckle become a director under the pseudonym "Will B. Good". The pun being a bit too obvious, Arbuckle adopted the more formal alias "William Goodrich". Keaton himself told this story during a recorded interview with film historian Kevin Brownlow in the 1960s.
Between 1924 and 1932, Arbuckle directed a number of comedy shorts under the Goodrich pseudonym for Educational Pictures, which featured lesser-known comics of the day. Louise Brooks, who played the ingenue in Windy Riley Goes Hollywood (1931), also told Brownlow of her experiences in working with Arbuckle:
He made no attempt to direct this picture. He just sat in his director's chair like a dead man. He had been very nice and sweetly dead ever since the scandal that ruined his career. But it was such an amazing thing for me to come in to make this broken-down picture, and to find my director was the great Roscoe Arbuckle. Oh, I thought he was magnificent in films. He was a wonderful dancer—a wonderful ballroom dancer, in his heyday. It was like floating in the arms of a huge doughnut—really delightful.
Among the more visible directorial projects under the Goodrich pseudonym was the Eddie Cantor feature Special Delivery (1927), which was released by Paramount and co-starred William Powell and Jobyna Ralston. His highest-profile project was arguably The Red Mill, also released in 1927, starring Marion Davies.
Second divorce and third marriage
In 1929, Doris Deane sued for divorce in Los Angeles, charging desertion and cruelty. On June 21, 1932, Roscoe married Addie Oakley Dukes McPhail (later Addie Oakley Sheldon, 1905–2003) in Erie, Pennsylvania.
Brief comeback and death
In 1932, Arbuckle signed a contract with Warner Bros. to star under his own name in a series of six two-reel comedies, to be filmed at the Vitagraph studios in Brooklyn. These six short films constitute the only known recordings of his voice. Silent film comedian Al St. John (Arbuckle's nephew) and actors Shemp Howard and Lionel Stander appeared with Arbuckle. The films were very successful in America, although when Warner Bros. attempted to release the first one (Hey, Pop!) in the United Kingdom, the British Board of Film Censors cited the 10-year-old scandal and refused to grant an exhibition certificate.
On June 28, 1933, Arbuckle had finished filming the last of the two-reelers (four of which had already been released). The next day he signed a contract with Warners to star in a feature-length film. That night he went out with friends to celebrate his first wedding anniversary and the new Warner contract when he reportedly said: "This is the best day of my life." He suffered a heart attack later that night and died in his sleep. He was just 46 years old. His widow Addie requested that his body be cremated as that was Arbuckle's wish.
Many of Arbuckle's films, including the feature Life of the Party (1920), survive only as worn prints with foreign-language inter-titles. Little or no effort was made to preserve original negatives and prints during Hollywood's first two decades. By the early 21st century, some of Arbuckle's short subjects (particularly those co-starring Chaplin or Keaton) had been restored, released on DVD, and even screened theatrically. Arbuckle's early influence on American slapstick comedy is widely recognised.
In popular culture
The James Ivory film The Wild Party (1975) has been repeatedly but incorrectly cited as a film dramatization of the Arbuckle–Rappe scandal. In fact it is loosely based on the 1926 poem by Joseph Moncure March. In this film, James Coco portrays a heavy-set silent-film comedian named Jolly Grimm whose career is on the skids, but who is desperately planning a comeback. Raquel Welch portrays his mistress, who ultimately goads him into shooting her. This film bears some similarities to the misconceptions surrounding the Arbuckle scandal, yet it contains nothing resembling the documented facts of the case.
In Ken Russell's 1977 biopic Valentino, Rudolph Nureyev as a pre-movie star Rudolph Valentino dances in a nightclub before a grossly overweight, obnoxious, and hedonistic celebrity called "Mr. Fatty" (played by William Hootkins), a caricature of Arbuckle rooted in the public view of him created in popular press coverage of the Rappe rape trial. In the scene, Valentino picks up starlet Jean Acker (played by Carol Kane) off a table in which she is sitting in front of Fatty and dances with her, enraging the spoiled star, who becomes apoplectic. The caricature of Arbuckle as a lecherous boor continued to be promulgated in the 1970s by some film writers such as Kenneth Anger in his controversial book Hollywood Babylon.
In an episode of the Mathnet segment of the children's public-television television series Square One Television (Season 2, Episode 1, "The Case of the Willing Parrot," presented in five sections over the course of a week of the overall show), fictitious deceased celebrity Roscoe "Fatty" Tissue was written as a parody of Arbuckle.
Before his untimely death in 1997, popular comedian Chris Farley expressed interest in starring as Arbuckle in a film biography. According to the 2008 biography The Chris Farley Show: A Biography in Three Acts, Farley and screenwriter David Mamet agreed to work together on what would have been Farley's first dramatic role. In 2007, director Kevin Connor planned a film, The Life of the Party, based on Arbuckle's life. It was to star Chris Kattan and Preston Lacy. However the project was shelved. Like Farley, comedians John Belushi and John Candy had also earlier considered playing Arbuckle, but both died before a biopic could be made. Farley's film was signed with Vince Vaughn as his co-star.
In 2005, jazz trumpet player Dave Douglas released the album "Keystone", dedicated to the work of Roscoe Arbuckle. It contains a DVD which features the movie Fatty and Mabel Adrift (1916/ Keystone – Triangle), starring Roscoe Arbuckle, Mabel Normand, Al St. John, and Luke the Dog.
Arbuckle is the subject of a 2004 novel titled I, Fatty by author Jerry Stahl. The Day the Laughter Stopped by David Yallop and Frame-Up! The Untold Story of Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle by Andy Edmonds are other books on Arbuckle's life. The 1963 novel, Scandal in Eden by Garet Rogers, is a fictionalized version of the Arbuckle scandal.
Fatty Arbuckle's was an American-themed restaurant chain in the UK prominent during the 1980s and named after Arbuckle.
The scandal is described during the climax of the film Middle Man.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- Noe, Denise. "Fatty Arbuckle and the Death of Virginia Rappe". Crime Library at truTV. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2008.
- "Year: 1900; Census Place: Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California; Roll: 111; Page: 7A; Enumeration District: 0077; FHL microfilm: 1240111". Ancestry.com. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Ellis, Chris & Julie (April 10, 2005). The Mammoth Book of Celebrity Murder: Murder played out in the spotlight of maximum publicity. Constable & Robertson. ISBN 978-0786715688. Retrieved 2015-01-30. (Subscription required (help)).
- Lowrey, Carolyn (1920). The First One Hundred Noted Men and Women of the Screen. New York: Moffat, Yard & Co. p. 6. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- "Roscoe Always Jolly But Weak: Stepmother". San Jose: The Evening News. September 12, 1921. pp. 1–2. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Saperstein, Susan. "Grauman's Theaters". San Jose, California Guides. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- "She Must Use 7 Mirrors". The Evening News. January 31, 1905. p. 3. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- "Dies in His Sleep. Film Comedian, Central Figure in Coast Tragedy in 1921, Long Barred From Screen. On Eve of his Comeback. Succumbs at 46 After He and Wife Had Celebrated Their First Wedding Anniversary". The New York Times. June 30, 1933. Retrieved January 30, 2015. (Subscription required (help)).
Roscoe C. (Fatty) Arbuckle, film comedian, died of a heart attack at 3 o'clock ... Roscoe Conkling Arbuckle was born at Smith Centre, Kansas, on March 24, 1887.
- "Minta Durfee, actress, 85, Dies; Former Wife of Fatty Arbuckle". The New York Times. September 12, 1975. Retrieved January 30, 2015. (Subscription required (help)).
Minta Durfee, the actress who was married to Roscoe (Fatty) Arbuckle and became Charlie Chaplin's first motionpicture leading lady, died Tuesday in Woodland Hills, a Los Angeles suburb.
- Del Olmo, Frank (September 12, 1975). "Fatty Arbuckle's First Wife Dies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 3, 2008.
- Long, Bruce (April 1995). "Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle". Taylorology. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Nichols, Peter M. (April 13, 2001). "HOME VIDEO; Arbuckle Shorts, Fresh and Frisky". The New York Times. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Fatty Arbuckle Scandal". About.com. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- "Interesting facts about Roscoe Arbuckle". Arbucklemania. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
Alice Lake called him Arbie. To Mabel Normand he was Big Otto, after an elephant in the Selig Studio Zoo near Keystone. Buster Keaton called him Chief. Fred Mace called him Crab. And for some unexplained reason fellow comic Charlie Murray referred to him as My Child the Fat. His three wives always called him Roscoe
- "When the Five O'Clock Whistle Blows in Hollywood". Vanity Fair. September 1922. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- "Testify Regarding Early Life of Virginia Rappe". The Lewiston Daily Sun. October 31, 1921. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Hopkins, Ernest J. (September 25, 1921). "Miss Rappe's Manager Tells Worst He Knows of Arbuckle". The Pittsburgh Press. p. 3. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Sheerin, Jude (September 4, 2011). "'Fatty' Arbuckle and Hollywood's first scandal". BBC News. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Felix, Wanda (Fall 1995). "Fatty". The Review of Arts, Literature, Philosophy and the Humanities (4). Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Chaplin, Charles: My Autobiography, p. 270 (Simon and Schuster, 1964).
- Neibaur, James (2013). Buster Keaton's Silent Shorts: 1920–1923. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 185–186. ISBN 978-0810887411. (Subscription required (help)).
- Meade, Marion (August 22, 1997). Buster Keaton: Cut to the Chase. Chapter 12 "Cops": DaCapo Press. ISBN 978-0306808029. (Subscription required (help)).
- Daily Mirror headlines, October 1, 1921
- Fine, Gary Allen (April 1, 2001). Difficult Reputations: Collective Memories of the Evil, Inept, and Controversial. University of Chicago Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0226249414.
- Myers, Joan (March 18, 2009). "The Case of the Vanishing Juror". Feminism 3.0. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Oderman 2005, p. 199.
- Edmonds, Andy (January 1991). Frame-Up!: The Untold Story of Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle. William Morrow & Co. p. 302. ISBN 978-0688091293. (Subscription required (help)).
- Whitfield, Eileen (August 31, 2007). Pickford: The Woman Who Made Hollywood. University Press of Kentucky. p. 224. ISBN 978-0813191799. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Braudy, Leo (March 15, 2011). The Hollywood Sign: Fantasy and Reality of an American Icon. Yale University Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0300156607. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Mikkelson, Barbara (August 18, 2007). "Give Louella An Ince; She'll Take A Column". Snopes.com. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Humphreys, Sally; Humphreys, Geraint (February 1, 2011). Century of Scandal. Haynes Publishing. ISBN 978-1-844259-50-2.
- "Milestones: November 12, 1923". Time. November 12, 1923. Retrieved January 30, 2015. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Milestones: January 7, 1924". Time. January 7, 1924. Retrieved January 30, 2015. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Excerpts of Interview with Minta Durfee Arbuckle by Don Schneider and Stephen Normand". The Movie Museum. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- "Milestones: December 8, 1924". Time. June 29, 1931. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Donnelley, Paul (2003). Fade to Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries. Music Sales Group. p. 37. ISBN 978-1849382465. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Leider, Emily W. (May 6, 2003). Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 198. ISBN 978-0374282394. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Quirk, James R. (August 1925). "Speaking of Pictures". Photoplay. New York: Photoplay Publishing Company. Retrieved August 20, 2015.
- Oderman 2005, p. 201.
- Sweeney, Kevin W. (2007). Buster Keaton Interviews. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. pp. 192–193. ISBN 1578069637.
- "Milestones September 8, 1929". Time. September 30, 1929. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
Sued for Divorce. By Mrs. Doris Deane Arbuckle minor cinemactress, Roscoe Conkling ("Fatty") Arbuckle, onetime cinema funnyman; at Los Angeles; for the second time. Grounds: desertion, cruelty.
- Oderman 2005 p.212
- Liebman, Roy (1998). From Silents To Sound: A Biographical Encyclopedia Of Performers Who Made the Transition To Talking Pictures. McFarland. p. 5. ISBN 978-0786403820. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Arbuckle, Star Film Comedian, Dies in Sleep". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. July 1, 1933. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Chermak, Steven M.; Bailey, Frankie Y., eds. (October 30, 2007). Crimes and Trials of the Century: From the Black Sox scandal to the Attica prison riots, Volume 1. Glenwood. p. 69. ISBN 978-0313341106.
- Eagan, Daniel (November 26, 2011). "More on Fatty Arbuckle: His Films and His Legacy". Smithsonian. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- King, Susan; Welkos, Robert (April 12, 2001). "Hollywood Star Walk: Roscoe Arbuckle". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Long, Robert Emmet (December 11, 2006). James Ivory in Conversation: How Merchant Ivory Makes Its Movies. University of California Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0520249998.
- Mayo, Mike (February 1, 2008). American Murder: Criminals, Crimes and the Media. Visible Ink Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-1578591916. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- "Valentino. 1977. Rudolph Nureyev Dances". YouTube. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- Farley, Tom; Colby, Tanner (May 6, 2008). The Chris Farley Show: A Biography in Three Acts. Penguin. p. 262. ISBN 978-1616804589. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- King, Susan (November 15, 2007). "Screening Room". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Schanie, Andrew (2010). Movie Confidential: Sex, Scandal, Murder and Mayhem in the Film Industry. Clerisy Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-1578603541.
- Bovsun, Mara (September 1, 2012). "Roscoe 'Fatty' Arbuckle, acquitted for murder of Virginia Rappe in 1922, never recovered from all the bad press". Daily News. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- "Rediscovering Roscoe: The Careers of "Fatty" Arbuckle". moma.org.
- Paulus, Tom; King, Rob, eds. (April 21, 2010). Slapstick Comedy. Routledge. p. 86. ISBN 978-0415801799.
- Rogers, Garet (1963). Scandal in Eden. Dial Press. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- Atkins, Ace (2009). Devil's Garden. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 978-0-399-15536-9.
- Edmonds, Andy (1991). Frame-Up!: The Untold Story of Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle. New York: William Morrow & Company. ISBN 978-0-688-09129-3.
- Merritt, Greg (2013). Room 1219: The Life of Fatty Arbuckle, the Mysterious Death of Virginia Rappe, and the Scandal That Changed Hollywood. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-613-74792-6.
- Neibaur, James L. (December 2006). Arbuckle and Keaton: Their 14 Film Collaborations. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-2831-7.
- Oderman, Stuart (2005). Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle: A Biography of the Silent Film Comedian, 1887–1933. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-899-50872-6.
- Stahl, Jerry (2004). I, Fatty: A Novel. New York: Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 978-1-582-34247-4.
- Yallop, David (1976). The Day the Laughter Stopped. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-18410-0.
- The New York Times; September 12, 1921; pg. 1. "San Francisco, California; September 11, 1921. "Roscoe ("Fatty") Arbuckle was arrested late last night on a charge of murder as a result of the death of Virginia Rappe, film actress, after a party in Arbuckle's rooms at the Hotel St. Francis. Arbuckle is still in jail tonight despite efforts by his lawyers to find some way to obtain his liberty."
- The New York Times; September 13, 1921; pg. 1. "San Francisco, California; September 12, 1921. "The Grand Jury met tonight at 7:30 o'clock to hear the testimony of witnesses rounded up by Matthew Brady (District Attorney) of San Francisco to support his demand for the indictment of Roscoe ("Fatty") Arbuckle for the murder of Miss Virginia Rappe."
- Ki Longfellow, China Blues, Eio Books 2012, ISBN 0-9759255-7-1 Includes historical discussion of the merits of the Arbuckle case.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Roscoe Arbuckle|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Roscoe Arbuckle.|
- Arbucklemania website
- Roscoe Arbuckle on IMDb
- Roscoe Arbuckle at the Internet Broadway Database
- Roscoe Arbuckle at AllMovie
- Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle at Find a Grave
- Crime Library on Roscoe Arbuckle
- Kehr, Dave (April 16, 2006). "Restoring Fatty Arbuckle's Tarnished Reputation at MoMa". The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- Contemporary press articles pertaining to Arbuckle
- Literature on Roscoe Arbuckle
- Banned Film Resurfaces 90 Years After San Francisco Scandal at sfgate.com