Fausta

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Fausta
P1070865 Louvre tête de Fausta Ma4881 rwk.JPG
Fausta, most probably before her marriage to Constantine I, The Louvre museum.
Empress of the Roman Empire
Tenure300 - 326
Born289
Rome, Italy
Died326 (aged 36–37)
SpouseConstantine I
IssueConstantina
Constantine II, Roman Emperor
Constantius II, Roman Emperor
Constans, Roman Emperor
Helena, Roman Empress
Fausta
DynastyConstantinian
FatherMaximian, Roman Emperor
MotherEutropia

Flavia Maxima Fausta (289–326) was a Roman Empress, daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, in 307 Maximianus married her to Constantine I, who set aside his wife Minervina in her favour. Constantine and Fausta had been betrothed since 293.

Life[edit]

Fausta, as Salus, holding her two sons, Constantine II and Constantius II.

As the sister of Emperor Maxentius, Fausta had a part in her father's downfall. In 310 Maximian died as a consequence of an assassination plot against Constantine. Maximian decided to involve his daughter Fausta, but she revealed the plot to her husband, and the assassination was disrupted. Maximian died, by suicide or by assassination, in July of that same year.

Empress Fausta was held in high esteem by Constantine, and proof of his favour was that in 324 [1] she was proclaimed Augusta; previously she held the title of Nobilissima Femina. However, in 326, Fausta was put to death by Constantine, following the execution of Crispus, his eldest son by Minervina. The two deaths have been inter-related in various ways; in one, Fausta is set jealously against Crispus, as in the anonymous Epitome de Caesaribus,[2] or conversely her adultery, perhaps with the stepson who was close to her in age, is suggested. According to the Latin Epitome de Caesaribus and the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius (as epitomized by Photius), Fausta was executed by being cast into boiling water,[3] in connection with the death of Crispus, whose death was reportedly caused be her allegations of sexual impropriety.[4] The mode of assassination not otherwise attested in the Roman world. David Woods offers the connection of overheated bathing with contemporaneous techniques of abortion,[5] a suggestion that implies an unwanted, adulterous pregnancy according to Constantine's biographer Paul Stephenson.[6]

The Emperor ordered the damnatio memoriae of his wife with the result that no contemporary source records details of her fate: "Eusebius, ever the sycophant, mentions neither Crispus nor Fausta in his Life of Constantine, and even wrote Crispus out of the final version of his Ecclesiastical History (HE X.9.4)", Constantine's biographer Paul Stephenson observes.[7]

Significantly, her sons, once in power, never revoked this order.

Her sons became Roman Emperors: Constantine II, reigned 337 – 340, Constantius II reigned 337 – 361, and Constans reigned 337 – 350. She also bore three daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta. Of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Constantius Gallus, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation (Valentinian I and the children of Constantine I's second marriage were born in years close to each other, i.e., they were of the same generation).

References[edit]

  1. ^ On 8 November 324 according to Prof. Dr. Dr. Klaus Rosen, Konstantin der Grosse: Kaiser zwischen Machtpolitik und Religion, Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 978-3-608-94050-3, page 248–249.
  2. ^ 41.11–12; According to some sources, she had accused Crispus of rape, and Constantine had Crispus executed. Stephenson remarks that if Fausta had reported a false tale of treachery and was killed in Constantine's subsequent remorse, the damnatio memoriae against Crispus was not in fact repealed.
  3. ^ Schlumberger:, Jörg A. (1974). Die Epitome de Caesaribus. Untersuchungen zur heidnischen Geschichtsschreibung des 4. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. Munich: C.H. Beck. pp. 41.11–12.
  4. ^ Woods, D. (1998). "On the Death of the Empress Fausta" (PDF). Greece and Rome,. 45.1: 70–86.
  5. ^ Woods,"On the death of the empress Fausta", Greece and Rome 45 (1998:70–86).
  6. ^ Stephenson 2010:222.
  7. ^ Stephenson, Constantine, Roman Emperor, Christian Victor, 2010:220.

Bibliography[edit]

  • (in French) Gérard Minaud, Les vies de 12 femmes d’empereur romain - Devoirs, Intrigues & Voluptés , Paris, L’Harmattan, 2012, ch. 12, La vie de Fausta, femme de Constantin, p. 285-305.
  • J.W. Drijvers, 'Flavia Maxima Fausta: Some Remarks', Historia 41 (1992) 500- 506.

External links[edit]

Royal titles
Preceded by
Galeria Valeria
(or Minervina)
Empress of Rome
307–326
with Galeria Valeria (307–311)
Valeria Maximilla (307–312)
Flavia Julia Constantia (313–324)
Succeeded by
Daughter of Julius Constantius