Vicia faba

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Fava bean)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the broad bean plant. For the Broadbean company, see Broadbean (Company).
Vicia faba
Illustration Vicia faba1.jpg
Vicia faba plants in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Vicieae
Genus: Vicia
Species: V. faba
Binomial name
Vicia faba
L.
Synonyms

Faba sativa Moench.

Vicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, English bean, horse bean, Windsor bean, pigeon bean and tic(k) bean, is a species of flowering plant in the vetch and pea family Fabaceae. It is not a true bean. The origin of broad beans is obscure, but the best information indicates the Mediterranean area.[1] Fava or Broad beans have been found in the earliest human settlements, remains are reported to have been found in Egyptian tombs. They probably originated in the Near East during the Neolithic Age and by the Bronze Age had spread to Northern Italy. They have been found in lakeside settlements in Switzerland and in Britain at Glastonbury. In Egypt, the beans were considered commoner food and were shunned by the upper classes.[2]Fava beans were cultivated by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. In ancient Rome, they were used in funeral rites.[2] It is said that Pythagoras, the famous Greek philosopher and mathematician, forbade the eating of fava beans because they contained the souls of the dead.[3]

In parts of the English-speaking world, the name "broad bean" is used for the large-seeded cultivars grown for human food, while "horse bean" and "field bean" refer to cultivars with smaller, harder seeds (more like the wild species) used for animal feed, though their stronger flavour is preferred in some human food recipes, such as falafel. The term "fava bean" (from the Italian fava, meaning "broad bean") is used in other English-speaking countries such as the US and of course in Italy. "Broad bean" is the most common name in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.

Description[edit]

Broad beans in the pod

It is a stiffly erect plant 0.5–1.8 m tall, with stout stems of a square cross-section. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, pinnate with 2–7 leaflets, and of a distinct glaucous grey-green color. Unlike most other vetches, the leaves do not have tendrils for climbing over other vegetation. The flowers are 1–2.5 cm long, with five petals, the standard petal white, the wing petals white with a black spot (true black, not deep purple or blue as is the case in many "black" colorings,[4]) and the keel petals are white. Crimson-flowered broad beans also exist, which were recently saved from extinction.[5] The flowers have a strong and sweet scent which is attractive to bees and other pollinators,[6] particularly bumble bees.[3] The fruit is a broad, leathery pod, green maturing to blackish-brown, with a densely downy surface; in the wild species, the pods are 5–10 cm long and 1 cm diameter, but many modern cultivars developed for food use have pods 15–25 cm long and 2–3 cm thick. Each pod contains 3–8 seeds, round to oval and 5–10 mm diameter in the wild plant, usually flattened and up to 20–25 mm long, 15 mm broad and 5–10 mm thick in food cultivars. Vicia faba has a diploid (2n) chromosome number of 12 (six homologous pairs). Five pairs are acrocentric chromosomes and one pair is metacentric.[7]

Cultivation[edit]

Mature field bean pods
Vicia faba flower
Worldwide broad bean yield

Broad beans have a long tradition of cultivation in Old World agriculture, being among the most ancient plants in cultivation and also among the easiest to grow. Along with lentils, peas, and chickpeas, they are believed to have become part of the eastern Mediterranean diet around 6000 BC or earlier.[8] They are still often grown as a cover crop to prevent erosion, because they can overwinter and because as a legume, they fix nitrogen in the soil.

The broad bean has high plant hardiness; it can withstand harsh and cold climates.[8] Cold tolerance among fava bean cultivars varies, but most varieties winter-kill at temperatures below -9°C (15 °F) and even the most winter-hardywinter-kill at temperatures below -12°C (10 °F). Fava bean grows during cool weather when other vetches and clovers are relatively dormant, but does not tolerate heat well. Unlike most legumes, the broad bean can be grown in soils with high salinity, and a wide range of pH values (4.5–8.3) as well as in clay soil. However, it does prefer to grow in rich loams.[9]

Broad beans will grow best at soil temperatures between 15.5 and 18.3°C (60–65°F) and will not grow well at temperature below below 4.4 °C (40°F) or above 23.8 °C (75°F). Broad bean is particularly susceptible to high temperatures during the summer which makes the plants unproductive. Broad beans will grow best in a fertile, well-draining soil with a pH between 6.0 and 6.75 located in full sunlight.[10] Broad beans should be direct seeded in the garden in Spring as soon as the soil is workable and temperature is above 4.4°C (40°F) with the optimum temperature for germination being between 10 and 21°C (50–70°F). A second planting can be made in early Fall in areas with moderate winters. Seeds should be planted 2.5–5.0 (1–2 in) deep allowing 7.5–15 cm (3–6) in between plants and approximately 0.6 m ( 2 ft) between rows.[10] Tolerance to heat, drought and flood is very low. An excellent nitrogen producer, follow on crops can be given half the usual rate of nitrogen. Grows well in nitrogen poor soils.[9]

To achieve the highest nitrogen fixation, the bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae, must be present. Inoculation of the planting seeds is highly recommended, especially in areas where legumes have not been grown.[11] Inoculation with Rhizobium and AMF biofertilizer is more effective for promoting growth of faba bean grown in alkaline soils than the individual treatment, reflecting the existence of synergistic relationships among the inoculants.[12]

Cultivars

  • ‘Aquadulce Claudia’: A large, very hardy longpod cultivar for autumn or early spring sowing
  • 'Bunyard’s Exhibition': Introduced before 1835. A longpod variety producing a large harvest of delicious flavoured white seeded beans with up to 9 beans per pod.
  • 'Imperial Green Longpod': An excellent variety, plants produce a very heavy harvest with pods growing up to 15 inches in length containing 9 green beans. The taste is superb and the beans freeze well. Awarded the RHS Award Of Garden Merit (AGM).
  • 'Optica': Lower growing plant, awarded the RHS Award Of Garden Merit (AGM). It is a very heavy cropper with short pods containing 5 white beans. If the pods are picked young they can be eaten whole.
  • ‘Masterpiece Green Longpod’: A reliable, slender-podded cultivar
  • ‘Medes’: A popular, high-yielding, uniform variety
  • 'Red Epicure': Pods contain up to 5 crimson red beans. Dates from 1894.
  • ‘Scorpio’: A commercial cultivar bred for the frozen vegetable industry with white flowers and small, mild-flavoured beans
  • 'Stero': An extremely popular slender podded variety
  • ‘The Sutton’: A dwarf favourite producing small, tender beans ideal for containers
  • ‘Witkiem Manita’: An early-maturing cultivar with heavy yields and a tolerance to cold weather.

[13][14]

Pests and diseases[edit]

Aphis fabae on broad bean

Insects

Broad bean plants are highly susceptible to early summer infestations of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, and a wide variety of Aphis spp., Acyrthosiphon pisum, and Myzus persicae, (Pea aphid, Bean aphid, Cowpea aphid, Melon aphid, Peach aphid).

Aphids occur as small soft bodied insects on underside of leaves and/or stems of the plant; usually green or yellow in color, but may be pink, brown, red or black depending on species and host plant; if aphid infestation is heavy it may cause leaves to yellow and/or distorted, necrotic spots on leaves and/or stunted shoots; aphids secrete a sticky, sugary substance called honeydew which encourages the growth of sooty mold on the plant.[10] Severe infestations can significantly reduce yields, and can also cause discolouration of pods and reduction in their saleable values.

Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis, irregular patches of feeding damage on underside of leaves which causes the top surface of the leaf to dry out, giving the leaves a lacy appearance; insect will also damage flowers and small pods; pods may be damaged so badly that they drop from the plant; adult insect is an orange-brown beetle with black spots; larvae are fat-bodied grubs which taper at the end and are in rows of conspicuous spines. Beetles can decimate bean crops.[10]

Spider mites, actually Arachnids, (Two-spotted spider mite), Tetranychus urticae Leaves stippled with yellow; leaves may appear bronzed; webbing covering leaves; mites may be visible as tiny moving dots on the webs or underside of leaves, best viewed using a hand lens; usually not spotted until there are visible symptoms on the plant; leaves turn yellow and may drop from plant. Spraying plants with a strong jet of water can help reduce buildup of spider mite populations; if mites become problematic apply insecticidal soap and/or neem oil to plants; certain chemical insecticides may actually increase mite populations by killing off natural enemies (which are also mites) and promoting mite reproduction.[10]

Leafminers, Lyriomyza spp., thin, white, winding trails on leaves; heavy mining can result in white blotches on leaves and leaves dropping from the plant prematurely; early infestation can cause yield to be reduced; adult leafminer is a small black and yellow fly which lays its eggs in the leaf; larvae hatch and feed on leaf interior.[10]

Thrips (Western flower thrips, Onion thrips), Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci, if population is high leaves may be distorted; leaves are covered in coarse stippling and may appear silvery; leaves speckled with black feces; insect is small (1.5 mm) and slender and best viewed using a hand lens; adult thrips are pale yellow to light brown and the nymphs are smaller and lighter in color.[10]

Fungal Diseases

Faba bean rust, also called Broad bean rust,[10] is one of the most common fungal pathogens commonly affecting broad bean leaves, causing small, dusty, dark brown spots with yellow halos on the leaves and stems,[15] which may merge to form an orange lawn on both leaf surfaces. Emergence of the disease is favored by warm, humid conditions; fungus overwinters on crop debris on the ground.[10]

Chocolate spot fungus, is also a common fungal pathogen. The fungus causes dark, chocolate-coloured spots on all parts of the plant. Chocolate spot is caused by two Botrytis fungi. Botrytis fabae is the most common cause and only affects broad beans. Botrytis cinerea can cause very similar symptoms, and this fungus also causes grey mould on a very wide range of plants, which can have a severe impact on yield.[16] Symptoms of disease can be aggressive or non-aggressive; symptoms on non-aggressive chocolate spot are small red-brown lesions on leaves of the plant which may also be present on stems and pods; under high humidity the disease moves to the aggressive stage and lesions coalesce and become covered in fluffy mycelium; large patches of tissue can become necrotic and die. Long periods of high humidity promote the switch from the non-aggressive phase to the aggressive phase; the aggressive phase of the disease favors low levels of potassium and phosphorus in the soil and overcrowded plants that limit air circulation.[10]

Powdery mildew, Erysiphe pisi, fungal infection in which yellow spots on upper surface of leaves; powdery gray-white areas which coalesce to cover entire plant; if plant is heavily infected it may appear light blue or gray in color.[10]

Fusarium root rot, Fusarium solani, fungal, stunted plant growth; yellowing, necrotic basal leaves; brown-red or black streaks on roots that coalesce as they mature; lesions may spread above the soil line. Damage caused by the emergence of the disease is worsened by warm, compacted soils, limited soil moisture and poor soil fertility.[10]

Downy mildew, Peronospora viciae, fungal, yellow-brown blotches on upper surface of leaves; angular patches of fluffy white-gray fungus on lower side of leaves; plant growth may be stunted or distorted and whole plant may die before flowering; fungus overwinters in soil and on crop debris; fungus can survive in soil for 10-15 years.[10]

Bacterial Diseases

Leaf blight, Xanthomonas campestris, syn. Xanthomonas axonopodis, a bacterium which causes water-soaked spots on leaves that enlarge and become necrotic; spots may be surrounded by a zone of yellow discoloration; lesions coalesce and give plant a burned appearance; leaves that die remain attached to plant; circular, sunken, red-brown lesion may be present on pods; pod lesions may ooze during humid conditions. Disease can be introduced by contaminates seed; bacteria overwinters in crop debris; disease emergence favored by warm temperatures; spread is greatest during humid, wet weather.[10]

Bacterial brown spot, Pseudomonas syringae, a bacterium which causes small, dark brown necrotic spots on leaves which may be surrounded by a zone of yellow tissue; water soaked spots on pods which turn brown and necrotic; pods may twist and distort in area of infection. Bacterium overwinters in crop residue; disease more severe when foliage is wet for extended periods.[10]

Other

Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp. Galls on roots which can be up to 3.3 cm (1 in) in diameter but are usually smaller; reduction in plant vigor; yellowing plants which wilt in hot weather.[10]

In mainland Europe and North Africa, the plant parasite Orobanche crenata (carnation-scented broomrape) can cause severe impacts on fields of broad beans, devastating their yields.

Health issues[edit]

Broad beans are rich in tyramine, and thus should be avoided by those taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors.[17]

Raw broad beans also contain the alkaloids vicine and convicine which can induce hemolytic anemia in patients with the hereditary condition glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that is distributed in all cells. G6PD catalyzes the first step in the hexose monophosphate pathway, and it produces NADPH, which is required for reactions of various biosynthetic pathways as well as for the stability of catalase and the preservation and regeneration of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH). Because catalase and glutathione (via glutathione peroxidase) are essential for the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide, the defense of cells against this compound depends ultimately and heavily on G6PD. This is especially true in red cells, which are exquisitely sensitive to oxidative damage and in which other NADPH-producing enzymes are lacking.[18]

G6PD deficiency is the most common known enzymopathy; it is estimated to affect 400 million people worldwide. The highest prevalence rates (with gene frequencies in the range of 5 to 25 percent) are found in tropical Africa, in the Middle East, in tropical and subtropical Asia, in some areas of the Mediterranean, and in Papua New Guinea.

The most common clinical manifestations are neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. Hemolytic anemia occurs when red blood cells are destroyed faster than the body can replace them.[19] In some cases, the neonatal jaundice is severe enough to cause death or permanent neurologic damage. The acute hemolytic anemia can be triggered by a number of drugs, by infections, or by the ingestion of fava beans. These manifestations may be life threatening, especially favism in children. The detailed mechanism of hemolysis is not fully known, but it results undoubtedly from the inability of G6PD-deficient red cells to withstand the oxidative damage produced, directly or indirectly, by the triggering agents mentioned above. Red cell destruction in these acute hemolytic events is largely intravascular and therefore is associated with hemoglobinuria. Fortunately, apart from these episodes of hemolytic anemia, most G6PD-deficient individuals are entirely asymptomatic. However, a rare subset of G6PD-deficient patients has, instead, a chronic hemolytic disorder, which may be severe.

The remarkable geographic correlation between the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and the past and present endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria strongly suggests that the former confers resistance against the latter. The high prevalence in malaria-endemic areas of G6PD mutants that have arisen independently corroborates this notion; indeed, it constitutes an example of convergent evolution through balanced polymorphism. Clinical data further support this notion, although it is not certain whether malaria resistance is a feature of heterozygous females only, or also of hemizygous males. In vitro culture studies have shown that the growth of malaria parasites is impaired in G6PD-deficient red cells, and that G6PD-deficient parasitized red cells are phagocytosed by macrophages more effectively than G6PD normal parasitized red cells.

[18]

An estimated 400 million people have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.[19] This potentially fatal condition is called favism after the fava bean.[20][21] Areas of origin of the bean correspond to malarial areas. Some epidemiological and in vitro studies suggest the hemolysis resulting from favism acts as protection from malaria, because certain species of malarial protozoa, such as Plasmodium falciparum, are very sensitive to oxidative damage due to deficiency of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme, which would otherwise protect from oxidative damage via production of glutathione reductase.[22][18]

Broad beans are rich in L-dopa, a substance used medically in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. L-dopa is also a natriuretic agent, which might help in controlling hypertension.[23]

The seed testae contain condensed tannins[24] of the proanthocyanidins type[25] that could have an inhibitory activity on enzymes.[26]

Culinary uses[edit]

Broad beans, shelled and steamed
Fried broad beans as a snack

Broad beans are generally eaten while still young and tender, enabling harvesting to begin as early as the middle of spring for plants started under glass or overwintered in a protected location, but even the main crop sown in early spring will be ready from mid to late summer. Horse beans, left to mature fully, are usually harvested in the late autumn, and are then eaten as a pulse. The immature pods are also cooked and eaten, and the young leaves of the plant can also be eaten, either raw or cooked as a pot herb (like spinach).

Broad beans were a major food of old Mediterranean civilizations, particularly for the Romans and Ancient Greeks.[3]

Preparing broad beans involves first removing the beans from their pods, the beans have a waxy outer coating, which you'll need to remove. Blanch them in boiling water for 30 seconds, and then transfer to an ice bath to stop the cooking process. The waxy coating will slip off.[27]

The beans can be fried, causing the skin to split open, and then salted and/or spiced to produce a savory, crunchy snack. These are popular in China, Malaysia, Colombia, Peru (habas saladas), Guatemala (habas), Mexico (habas con chile), Gilan (North of Iran) and Thailand (where their name means "open-mouth nut").

In some Arab countries, the fava bean is used for a breakfast dish called ful medames.[28]

Fava beans are common in Latin American cuisines, as well. In central Mexico, mashed fava beans are a common filling for many corn flour-based antojito snacks such as tlacoyos. In Colombia, they are most often used whole in vegetable soups. Dried and salted fava beans are a popular snack in many Latin countries.

Broad beans are widely cultivated in the Kech and Panjgur districts of Balochistan Province in Pakistan, and in the eastern province of Iran. They are called bakalaink in the Balochi language, and baghalee in Persian.

Nutritional information[edit]

Vicia faba

Fava beans, mature seeds, raw
Vicia faba L. fava bean
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,425 kJ (341 kcal)
58.29 g
Dietary fiber 25 g
1.53 g
26.12 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(48%)
0.555 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(28%)
0.333 mg
Niacin (B3)
(19%)
2.832 mg
Vitamin B6
(28%)
0.366 mg
Folate (B9)
(106%)
423 μg
Vitamin C
(2%)
1.4 mg
Vitamin K
(9%)
9 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(10%)
103 mg
Iron
(52%)
6.7 mg
Magnesium
(54%)
192 mg
Manganese
(77%)
1.626 mg
Phosphorus
(60%)
421 mg
Potassium
(23%)
1062 mg
Sodium
(1%)
13 mg
Zinc
(33%)
3.14 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

This food is very low in saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium. It is also a good source of dietary fiber, protein, phosphorus, copper and manganese, and a very good source of folate.[29]

  • Fava beans are very high in protein
  • Rich source of dietary fiber
  • High in phyto-nutrients such as isoflavone and plant-sterols
  • Contain Levo-dopa or L-dopa, a precursor of neuro-chemicals in the brain such as dopamine, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine
  • Excellent source of folates.
  • Good amounts of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), thiamin (vitamin B-1), riboflavin and niacin
  • Fine source of minerals like iron, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium. At 1062 mg or 23% of daily recommended levels, fava are one of the highest plant sources of potassium.[30]

Other Compounds

An Italian scientist first isolated the chemical levodopa from seedlings of the fava bean in 1910-1913, finding that the beans are a natural source of levodopa. In 1961 a demonstration was made as to the "miraculous" effect of the drug on patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD).[31] After all the basic science information came together, scientists realized levodopa isn’t just an important part of a bean. It’s an important part of the brain. (But don't try eating more beans because it isn't enough.)[32]

Today, the concept of DA replacement with levodopa is uncontested, with levodopa being the "gold standard" of modern drug treatment of PD.[31] But if it weren’t for that bean, and the curiosity of basic scientists, we might not have all the levodopa therapies we have today.[32]

Variations by Country[edit]

China[edit]

In the Sichuan cuisine of China, broad beans are combined with soybeans and chili peppers to produce a spicy fermented bean paste called doubanjiang. Perhaps due to the bean's popularity in Sichuan cuisine, in addition to the regular Chinese term for "broad bean", they are also known as "Sichuan beans" (川豆 chuāndòu) in Chinese.

Colombia[edit]

Fava beans (Colombia: Haba(s)) are a common food in most regions of Colombia, mostly in Bogota and Boyacá. Barley and fava bean soup is a traditional Colombian soup consisting of carrots, peas, potatoes, barley and fava beans.[33]

Croatia[edit]

Lamb with peas stew, Janjetina s bižima, (often with fava beans or artichokes) is a tradional Dalmatian dish. Becoming somewhat rare in restaurants, Kozlić s bižima, is a tradtional dish made with goat kid meat cooked in a sauce with peas (biži), sometimes also with fava beans and potatoes.[34]

Egypt[edit]

Fava beans (Arabic: فولfūl pronounced [fuːl]) are a common staple food in the Egyptian diet, eaten by rich and poor alike. Egyptians eat fava beans in various ways: they may be shelled and then dried, bought dried and then cooked by adding water in very low heat for several hours, etc. They are the primary ingredient in falafel. However, the most popular way of preparing them in Egypt is by taking the mashed, cooked beans and adding oil, salt and cumin to them. The dish, known as ful medames, is traditionally eaten with bread (generally at breakfast) and is considered the Egyptian national dish.[28]

Haniya told me that there are countless ways of making fūl. They vary around Egypt depending on what is available, but the basic recipe remains the same. Into a big pot, usually a special pot, a fūl-pot (qidra), narrow at the base, wide in the middle and narrow again at the top, you put the dried fava beans in to soak in water for 8 to 24 hours. Then you add the onion, tomatoes, a bit of salt and a few tablespoons of dried red lentils, which helps the color, she said. It is simmered over very low heat all night, covered so the beans don't discolor, and is usually eaten in the morning for breakfast, although Egyptians will eat it any time of the day.

[28]

Ethiopia[edit]

Broad beans (Amharic: baqella) are one of the most popular legumes in Ethiopia. They are tightly coupled with every aspect of Ethiopian life. They are mainly used as an alternative to peas to prepare a flour called shiro, which is used to make shiro wot (a stew almost ubiquitous in Ethiopian dishes). During the fasting period in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church tradition called Tsome Filliseta, Tsome arbeå, Tsome Tahsas, and Tsome Hawaria (which are in August, end of February–April, mid-November–beginning of January and June–July), two uncooked spicy vegetable dishes are made using broad beans. The first is Hilibet, a thin, white paste of broad bean flour mixed with pieces of onion, green pepper, garlic, and other spices based on personal taste. The second is siljo, a fermented, sour, spicy thin yellow paste of broad bean flour. Both are served with other stews and injera (a pancake-like bread) during lunch and dinner.

The main differences between Ethiopian and other ful medames is that the beans are fully mashed, a little berbere is added to flavor the mix, and it is served with big rolls of white bread (not pita or injera).[35]

Baqella nifro (boiled broad beans) are eaten as a snack during some holidays and during a time of mourning. Interestingly, this tradition goes well into religious holidays, too. On the Thursday before Good Friday, in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church tradition tselote hamus (the Prayer of Thursday), people eat a different kind of nifro called gulban. Gulban is made of peeled, half beans collected and well cooked with other grains such as wheat, peas and chickpeas. This is done to mourn the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

Boq'ullit (boiled salted broad beans embryo) is one of the most favorite snacks in the evening, the common story-telling time in north and central Ethiopia. It is particularly a favorite for the story-teller (usually a society elder), as it is delicious, and easy to chew and swallow.

Ripe broad beans are eaten by passers-by. Besides that, they are one of the gift items from a countryside relative in a period close to the Ethiopian Epiphany.

Greece[edit]

The Greek word fáva (φάβα) does not refer to broad beans, but to the yellow split pea and also to the legume Lathyrus sativus. Broad beans are known instead as koukiá (Greek: κουκιά), and are eaten in a stew combined with artichokes, while they are still fresh in their pods. Dried broad beans are eaten boiled, sometimes combined with garlic sauce (skordalia). In Crete, fresh broad beans are shelled and eaten as a companion to tsikoudia, the local alcoholic drink. Favism is quite common in Greece because of malaria endemicity in previous centuries, and people afflicted by it do not eat broad beans.

India[edit]

In India, the northeastern state, Manipur, locally call it as "Hawai-Amubi" and is famous for its role as ingredient in Eromba, Kangsoi. In Tamil Nadu and Karnataka it is mostly available during the winter season. It is localy known as Avarekayi and people use this for preparing sambar.

Iran[edit]

Broad beans, or "Baghalee" (Persian: باقالی) are primarily cultivated in the central and north parts of Iran. The city of Kashan has the highest production of broad beans with high quality in terms of the taste, cooking periods and color. However, broad beans have a very short season (roughly two weeks.) The season is usually in the middle of spring. When people have access to fresh beans in season, they cook them in brine and then add vinegar and Heracleum persicum depending on taste. They also make an extra amount to dry to be used year round. The dried beans can be cooked with rice, which forms one of the most famous dishes in north of Iran (Gilan) called baghalee polo (Persian: باقالی پلو) which means "rice with broad beans". In Iran broad beans are cooked, served with Golpar-origan and salt and sold on streets in the winter. This food is also available preserved in metal cans.

Broad beans with garlic, dill & eggs (Baghala Ghatogh) comes from the northern provinces of Iran, it is not a very mainstream Persian dish.[36]

Italy[edit]

In Rome, Italy, Fava beans are popular either cooked with guanciale or with globe artichokes, as side dish together with lamb or kid, or raw with Pecorino romano. Fave e Pecorino is the traditional dish for 1 May picnic.

In Sicily, Maccu is a Sicilian soup prepared with fava beans as a primary ingredient.[37]

In Apulia, broad bean purée with wild chicory is typical dish.

Luxembourg[edit]

Judd mat Gaardebounen, or smoked collar of pork with broad beans, is the national dish of Luxembourg.[38]

Malta[edit]

They are a primary ingredient of the Maltese Kusksu, a vegetable soup primarily containing fava beans and pasta beads. They are also used in a popular appetizer called bigilla where they are served as a pureé mixed with olive oil, lemon juice, garlic, parsley and mint. It is served with bread or crackers and is the Maltese answer to hummus.

Mexico[edit]

In Mexico, fava beans are often eaten in a soup called sopa de habas, meaning "fava soup." They are also eaten as a snack, in which they are fried, salted, and dried. They are either by themselves as a snack or in combination with other salted, dried beans and nuts. In the State of Hidalgo, in north central Mexico, Spanish fava beans are cooked with hierbabuena, Apple mint, to produce the region's caldo de habas, fava bean soup.[39]

Morocco[edit]

In Morocco, fava beans are made into bessara, a dip sold as a street food.[40]

Nepal[edit]

In Nepal, fava beans are called bakulla. They are eaten as a green vegetable when the pods are young, generally stir-fried with garlic. When dried, fava beans are eaten roasted, or mixed with other legumes, such as moong beans, chick peas, and peas, and called qwati. The mixture, soaked and germinated, is cooked as soup and consumed with rice or beaten rice on day of Raksha Bandhan. The dry and stir-fried version of qwati is called biraula. The qwati soup is believed to reinvigorate the body affected by monsoon paddy season.

Netherlands[edit]

In the Netherlands, they are traditionally eaten with fresh savory and some melted butter. The combination of the beans tossed with crispy fried bacon is also common. When rubbed, the velvet insides of the pods are a folk remedy against warts.

Peru[edit]

Fava beans (Peru: Haba(s)) are eaten fresh or dried as stew, toasted, boiled, roasted, stewed, soup etc. Habas are one of the essential ingredients of the famous "Pachamanca" in the Andes of Peru, and are also an additive for "Panetela", which is a homemade remedy to keep your child fed and hydrated in cases of diarrhea or stomach infection and even for cholera treatment. To make Panetela combine and roast a cup of: fava bean (habas), barley, corn, wheat, rice and / or beans without allowing it to burn; add a cup of water, a carrot cut into pieces and a pinch of salt until fully cooked; drain, add water until it reaches a liter and boil one last time. For babies only the fluid is used.

Peruvian dishes with fava beans include:

  • Aji de habas
  • Saltado de habas
  • El chupe de habas
  • Ajiaco de Papas y habas
  • Pachamanca
  • Guiso de habas
  • Shambar (heavy soup, traditional in Trujillo)

Spain[edit]

Broad beans (Spanish: habas) are widely cultivated in Spain. Culinary uses vary among regions, but they can be used as the main pulse in a stew (Favetes, habas estofadas, michirones) or as an addition to other dishes (menestra, paella). In certain regions they can be eaten while unripe or fried and packaged as a snack.

Sudan[edit]

Fava beans are one of the most widely consumed foods in Sudan. For most Sudanese they form the main dish during lunch time (fatoor), especially more so for city and urban dwellers. The beans are cooked by steadily boiling over a sustained period of time. Similar to Egypt, the cooked beans are mashed, and prepared by adding salt and pepper. For additional flavour, sesame oil is added along with a sprinkling of jibna ("feta" cheese) on top. The dish is then eaten with bread and is sometimes refereed to as ful medames.

Sweden[edit]

Broad beans (Swedish: bondbönor, literally: farmer beans), which in Sweden have mainly been eaten dried, brown and cooked, were for a very long time a popular food to add to other foods as a side "filler". The idea was not that they were ever supposed to taste much good, taste was secondary at best, rather it was used to help make one feel full; they gave energy and filled you up from the sensation of hunger from small amounts. This went on up until the mid-1940s, a time of rapid urbanization when it almost disappeared from Swedish plates, and in a time of rapidly increasing expectations of food tastes and changes in food habits. Known as bondböner (famers’ beans) they are something of a forgotten delicacy, and therefore rather scarce.[41]

However, lately since circa 2005 broad beans have made a comeback both as healthy near-grown produce and interest in legumes partly because of vegetarianism, healthy foods, but also a greater curiosity about food and forgotten ingredients in Sweden as well as the increased popularity of foreign, especially Arabic food, and as such in the form of (Arabic: فول مدمسfūl mudammas).

Other uses[edit]

  • In ancient Greece and Rome, beans were used in voting; a white bean was used to cast a yes vote, and a black bean for no. Even today, the word koukia (κουκιά) is used unofficially, referring to the votes. Beans were used as a food for the dead, such as during the annual Lemuria festival.[3][42]
  • The ancient Roman family name Fabia and the modern political term Fabian derive from this particular bean.
  • The Pythagorean code prohibited the consumption or even touching of any sort of bean.
  • In Ubykh culture, throwing beans on the ground and interpreting the pattern in which they fall was a common method of divination (favomancy), and the word for "bean-thrower" in that language has become a generic term for seers and soothsayers in general.
  • The colloquial expression 'not worth a hill of beans' alludes to their widespread economy and association with the peasant diet.
  • In Italy, broad beans are traditionally sown on November 2, All Souls Day. Small cakes made in the shape of broad beans (though not out of them) are known as fave dei morti or "beans of the dead". According to tradition, Sicily once experienced a failure of all crops other than the beans; the beans kept the population from starvation, and thanks were given to Saint Joseph. Broad beans subsequently became traditional on Saint Joseph's Day altars in many Italian communities. Some people carry a broad bean for good luck; some believe that if one carries a broad bean, one will never be without the essentials of life. In Rome, on the first of May, Roman families traditionally eat fresh fava beans with Pecorino Romano cheese during a daily excursion in the Campagna. In northern Italy, on the contrary, fava beans are traditionally fed to animals and some people, especially the elderly, might frown on human consumption. But in Liguria, a maritime region near northern Italy, fava beans are loved raw, and consumed fresh in early spring as the first product of the garden, alone or with fresh Pecorino Sardo or with local salami from Sant'Olcese. In some Central Italian regions, a once-popular and recently rediscovered fancy food is the bagiana, a soup of fresh or dried fava beans seasoned with onions and beet leaves stir-fried, before being added to the soup, in olive oil and lard (or bacon or cured ham fat).
  • In Portugal and Spain a Christmas cake called bolo Rei in Portuguese and roscón de reyes in Spanish (King's cake) is baked with a fava bean inside. Whoever eats the slice containing it, is supposed to buy next year's cake.
  • A similar tradition exists in France, where the fève (originally a dried bean, but often now a small china or metal trinket) is placed in the galette des rois; the person who finds it in their slice becomes the king or queen of the meal, and is often expected to serve the other guests to drink.
  • Pliny claimed they acted as a laxative.
  • European folklore also claims that planting beans on Good Friday or during the night brings good luck.
  • Frederick E Rose (London) Ltd v William H Pim Junior & Co Ltd [1953] 2 QB 450, is an English contract law case where the two litigants had both mistaken feveroles for ordinary horse beans.
  • Can be used as a green manure, due to nitrogen fixation it produces.
  • In the Netherlands, roasted or fried broad beans are regarded as a local delicacy of the city of Groningen, and is locally called molleboon. Until the 1800s, the city council used mollebonen for the voting process, sometimes real beans, sometimes made of stone or clay. The word Molleboon became a nickname for the inhabitants of the city.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bean, Broad—Vicia faba L.". University of Florida. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Swenson, Allan A. (Dec 13, 2013). Foods Jesus Ate and How to Grow Them. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. p. 240. ISBN 9781626366886. Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Fava Bean" (PDF). ARC Centre of Excellence for Integrated Legume Research. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  4. ^ "Core Historical Literature of Agriculture". Chla.library.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  5. ^ "Daughter of the Soil". Daughter of the Soil. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  6. ^ NSW Agriculture 2002 - Honeybees in faba bean pollination
  7. ^ "Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology". Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Fava-the Magic Bean". Scientific American. SA. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  9. ^ a b "FAVA BEAN ( Vicia faba L. )" (PDF). Oregon State Univ. Extension. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Broad bean, dry". Plant Village. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  11. ^ "Beans, Fava". Oregon Vegetables. OSU Department of Horticulture. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  12. ^ Mohamed Hemida Abd-Alla (20 January 2014). "Synergistic interaction of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a plant growth promoting biofertilizers for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in alkaline soil". Microbiological Research 169 (1): 49–58. doi:10.1016/j.micres.2013.07.007. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  13. ^ "Broad beans". Royal Hort. Soc. Retrieved 10 January 2016. 
  14. ^ "Top 10 Broad Bean Varieties". Vegetable Gardens. Retrieved 10 January 2016. 
  15. ^ "Broad bean rust". Royal Horticulture Society. Retrieved 10 January 2016. 
  16. ^ "Broad bean chocolate spot". Royal Hort. Soc. Retrieved 10 January 2016. 
  17. ^ Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. "MAOIs and diet: Is it necessary to restrict tyramine?". Mayo Clinic. 
  18. ^ a b c Luzzatto, Lucio; Atul Mehta; Tom Vulliamy. OMMBID Book, Chap. 179: Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency. Retrieved 16 January 2016. 
  19. ^ a b "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency". Genetics Home Reference. 11 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016. 
  20. ^ Kathrynne Holden. "Fava Beans, Levodopa, and Parkinson's Disease". 
  21. ^ Russ Parsons. "The Long History of the Mysterious Fava Bean". 
  22. ^ Nelson, L. David; Cox, M. Michael. 2005. "Chapter 14- Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway" in Principles of Biochemistry. Freeman, New York. p. 551.
  23. ^ Vered, Y; Grosskopf, I; Palevitch, D; Harsat, A; Charach, G; Weintraub, MS; Graff, E (1997). "The influence of Vicia faba (broad bean) seedlings on urinary sodium excretion". Planta Medica 63 (3): 237–40. doi:10.1055/s-2006-957661. PMID 9225606. 
  24. ^ Der Poela, A. F. B. Van; Dellaerta, L. M. W.; Norela, A. Van; Helspera, J. P. F. G. (1992). "The digestibility in piglets of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as affected by breeding towards the absence of condensed tannins". British Journal of Nutrition 68 (03): 793–800. doi:10.1079/BJN19920134. 
  25. ^ Merghem, Rachid; Jay, Maurice; Brun, Nathalie; Voirin, Bernard (2004). "Qualitative analysis and HPLC isolation and identification of procyanidins from vicia faba". Phytochemical Analysis 15 (2): 95–99. doi:10.1002/pca.731. PMID 15116939. 
  26. ^ Griffiths, D. Wynne (1981). "The polyphenolic content and enzyme inhibitory activity of testae from bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum spp.) varieties". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 32 (8): 797–804. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740320808. 
  27. ^ "How To Pick, Clean and Prepare Fava Beans". Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  28. ^ a b c "Ful — The Egyptian National Dish". Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  29. ^ "Broadbeans (fava beans), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt". Nutrition Data. Retrieved 10 January 2016. 
  30. ^ "Fava beans nutrition facts". Nutrition and you. Retrieved 10 January 2016. 
  31. ^ a b Hornykiewicz, Oleh (16 November 2010). "A brief history of levodopa". Journal of Neurology 257 (S2): 249–252. doi:10.1007/s00415-010-5741-y. PMID 21080185. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  32. ^ a b Vernaleo B, Ph.D.,. "Back to Basics: Why Basic Research (and the Fava Bean) are Key to the Cure" (PDF). PDF Blog. Parkinson's Disease Foundation. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  33. ^ "Barley and Fava Bean Soup". The Latin Kitchen. Retrieved 10 February 2016. 
  34. ^ "Taste of Croatia". Retrieved 10 February 2016. 
  35. ^ "Ethiopian Ful Medames – Fava Beans with Berbere and Tasty Garnishes". Herbivoracious. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  36. ^ "Broad Beans with Garlic, Dill & Eggs (Baghala Ghatogh)". Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  37. ^ Helstosky, Carol (2009). Food Culture in the Mediterranean. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 0313346267. 
  38. ^ Collar "Recipes from Luxembourg", Luxembourg Tourist Office, London. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  39. ^ "The Cuisine of Hidalgo: Spanning Climates and Cultures". Mexconnect. Retrieved 10 January 2016. 
  40. ^ "Morocco's best street food". cnn.com. 
  41. ^ "Broad Beans: twice as good as they should be". Swedish food — blogs.sweden.se. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  42. ^ Hazelton, Nika (Feb 21, 2014). Nika Hazelton's Way with Vegetables: The Unabridged Vegetable Cookbook. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 384. ISBN 9781590772713. Retrieved 14 January 2016. 

External links[edit]