Faxian

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Faxian
Faxian statue in Maritime Experiential Museum & Aquarium Singapore.jpg
An honorary Faxian statue in a Singapore museum.
Other namesFa-hsien, Sehi
Personal
Born337 CE
Pingyang Wuyang (平陽武陽), in modern Linfen City, Shanxi
Diedca. 422 CE (aged 85)
ReligionBuddhism
ParentsTsang Hi (father)
Notable work(s)Foguoji (A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms)
Other namesFa-hsien, Sehi
Faxian
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese法顯
Simplified Chinese法显
Japanese name
Kanji法顕
Kanaほっけん
Sanskrit name
Sanskritफा हियान

Faxian (337 CE – c. 422 CE), also referred to as Fa-Hien , Fa-hsien and Sehi, was a Chinese Buddhist monk and translator who traveled by foot from China to India to acquire Buddhist texts. Starting his arduous journey about age 60, he visited sacred Buddhist sites in Central, South and Southeast Asia between 399 and 412 CE, of which 10 years were spent in India.[1][2][3]

He described his journey in his travelogue, A Record of Buddhist Kingdoms (Foguo Ji 佛國記). His memoirs are notable independent record of early Buddhism in India. He took with him a large number of Sanskrit texts, whose translations influenced East Asian Buddhism and which provide a terminus ante quem for many historical names, events, texts, and ideas therein.[1][2]

Biography[edit]

12th-century woodblock print, 1st page of the Travels of Faxian (Record of the Buddhist Countries). The first sentences read: "In Chang'an, Faxian was distressed that the Vinaya collections was incomplete, so in the 2nd year of Hóngshǐ, or jǐ-​hài in the sexagenary cycle [year 399/400], he agreed with Huijing, Daozheng, Huiying and Huiwéi to go seek out more of the Vinaya in India.

Faxian was born in Shanxi in the 4th-century during the reign of the Eastern Jin dynasty, and his birth name was Sehi. He later adopted the name Faxian, which literally means "Splendor of Dharma".[1]

In 399 CE, about age 60, Faxian was among the earliest attested pilgrims to India. He set out with nine others to locate sacred Buddhist texts.[4][3] He visited India in the early fifth century. He is said to have walked all the way from China across the icy desert and rugged mountain passes. He entered India from the northwest and reached Pataliputra. He took back with him a large number of Sanskrit Buddhist texts and images sacred to Buddhism. Upon his return to China, he is also credited with translating these Sanskrit texts into Chinese.[1][2]

Faxian's visit to India occurred during the reign of Chandragupta II. He entered the Indian subcontinent through the northwest. His memoir describe his 10 year stay in India. He visited the major sites associated with the Buddha, as well the renowned centers of education and Buddhist monasteries. He visited Kapilvastu (Lumbini), Bodh Gaya, Banares (Varanasi), Sravasti, Kushinagara – all linked to the major events in Buddha's life. Faxian also studied, learned the Sanskrit language, and collected Indian literature from Pataliputra (Patna), Udyana, Taxila and Gandhara. He memoir mentions the Hinayana (Theravada) and emerging Mahayana traditions, as well as the splintering and dissenting Theravada sub-traditions in 5th-century Indian Buddhism. Before he had begun his journey back to China, he had amassed a large number of Sanskrit texts of his times.[1][2]

On Faxian's way back to China, after a two-year stay in Ceylon, a violent storm drove his ship onto an island, probably Java.[5] After five months there, Faxian took another ship for southern China; but, again, it was blown off course and he ended up landing at Mount Lao in what is now Shandong in northern China, 30 kilometres (19 mi) east of the city of Qingdao. He spent the rest of his life translating and editing the scriptures he had collected. These were influential to the history of Chinese Buddhism that followed.[1][2]

Faxian wrote a book on his travels, filled with accounts of early Buddhism, and the geography and history of numerous countries along the Silk Road as they were, at the turn of the 5th century CE. He wrote about cities like Taxila, Pataliputra, Mathura, and Kannauj in Middle India. He also wrote that inhabitants of Middle India also eat and dress like Chinese people. He declared Patliputra as a very prosperous city.[6]

He returned in 412 and settled in what is now Nanjing. In 414 he wrote (or dictated) Foguoji (A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms; also known as Faxian's Account). He spent the next decade, until his death, translating the Buddhist sutras he had brought with him from India.[7]

Legge's biographical notes on Faxian[edit]

The following is the introduction to a 19th-century translation of Faxian's work by James Legge. The speculations of Legge below, such as Faxian visiting India at the age of 25, have been discredited by later scholarship. His introduction provides some useful biographical information about Faxian:

Nothing of great importance is known about Fa-Hien in addition to what may be gathered from his own record of his travels. I have read the accounts of him in the Memoirs of Eminent Monks, compiled in 519 CE, and a later work, the Memoirs of Marvellous Monks, by the third emperor of the Ming dynasty (1403–1424 CE), which, however, is nearly all borrowed from the other; and all in them that has an appearance of verisimilitude can be brought within brief compass

Faxian´s route through India

His surname, they tell us, was Kung, and he was a native of Wu-yang in P’ing-Yang, which is still the name of a large department in Shan-hsi. He had three brothers older than himself; but when they all died before shedding their first teeth, his father devoted him to the service of the Buddhist society, and had him entered as a Sramanera, still keeping him at home in the family. The little fellow fell dangerously ill, and the father sent him to the monastery, where he soon got well and refused to return to his parents.

When he was ten years old, his father died; and an uncle, considering the widowed solitariness and helplessness of the mother, urged him to renounce the monastic life, and return to her, but the boy replied, "I did not quit the family in compliance with my father’s wishes, but because I wished to be far from the dust and vulgar ways of life. This is why I chose monkhood." The uncle approved of his words and gave over urging him. When his mother also died, it appeared how great had been the affection for her of his fine nature; but after her burial, he returned to the monastery.

On one occasion he was cutting rice with a score or two of his fellow-disciples when some hungry thieves came upon them to take away their grain by force. The other Sramaneras all fled, but our young hero stood his ground, and said to the thieves, "If you must have the grain, take what you please. But, Sirs, it was your former neglect of charity which brought you to your present state of destitution; and now, again, you wish to rob others. I am afraid that in the coming ages you will have still greater poverty and distress;—I am sorry for you beforehand." With these words he followed his companions into the monastery, while the thieves left the grain and went away, all the monks, of whom there were several hundred, doing homage to his conduct and courage.

When he had finished his novitiate and taken on him the obligations of the full Buddhist orders, his earnest courage, clear intelligence, and strict regulation of his demeanor were conspicuous; and soon after, he undertook his journey to India in search of complete copies of the Vinaya-pitaka. What follows this is merely an account of his travels in India and return to China by sea, condensed from his own narrative, with the addition of some marvelous incidents that happened to him, on his visit to the Vulture Peak near Rajagriha.

It is said in the end that after his return to China, he went to the capital (evidently Nanking), and there, along with the Indian Sramana Buddha-bhadra, executed translations of some of the works which he had obtained in India; and that before he had done all that he wished to do in this way, he removed to King-chow (in the present Hoo-pih), and died in the monastery of Sin, at the age of eighty-eight, to the great sorrow of all who knew him. It is added that there is another larger work giving an account of his travels in various countries.

Such is all the information given about our author, beyond what he himself has told us. Fa-Hien was his clerical name, and means "Illustrious in the Law," or "Illustrious master of the Law." The Shih which often precedes it is an abbreviation of the name of Buddha as Sakyamuni, "the Sakya, mighty in Love, dwelling in Seclusion and Silence," and may be taken as equivalent to Buddhist. It is sometimes said to have belonged to "the eastern Tsin dynasty" (317–419 CE), and sometimes to "the Sung," that is, the Sung dynasty of the House of Liu (420–478 CE). If he became a full monk at the age.... of twenty, and went to India when he was twenty-five, his long life may have been divided pretty equally between the two dynasties.[8]

Faxian memoir[edit]

Faxian at Daishō-in Temple, Miyajima

Faxian's memoirs are an independent record of the society and culture of places he visited, particularly ancient India around 400 CE. His translations of Sanskrit texts he took with him to China are an important means to date texts, named individuals and Buddhist traditions. They provide a terminus ante quem for many historical names, manuscripts, events, and ideas therein.[1][2]

Faxian notes that central Asian cities such as Khotan were Buddhist, with the clergy reading Indian manuscripts in Indian languages. The local community revered the monks. In Taxila (now in Pakistan), states Faxian, he mentions a flourishing Buddhist community midst non-Buddhists. He describes elaborate rituals and public worship ceremonies, with support of the king, in the honor of the Buddha in India and Sri Lanka. He left India about 409 from Tamralipti – a port he states to be on its eastern coast. However, some of his Chinese companion pilgrims who came with him on the journey decided to stay in India.[3]

Impressions of India

The cities and towns of this country [Magadha] are the greatest of all in the Middle Kingdom [Mathura through Deccan]. The inhabitants are rich and prosperous, and vie with one another in the practice of benevolence and righteousness. Every year on the eighth day of the second month they celebrate a procession of images. They make a four-wheeled car, and on it erect a structure of four storeys by means of bamboos tied together. This is supported by a king-post, with poles and lances slanting from it, and is rather more than twenty cubits high, having the shape of a tope. White and silk-like cloth of hair is wrapped all round it, which is then painted in various colours. They make figures of devas, with gold, silver, and lapis lazuli grandly blended and having silken streamers and canopies hung out over them. On the four sides are niches, with a Buddha seated in each, and a Bodhisattva standing in attendance on him. There may be twenty cars, all grand and imposing, but each one different from the others. On the day mentioned, the monks and laity within the borders all come together; they have singers and skillful musicians; they pay their devotion with flowers and incense. The Brahmans come and invite the Buddhas to enter the city. These do so in order, and remain two nights in it. All through the night they keep lamps burning, have skillful music, and present offerings. This is the practice in all the other kingdoms as well. The Heads of the Vaisya families in them establish in the cities houses for dispensing charity and medicines. All the poor and destitute in the country, orphans, widowers, and childless men, maimed people and cripples, and all who are diseased, go to those houses, and are provided with every kind of help, and doctors examine their diseases. They get the food and medicines which their cases require, and are made to feel at ease; and when they are better, they go away of themselves.

— Faxian, c. 415 CE[9]
Struggles at sea during the return journey through Java

At this time the sky continued very dark and gloomy, and the sailing-masters looked at one another and made mistakes. More than seventy days passed (from their leaving Java), and the provisions and water were nearly exhausted. They used the salt-water of the sea for cooking, and carefully divided the (fresh) water, each man getting two pints. Soon the whole was nearly gone, and the merchants took counsel and said, “At the ordinary rate of sailing we ought to have reached Kwang-chow, and now the time is passed by many days;—must we not have held a wrong course?” Immediately they directed the ship to the north-west, looking out for land; and after sailing day and night for twelve days, they reached the shore on the south of mount Lao, on the borders of the prefecture of Ch’ang-kwang, and immediately got good water and vegetables. They had passed through many perils and hardships, and had been in a state of anxious apprehension for many days together; and now suddenly arriving at this shore, and seeing those (well-known) vegetables, the lei and kwoh, they knew indeed that it was the land of Han.

— Faxian, c. 415 CE[10]

Works[edit]

  • James Legge (1886, trans.), A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms; being an account by the Chinese monk Fa-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon, A.D. 399-414, in search of the Buddhist books of discipline
  • Herbert A Giles (1877, trans.), Record of the Buddhistic Kingdoms

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (2019), Faxian, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  2. ^ a b c d e f Deeg, Max (2019), Chinese Buddhist Travelers: Faxian, Xuanzang, and Yijing, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.217
  3. ^ a b c Tansen Sen (2006), The Travel Records of Chinese Pilgrims Faxian, Xuanzang and Yijing, Education About Asia, Volume 11, Number 3, pp. 24–31
  4. ^ Jaroslav Průšek and Zbigniew Słupski, eds., Dictionary of Oriental Literatures: East Asia (Charles Tuttle, 1978): 35.
  5. ^ Buswell, Robert E., Lopez, Donald S. Jr. (2014). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Princeton: Princeton University Press, p. 297
  6. ^ Fa-Hien (Translator: James Legge). "A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by Fa-Hsien (Chapter XXVII. Pataliputra or Patna, In Magadha)". www.gutenberg.org. Retrieved 2019-09-14.
  7. ^ Jaroslav Průšek and Zbigniew Słupski, eds., Dictionary of Oriental Literatures: East Asia (Charles Tuttle, 1978): 35.
  8. ^ Legge, James. Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms by Chinese Monk , Fa-Hien (PDF). Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc. Retrieved August 9, 2019. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. ^ Fa-Hien (Translator: James Legge) (415 (Translated: 1875)). "A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by Fa-Hsien (Chapter XXVII. Pataliputra or Patna, In Magadha)". www.gutenberg.org. Check date values in: |year= (help) Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. ^ Fa-Hien (Translator: James Legge) (415 (Translated: 1875)). "A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by Fa-Hsien (Chapter XL. AFTER TWO YEARS TAKES SHIP FOR CHINA. DISASTROUS PASSAGE TO JAVA)". www.gutenberg.org. Check date values in: |year= (help) Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]