|Title||Second Sheikh ul-Islam of the Caucasus|
|Died||March 3, 1885 (aged 102–103)|
|Based in||Tbilisi, Russian Empire|
|Period in office||1846-1852|
|Post||Sheikh ul-Islam of the Caucasus|
Muhammad ibn Muhammad Bagher Iravani (Persian: محمد بن محمدباقر ایروانی) or Fazil Iravani (Azerbaijani: Fazil İrəvani) was an ethnic Azerbaijani Islamic jurist, the second Sheikh ul-Islam of the Caucasus and an Ayatollah al-Uzma.
Early life and education
Fazil Iravani was born in Yerevan in either 1782 or 1817 to Muhammad Baqir Iravani. His grandfather Mir Abdulfattah Iravani was a cleric as well. He got his primary religious education in same city. He went on to continue his education in 1802 to Al-Azhar University. He later went on to be a disciple of Ayatollah Sayyed Ibrahim Qazwini in Karbala and later studied in Najaf. He was also a disciple of Sayyid Husayn Kuhkamara'i, uncle of Muhammad Hujjat Kuh-Kamari. According to Iranian writer Aghighi Bakhshayeshi, he was a successor to Kuhkamara'i and the Turkish faction of Najaf scholars. He later became a marja', having 30 students and disciples of himself, including Sayyid 'Ali Kuhkamara'i, his teacher's brother, Muhammad Hirz al-Din, Abdallah Mazandarani and Sayyed Hussein Khamenei (grandfather of Ali Khamenei). He was akhund of Isfahan and Tabriz in his 40s.
He returned to his native Yerevan in 1827 and became akhund of Blue Mosque. He was appointed as deputy of Sheikh ul-Islam Mahammadali Huseinzadeh in 1843. He succeeded him as Sheikh ul-Islam of the Caucasus prior to former's resignation in 1846. He reformed many clerical issues, including taking nikah rights from mosque mullahs and handing it over to more educated akhunds. He resigned his post in 1852 and was succeeded by Ahmad Huseinzadeh. He died on 3 March 1885, Yerevan in very old age and buried in Najaf.
He was long thought to be the author of famous novel The Rose and the Nightingale (1834), being mistaken for Fazlî Kara, an Ottoman poet. Besides that, he authored at least 15 treatises including Qawaid-i Farsi (1845, Tabriz), Usuli Ibrat.
He had at least 3 children:
- Sheikh Mahmud Iravani
- Sheikh Morteza Iravani
- Sheikh Muhammad Javad Iravani (b. 1870, Najaf - 1962)
- Mirza Mohammad Iravani (died young)
- Sheikh Kazem Iravani
- Sheikh Mohammad Taghi Iravani (b. 1911 - d. 1 November 2005)
- Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al-Irawani (b. 1949, Najaf)
- A daughter
- Mammadli, Huseyngulu (2005). Qafqazda İslam və Şeyxülislamlar [Islam and Sheikh-ul-Islams in the Caucasus] (in Azerbaijani). Baku: MBM. p. 42.
- Rizvan. "AYƏTULLAH ƏL-ÜZMA ŞEYX MƏHƏMMƏD İRƏVANİ". Rizvan - رضوان (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 2021-06-14.
- Asgerova, Lutviyye. "QAFQAZIN II. ŞEYXÜLİSLAMI AXUND FAZİL İRƏVANİ" (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-06-14.
- Bakhshayeshi, Aghighi (1997). Mafakher-e Azerbaijan [Prides of Azerbaijan] (in Persian). Tabriz: Nashr-e Azerbaijan. p. 243.
- "The Irawani Family in Iraq". Alsaraf's Weblog. 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2021-06-14.
- "Sayyid Muhammad Hujjat Kuhkamara'i". WikiShia. Retrieved 2021-06-14.
- "Muhammad Hirz al-Din". WikiShia. Retrieved 2021-06-14.
- www.dsi.co.ir. "Ayatollah Abdollah Mazandarani". www.iichs.ir. Retrieved 2021-06-14.
- "Detailed biography of Ayatollah Khamenei, Leader of Islamic Revolution". Khamenei.ir. 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2021-06-14.
- Fazlî, Muḥammad (1834). Gül u bülbül, das ist: Rose und Nachtigall, ein Gedicht, türk. herausg. und deutsch übers. durch J. von Hammer (in German).
- Asgerzade, Lutviyye (2021). "FAZILİRAVANİ AND FAZLI KARA`S ROSE AND NIGHTINGALE (Conflicts and truth)" (PDF). BUTA International Journal of Scientific Research. (in Turkish) (2/1). ISSN 2717-7661.
- "محمدفاضل ایروانی - ویکی فقه" [Fazil Irawani]. wikifeqh.ir (in Persian). Retrieved 2021-06-14.