Feature scaling is a method used to standardize the range of independent variables or features of data. In data processing, it is also known as data normalization and is generally performed during the data preprocessing step.
Since the range of values of raw data varies widely, in some machine learning algorithms, objective functions will not work properly without normalization. For example, the majority of classifiers calculate the distance between two points by the Euclidean distance. If one of the features has a broad range of values, the distance will be governed by this particular feature. Therefore, the range of all features should be normalized so that each feature contributes approximately proportionately to the final distance.
Rescaling (min-max normalization)
Also known as min-max scaling or min-max normalization, is the simplest method and consists in rescaling the range of features to scale the range in [0, 1] or [−1, 1]. Selecting the target range depends on the nature of the data. The general formula is given as:
where is an original value, is the normalized value. For example, suppose that we have the students' weight data, and the students' weights span [160 pounds, 200 pounds]. To rescale this data, we first subtract 160 from each student's weight and divide the result by 40 (the difference between the maximum and minimum weights).
where is an original value, is the normalized value.
In machine learning, we can handle various types of data, e.g. audio signals and pixel values for image data, and this data can include multiple dimensions. Feature standardization makes the values of each feature in the data have zero-mean (when subtracting the mean in the numerator) and unit-variance. This method is widely used for normalization in many machine learning algorithms (e.g., support vector machines, logistic regression, and artificial neural networks). The general method of calculation is to determine the distribution mean and standard deviation for each feature. Next we subtract the mean from each feature. Then we divide the values (mean is already subtracted) of each feature by its standard deviation.
Where is the original feature vector, is the mean of that feature vector, and is its standard deviation.
Scaling to unit length
Another option that is widely used in machine-learning is to scale the components of a feature vector such that the complete vector has length one. This usually means dividing each component by the Euclidean length of the vector:
In some applications (e.g. Histogram features) it can be more practical to use the L1 norm (i.e. Manhattan Distance, City-Block Length or Taxicab Geometry) of the feature vector. This is especially important if in the following learning steps the Scalar Metric is used as a distance measure.
In stochastic gradient descent, feature scaling can sometimes improve the convergence speed of the algorithm. In support vector machines, it can reduce the time to find support vectors. Note that feature scaling changes the SVM result.
- fMLLR, Feature space Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression
- Ioffe, Sergey; Christian Szegedy (2015). "Batch Normalization: Accelerating Deep Network Training by Reducing Internal Covariate Shift". arXiv:1502.03167 [cs.LG].
- Grus, Joel (2015). Data Science from Scratch. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly. pp. 99, 100. ISBN 978-1-491-90142-7.
- Juszczak, P.; D. M. J. Tax; R. P. W. Dui (2002). "Feature scaling in support vector data descriptions". Proc. 8th Annu. Conf. Adv. School Comput. Imaging: 25–30. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.100.2524.
- S. Aksoy and R. Haralick, "Feature normalization and likelihood-based similarity measures for image retrieval," Pattern Recognit. Lett., Special Issue on Image and Video Retrieval, 2000 http://www.cs.bilkent.edu.tr/~saksoy/papers/prletters01_likelihood.pdf
- S. Tsakalidis, V. Doumpiotis & W. Byrne, "Discriminative Linear Transforms for Feature Normalization and Speaker Adaptation in HMM Estimation", Proc. ICSLP'02, Denver. http://malach.umiacs.umd.edu/pubs/VD_05_Discrim_linear.pdf
- Liefeng Bo, Ling Wang, and Licheng Jiao, "Feature Scaling for Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis Using Leave-one-out Cross Validation", Neural Computation (NECO), vol. 18(4), pp. 961–978, 2006 http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lfb/paper/nc06.pdf
- A. Stolcke, S. Kajarekar, and L. Ferrer, "Nonparametric feature normalization for SVM-based speaker verification," in Proc. ICASSP, Las Vegas, Apr. 2008. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=4517925
- Youn, E.; Jeong, M. K. (2009). "Class dependent feature scaling method using naive Bayes classifier for text datamining". Pattern Recognition Letters. 30 (5): 477–485. doi:10.1016/j.patrec.2008.11.013.
- S. Theodoridis, K. Koutroumbas. (2008) “Pattern Recognition”, Academic Press, 4 edition, ISBN 978-1-59749-272-0