Federal Convention (Germany)
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|17th Federal convention will convene on or before 16 February 2022|
President of the Bundestag (ex officio)
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The Federal Convention, also known as the Federal Assembly (German: Bundesversammlung), is a non-steady constitutional bodies in the federal institutional system of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is convened solely for the purpose of electing the President of Germany, either every five years (no later than 30 days before the expiration of a sitting Presidents term) or within 30 days of the premature termination of a presidential term. The Federal Convention consists of all members of the German federal parliament (Bundestag) and the same number of delegates from the 16 federated states. Those delegates are elected by the state parliaments for this purpose only.
The Basic Law mandates that a maximum of three votes can be held. On the first two rounds, a candidate must receive an absolute majority of delegates to be elected. After that, in the third round, a plurality of all delegates voting is sufficient for election to the office of Federal President. Any member of the convention may nominate candidates.
Usually there is not much uncertainty about the outcome: the party affiliations of the members of the convention, and hence the strengh of the single parties, are known already. In many cases, the coalition in the federal parliament presented a joint candidate who prevailed in the first round.
Convening the Bundesversammlung
The Bundesversammlung is constitutionally mandated to meet not later than 30 days before the expiration of the term of the incumbent president, or not later than 30 days after a premature exit (as a result of resignation, death or removal) from the office of the Federal President.
The Basic Law charges the President of the Bundestag the responsibility and authority to call and preside over a meeting of the Bundesversammlung.
Each member of the Bundesversammlung may suggest candidates for the office of the Federal President. This means that not only parliamentary groups from the Bundestag can present a candidate but also small parties which may not be represented in the Bundestag.
The procedure of the election of the Bundespräsident consists of a maximum of three secret votes by written ballot. If one of the first two votes ends with an absolute majority for one of the candidates, this candidate is elected immediately. If the first two votes do not lead to an absolute majority, a plurality is sufficient on the third and final vote. According to the Grundgesetz, the President is elected without a debate at the Federal Convention. The candidates are usually nominated by one or more parties but do not generally run a campaign. The candidate whose party or parties have the majority in the Bundestag is considered to be the likely winner and, in the main, has achieved the necessary majority – however, the Assembly can be turned around by state delegates (if the Bundestag opposition has done well in state elections), this can indicate the result of an upcoming general election ("If you can create a president, you can form a government"). The President of the Bundestag closes the session of the Bundesversammlung once the elected candidate accepts. A newly elected President does not take the oath of office before the Federal Convention: This happens in a joint session of the Bundestag and the Bundesrat.
The Bundesversammlung is chaired by the President of the Bundestag (or one of the Vice Presidents, if the President stands as a candidate – as was the case with Karl Carstens in 1979). The Bundesversammlung is dissolved once the elected President declares that they accept their election, which decision may be delayed for up to two days (however, no would-be president-elect has ever done so).
The Bundesversammlung includes the entire membership of the Bundestag, and an equal number of state delegates elected by the state or 'Länder' parliaments specifically for this purpose, proportional to their population.
According to federal law, every member of a state parliament has one vote. The delegates are elected with lists and proportional vote. Some details are dealt with by the standing orders of the state parliament. In many state parliaments, the members vote on a joint list that mirrors the strenghs of the parliamentary groups.
A delegate for the Federal Convention must meet one certain standard: he must be elligible also for a candidacy for the Bundestag. The parliamentary groups sometimes elect delegates who are no politicians. They chose for example artists, sportspersons or other celebrities, or occasionally an ordinary citizen with an unusual story. Examples from 2017 are soccer coach Jogi Löw für the Green Party in Baden-Württemberg, actressess Mariele Millowitsch and Renan Demirkan for the Social Democrats in North Rhine-Westphalia and journalist Helmut Markwort for the Free Democrats in Baden-Württemberg. Semiya Şimşek, daughter of a NSU terror victim, was elected by Die Linke in Thuringia.
The idea behind this custom is to have the president be elected not only by politicians but by a broader segment of the population. Also, the political parties like to be associated with the celebrities. They expect these non-politicians to vote within party lines. The voting in the Federal Convention is secret. From the time of their nomination until the closing of the session of the Federal Convention its members enjoy parliamentary immunity with regard to prosecution by public authorities in very much the same way as members of the Bundestag do.
thumb|At the convention of the year 1954, in the Ostpreußenhalle Berlin Since 1979, the Bundesversammlung has traditionally met on May 23, the anniversary of the Basic Law (1949). This has changed since the resignations of former presidents Horst Koehler and Christian Wulff.
On 12 September 1949, the first Bundesversammlung met in Bonn, which served as the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany before reunification with East Germany. From 1954 to 1969 the Bundesversammlung was convened at the Ostpreußenhalle in Berlin, leading to protests from the German Democratic Republic on each occasion it met. As a consequence, on March 5, 1969, the Soviet Union sent MiG-21 warplanes to fly over the venue in West Berlin. From 1974 to 1989, the Bundesversammlung met in the Beethovenhalle in Bonn. Since 1994, the meeting place has been the Reichstag building in Berlin. After the renovation of the Reichstag building, the German Bundestag moved to the building in April 1999. Since the meeting of the Bundesversammlung held in May 1999, the body has convened in the plenary chamber at the Reichstag building.
- Politics of Germany
- Federalism in Germany
- Federal Assembly of Austria
- Federal Assembly of Switzerland
- Distribution of seats in the Bundesversammlung
- Election of the Federal President
- Article 54 – Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz, GG)
- Law on the Election of the President by the Federal Assembly (German)
- Election of the Federal President, Deutscher Bundestag, retrieved 2014-07-14
- Der Tagesspielge: Diese Promis wählen den neuen Bundespräsidenten, February 12th, 2017, last seen on October 29th, 2020.
- Köker, Philipp (2019). "Risk vs Reward Strategies in Indirect Presidential Elections: Political Parties and the Selection of Presidential Electors in Germany, 1949–2017". German Politics. 28 (4): 602–620. doi:10.1080/09644008.2019.1590549. ISSN 0964-4008.
- "Legislators vote for Frank-Walter Steinmeier as president". Graphic News. Retrieved 13 February 2017.