Federalism in Nepal
Federalism refers to the system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units. In federalism a nation has a dual government system i.e. federal government at central level and at state level. The federal government has the power to enlarge diplomatic territorial integrity, run a national project, make national monetary policy and so on. The state government has the power to make federal laws, maintain law and order in the state.
Nepal is a country with geographical diversity. Nepal has been practicing unitary form of government since unification by, Prithvi Narayan Shah. However, this system was not able to achieve the development goals of the country and has been an "exclusive form of rule." Federalism is seen as an in inclusive practice for Nepal. So, with the view of proportional development in all the parts of the country by appropriate distribution and mobilization of resources and reducing the economic, social and religious discrimination, the country has transformed into a federal structure.
Nepal has become a federal democratic republican state since 15th Jestha, 2065 BS. According to the concept of a federal system, Nepal has been divided into 7 provinces, 77 districts and 753 local levels. Now each province has a separate government along with its federal government at the centre.
In the aftermath of the 2007 People's Revolt II, the 240 years of monarchy was abolished in the 5th amendment of the Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2063. The amendment was the first document to mention Nepal officially as the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. It envisioned federalism as a prominent feature for a new Nepal.
The Maoist party was the catalyst for bringing forth federalism and inclusion. Other major parties that supported the move include the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) and the Nepali Congress, whereas the Rastriya Prajatantra Party, which was only able to enter the parliament under the Proportional Representation scheme, has come out in opposition to the prospect of federalism as well bringing back the monarchy and declaring Nepal as a Hindu nation.
Nepal had been practicing a unitary form of the government under the Shah rulers (Prithivi Narayan Shah). However this system was unable to support development of the country and was seen as an "exclusive" form of rule.
The power of the Provinces and the Federal government are defined by the constitution.
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