Federalist Riograndense Revolution

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Brazilian Federalist Revolution
Part of Brazilian Naval Revolt
Gumercindo tropa.jpg
Gumercindo Saraiva and their commanders.
Date 1893-1895
Location South Region, Brazil

loyalist victory.

  • Execution of many rebels.
Brazil First Brazilian Republic Rio Grande do Sul Federalist Rebel
National Party
Empire of Brazil Navy Rebel
Commanders and leaders
Brazil Floriano Peixoto
Brazil Júlio Prates de Castilhos
Brazil Gen. Hipólito Ribeiro
Brazil Col. Gomes Carneiro
Brazil Col. Antônio Moreira César
Rio Grande do Sul Gaspar Silveira Martins
Rio Grande do Sul Gumercindo Saraiva
Aparicio Saraiva
Empire of Brazil Saldanha Da Gama
22,000 soldiers and militia 7,500 federalist rebels
~500 sailors rebels
Casualties and losses
10,000 killed

The Federalist Riograndense Revolution (1893 - 1895) was a revolution in the State of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil against the Republic proclaimed in 1889.

Inspired by the monarchist Gaspar Silveira Martins, it had as military head Gumercindo Saraiva. The revolutionaries, called Maragatos, were defeated in the Battle of the Pulador, in 1894, by the troops of Pinheiro Machado, and peace was concluded definitively the following year.

The War[edit]

At the time the then President Marshal Floriano Peixoto summoned veteran of the Paraguayan War Colonel Gomes Carneiro, he did not repent. The order was to halt the Federalist Revolution in Southern Brazil. In five days, he came to the area to become one of the protagonists of history.

It was November 1893 and the revolutionary troops now advancing towards the Paraná.

The goal was to reach the Brazilian capital at the time, Rio de Janeiro, and overthrow the government of Floriano. The rebels also fought against the governor of Rio Grande do Sul, Julio de Castillos. With the revolution, which began 120 years ago, the three southern states became the scene of a bloodbath that left nearly 10,000 dead. During the battles, there were many degolas.

The Federalists won mood in the same year. In the national capital, eclodia the Revolt of the Navy, under the leadership of Admiral Custodio de Melo, who also fought Florian. After some exchange of gunfire with the army, the rebels went to the South. Landed in present Florianópolis, called Exile, and proclaimed the city as a new capital. Interests meant that the two revolts came to join, especially by Custódio de Melo.

"They have joined forces to overthrow Floriano. By sea, Custódio de Melo was responsible for making Paranaguá, which happened in January 1894, "says the judge and scholar Paul Hapner theme. The land, Gumercindo Saraiva advanced toward the capital of Paraná.[1]

Siege of Lapa[edit]

Colonel Gomes Carneiro and the "martyrs" of Lapa.

In the same period that the coast was taken, the maragatos, as they were called rebel soldiers, passed Tijucas South and came to Lapa - 60 km from Curitiba.

The state of Paraná was chaos. With the advance of the rebels, the state governor, Vicente Machado, fled from Curitiba. With only 639 men, few weapons and food shortages, Colonel Ram had a mission to contain the Federalists in Lapa. During 26 days, Ram and his army, called woodpeckers, bravely resisted the attacks of 3000 fighters commanded by Gumercindo Saraiva.

"The troops of maragatos made a real siege to the city," says Hapner. During 26 days, Ram and his army, called woodpeckers, bravely resisted the attacks of 3000 fighters commanded by Gumercindo Saraiva.

At least 500 people died in the Siege of Lapa, including Carneiro. With the death of the commander in February, Lapa surrendered and left the passage open for the revolutionaries took every Curitiba.

Despite the defeat, the battle in Lapa was critical to the rebels come unstuck. Hapner considers a strategic error of maragatos. "If they wanted to go to Rio de Janeiro could not waste time in Lapa. This caused the Army Floriano be organized and defeated the Federalists, "he says.

For the historian Dennisson de Oliveira, "this is an episode that mythical, to the established power in Floriano, 'saved' the Republic."[1]

Release of Curitiba[edit]

Loyalist troops in Paraná state

With taking Paranaguá, Tijucas South and Lapa, and the absence of governor and military force in Paraná, the rebels easily entered in Curitiba. According to scholar Paul Hapner, evacuation of loyalist troops caused chaos in the city. Gumercindo Saraiva and Custódio de Melo had no obstacle. Reached to appoint a governor - Colonel Theophilus Gomes Soares, who was only four days in power. "Then they gathered in a mansion that existed in the Alto da Glória and appointed another governor, João Menezes Doria, who remained until March," reports Hapner.

After him, two others were appointed governors. The last governor maragato Paraná was José Antonio Ferreira Braga, in early May 1894.[1]

Osório field[edit]

It was the last battle of the uprising, held along the border with Uruguay.

Admiral Saldanha da Gama with the Federalists led 400 rebels, 100 of these were sailor navy revolt. They were attacked by a cavaalria Regiment of the Brazilian army that counted 1,300 cavalrymen, led by General Hipolito Ribeiro.

In the course of the battle Admiral Saldanha da Gama, twice wounded by spears, and was killed as all his men, many executed after surrender. Legalists victors have suffered about 200 casualties.


The 32º infantry battalion occupying the Praza 7 de Setembro in Rio Grande do Sul, after the defeat of the Federalists (Le Monde Illustré, nº 1.941, 06/09/1894, drawing by L. Tinayre, according to photographs provided by Emite Tancke).

The federalists demanded further "war loans" not to sack the city. The population was restless. It was during this period that Ildefonso Correia Pereira, Baron Serro Azul exerted role to liberate maragatos of Curitiba.

The Baron made the decision to take care of Curitiba through a junta; considered unnecessary as it would spill more blood; and so there was a decision to negotiate. In return for peace and the absence of looting, Baron lent, with the support of some traders, traded money with Gumercindo Saraiva, head of Maragatos. Trading, however, was seen as a betrayal by the defenders of Floriano.

Thus, Maragatos left the city in May and Vicente Machado returned to power. However, Serro Azul and five companions were stopped. They were taken by train toward Paranaguá, under the pretext that they would board the ship to the Rio de Janeiro where they would receive the award, but it was an ambush. Baron Serro Azul and his friends were shot.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d http://www.gazetadopovo.com.br/vidaecidadania/conteudo.phtml?tl=1&id=1410469&tit=E-a-revolucao-esbarrou-no-Parana

See also[edit]