Federico Bonelli was born in Genoa, Italy. He trained in classical ballet at the Turin Dance Academy before graduating into the Zurich Ballet, at the Zurich Opera House in Zurich, Switzerland. After three years in Zurich, Bonelli joined Dutch National Ballet based in Amsterdam, Netherlands. In September 2003, Bonelli became a principal dancer of the Royal Ballet. In 2013 he danced Romeo in Romeo and Juliet.
He is married to Royal Ballet First Soloist Hikaru Kobayashi.