General of the branch

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The term "general of the branch" or "general of the branch of service" refers to a rank equivalent to a three-star lieutenant general or four-star general. Several nations divide, or have once divided, their general officers by the branch of troops they are qualified to command, or simply as an honorific title.

Austria-Hungary[edit]

Shoulder insignia of an Austro-Hungarian "general of the branch"

In the Austro-Hungarian Army there were three "general of the branch" ranks from 1867 to 1918:

  • General of infantry
  • General of cavalry
  • General of artillery

Historically, the rank of general of artillery (German: Feldzeugmeister; literally "battlefield ordnance master"; "gun master";[Note 1] in Hungarian Táborszernagy) was equivalent to lieutenant general.[1] In French, the equivalent expression was grand maitre d'artillerie, used since the time of Philip VI of France. The English position of Master-General of the Ordnance was similarly derived.

Bulgaria[edit]

The Third Bulgarian State from its inception in 1878 had a highest military rank of "general" (Bulgarian: генерал), but in 1897 this rank was split into three grades - general of infantry (генерал от пехотата), of cavalry (генерал от кавалерията) and of artillery (генерал от артилерията). The rank was replaced after World War, when Bulgaria fell into the Soviet sphere of influence, II with the all-encompassing rank of general.

Finland[edit]

Full generals (4 star; NATO OF-9) in the Finnish military were classified as generals of infantry (jalkaväenkenraali) , cavalry (ratsuväenkenraali), jaeger (jääkärikenraali) and artillery (tykistönkenraali). The title is now merely honorific, and only one 4-star general is active at any one time in the modern Finnish military.

Germany[edit]

General of the branch
(shoulder insignia and gorget patches)
General Epaulette.jpg Collar tabs for the Generals of the Heer.svg WMacht Lw OF8-Gerneral 1945.svg Luftwaffe collar tabs General der Flieger 3D.svg WSS OF8 Gruf.jpg SS-Obergruppenführer Collar Rank.svg
Heer Luftwaffe Waffen-SS

In the German Wehrmacht a "general of a branch" (General der Waffengattung) was linked to service arms of the Heer (army) and Luftwaffe (air force), depending on where the officer served and what troops he (nominally) commanded. It was equivalent to the three-star rank of admiral in the Nazi Kriegsmarine, and SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS in the Waffen-SS. A commander-in-chief (Kommdierender General or Befehlshaber) of a German army corps was usually of this rank.

Army
Air force

Poland[edit]

Sleeve insignia of a Polish generał broni

In the Polish armed forces the rank equivalent to lieutenant general is generał broni ("general of a branch").[Note 2]

Russian Empire[edit]

"General of the branch", Imperial Russian Army

Peter the Great created the ranks of general of infantry and general of cavalry in the Imperial Russian Army in 1699.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The term is German. Feld- means battlefield, as used in the German Feldmarschall ("field marshal"), and -zeug- refers to the guns used by the artillery
  2. ^ Polish broń means both "weapons, firearms" and "branch of troops"; in this context the meaning is clearly "general of a branch of troops", not "general of weapons"

References[edit]