General of the branch
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The term "general of the branch" or "general of the branch of service" refers to a rank equivalent to a three-star lieutenant general or four-star general. Several nations divide, or have once divided, their general officers by the branch of troops they are qualified to command, or simply as an honorific title.
In the Austro-Hungarian Army there were three general of the branch ranks from 1867 to 1918:
- General der Infanterie (en: General of the Infantry)
- General der Kavallerie (en: General of the Cavalry)
- Feldzeugmeister (en: General of the Artillery)
Historically, the rank of general of artillery (German: Feldzeugmeister; literally "battlefield ordnance master"; "gun master";[Note 1] in Hungarian Táborszernagy) was equivalent to lieutenant general. In French, the equivalent expression was grand maitre d'artillerie, used since the time of Philip VI of France. The English position of Master-General of the Ordnance was similarly derived.
The Third Bulgarian State from its inception in 1878 had a highest military rank of "general" (Bulgarian: генерал), but in 1897 this rank was split into three grades - general of infantry (генерал от пехотата), of cavalry (генерал от кавалерията) and of artillery (генерал от артилерията). The rank was replaced after World War II, when Bulgaria fell into the Soviet sphere of influence, with the all-encompassing rank of general.
Full generals (4 star; NATO OF-9) in the Finnish military were classified as generals of infantry (jalkaväenkenraali), cavalry (ratsuväenkenraali), jaeger (jääkärikenraali) and artillery (tykistönkenraali). The title is now merely honorific, and only one 4-star general is active at any one time in the modern Finnish military.
|General of the branch
(shoulder insignia and gorget patches)
In the German Wehrmacht a "general of a branch" (General der Waffengattung) was linked to service arms of the Heer (army) and Luftwaffe (air force), depending on where the officer served and what troops he (nominally) commanded. It was equivalent to the three-star rank of admiral in the Nazi Kriegsmarine, and SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS in the Waffen-SS. A commander-in-chief (Kommandierender General or Befehlshaber) of a German army corps was usually of this rank.
- General of artillery
- General of mountain troops
- General of infantry
- General of cavalry
- General of the communications troops
- General of panzer troops (armoured troops)
- General of engineers
- General of the medical corps
- General of the veterinary corps
- Air force
- General of parachute troops
- General of anti-aircraft artillery
- General of aviators
- General of air force communications troops
- General of the air force
In the Polish armed forces the rank equivalent to lieutenant general is generał broni ("general of a branch").[Note 2]
- The term is German. Feld- means battlefield, as used in the German Feldmarschall ("field marshal"), and -zeug- refers to the guns used by the artillery
- Polish broń means both "weapons, firearms" and "branch of troops"; in this context the meaning is clearly "general of a branch of troops", not "general of weapons"
- Lackey, Scott (1995). The Rebirth of the Habsburg Army: Friedrich Beck and the Rise of the General Staff [Issue 161 of Contributions in Military Studies]. ABC-CLIO. p. 1. ISBN 0313031312.